Federated state

A federated state (which may also be referred to as a state, a province, a region, a canton, a governorate, an oblast, an emirate a country) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.[1] Such states differ from fully sovereign states, in that they do not have full sovereign powers, as the sovereign powers have been divided between the federated states and the central or federal government. Importantly, federated states do not have standing as entities of international law. Instead, the federal union as a single entity is the sovereign state for purposes of international law.[2] Depending on the constitutional structure of a particular federation, a federated state can hold various degrees of legislative, judicial and administrative jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory and is a form of regional government.

In some cases, a federation is created from a union of political entities, which are either independent, or dependent territories of another sovereign entity (most commonly a colonial power).[A] In other cases, federated states have been created out of the regions of previously unitary states.[B] Once a federal constitution is formed, the rules governing the relationship between federal and regional powers become part of the country's constitutional law and not international law.

In countries with federal constitutions, there is a division of power between the central government and the component states. These entities - states, provinces, counties, cantons, Länder, etc. - are partially self-governing and are afforded a degree of constitutionally guaranteed autonomy that varies substantially from one federation to another.[C] Depending on the form the decentralization of powers takes, a federated state's legislative powers may or may not be overruled or vetoed by the federal government. Laws governing the relationship between federal and regional powers can be amended through the national or federal constitution, and, if they exist, state constitutions as well.

Differences in terminology

Federated states typically, though not necessarily, use differences in the terminology of institutions to which there is an analogous federal-level equivalent. This list is a demonstration of common—though neither exhaustive nor universal—terminology differences between the state and federal levels:

Class of institution Federal-level title State-level title
HEAD OF STATE
Republican President Governor
Republican - Deputy Vice-President Lieutenant-Governor
Monarchical Queen / King Queen / King
Monarchical - Representative Governor General Governor / Lieutenant Governor
EXECUTIVE BRANCH
Head of Government (if any) Prime Minister Premier
Chief Minister
Minister-President
Head of Department Minister / Secretary Minister
Commissioner
Superintendent
Executive Body Cabinet Cabinet
Privy Council Executive Council
Federal Government / Union Government State Government
Council of Ministers Board of Ministers / Council of Ministers
LEGISLATIVE BRANCH
Legislative Body Parliament Legislature
Congress State Council
National Assembly General Assembly
Upper House Senate Legislative Council
Lower House House of Representatives Legislative Assembly
Chamber of Deputies Landtag
National Assembly House of Assembly
JUDICIAL BRANCH
Highest Court Supreme Court High Court
Court of Final Appeal

List of constituents by federation

The "federated units" in the table below have inherent governmental authority in the federation's constitutional system, while the "other units" are delegated authority by the federal government or are administered directly by it.

Federation Federated units Other units
 Argentina[3] 23 provinces: 1 autonomous city:
 Australia[4] 6 states: 10 territories:
 Austria[5] 9 states:
 Belgium[6] 3 regions:[F]
3 communities:[G]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 2 entities:[E] 1 self-governing district:
The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is itself a federation of 10 cantons:
 Brazil[7] 26 states:
1 federal district:
5,568 municipalities[I]
 Canada[8] 10 provinces: 3 territories:
 Comoros 3 islands:[E]
 Ethiopia[9] 9 regions: 2 chartered cities:
 Germany[10] 16 states:
 India[11] 29 states: 7 union territories:
 Iraq[12] 19 governorates: 1 autonomous region:
 Malaysia[13] 13 states: 3 federal territories:
 Mexico[14] 31 states:
1 autonomous city:
 Micronesia[15] 4 states:
   Nepal 7 provinces:
 Nigeria[16] 36 states: 1 territory:
 Pakistan[17] 4 provinces: 2 autonomous territories:[E]
1 federal territory:

 Islamabad Capital Territory[D]

 Russia[18][19] 46 oblasts:
22 republics:[E]
9 krais:
4 autonomous okrugs:[E]
3 federal cities:
1 autonomous oblast:
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 2 islands:[K]
 Somalia[20][21] 6 federal member states:[L]
 South Sudan 28 states:
 Sudan[22] 18 states:
  Switzerland[23] 26 cantons:
 United Arab Emirates[24] 7 emirates:
 United States[25] 50 states: 1 federal district:
1 incorporated territory:
13 unincorporated territories:
 Venezuela[26] 23 states: 1 capital district:
1 federal dependency:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Examples are Australia and the United States.
  2. ^ This occurred in Belgium in 1993. The Belgian regions had previously devolved powers.
  3. ^ For instance, Canadian provinces and Swiss cantons possess substantially more powers and enjoy more protection against interference and infringements from the central government than most non-Western federations.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Federal capital district, region or territory.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h autonomous area
  6. ^ Flanders and Wallonia are subdivided into five provinces each, which are mandated by the Constitution of Belgium. Provincial governance are the responsibility of the regional governments.
  7. ^ The communities and regions of Belgium are separate government institutions with different areas of responsibility. The communities are organized based on linguistic boundaries, which are different from regional boundaries.
  8. ^ The Brazilian federal district has a level of self-ruling equal to the other main federal units.
  9. ^ Article 18 of the 1988 Brazilian Constitution treats the municipalities as parts of the federation and not simply dependent subdivisions of the states.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Sovereignty over territory actively disputed by another sovereign state or the international community.
  11. ^ The federation is divided into 14 parishes, nine on Saint Kitts and five on Nevis.
  12. ^ Adopted constitution accommodates existing regional governments, with the ultimate number and boundaries of the Federal Member States to be determined by the House of the People of the Federal Parliament.

References

  1. ^ The Australian National Dictionary: Fourth Edition, pg 1395. (2004) Canberra. ISBN 978-0-19-551771-2.
  2. ^ Crawford, J. (2006). The Creation of States in International Law. Oxford, Clarendon Press.
  3. ^ Daniel, Kate; Special Broadcasting Service Corporation (2008). SBS World Guide: The Complete Fact File on Every Country, 16th ed. Prahran, Victoria, Australia: Hardie Grant Books. p. 827. ISBN 978-1-74066-648-0. p26.
  4. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p38
  5. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p46
  6. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p74
  7. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p101
  8. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p132
  9. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p239
  10. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p275
  11. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p328
  12. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p346
  13. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p460
  14. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p481
  15. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p486
  16. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p537
  17. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p549
  18. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p600
  19. ^ "Chapter 3. The Federal Structure: Article 65". The Constitution of the Russian Federation.
  20. ^ "The Federal Republic of Somalia - Harmonized Draft Constitution" (PDF). Federal Republic of Somalia. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  21. ^ "Guidebook to the Somali Draft Provisional Constitution". Archived from the original on 14 August 2013. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  22. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p687
  23. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p700
  24. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p760
  25. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p774
  26. ^ SBS World Guide 2008, p798
Constituent state

A constituent state is a state entity that constitutes a part of a sovereign state. A constituent state holds regional jurisdiction over a defined administrative territory, within a sovereign state. Government of a constituent state is a form of regional government. Throughout history, and also in modern political practice, most constituents states are parts of complex states, like federations or confederations. Constituent state can have republican or monarchical form of government. Those of republican form are usually called states or autonomous states, republics or autonomous republics, and also cantons. Those that have monarchical form of government are often defined by traditional hierarchical rank of their ruler (usually a principality, or an emirate).

Constitution of Northern Cyprus

The Constitution of the Northern Cyprus (Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti Anayasası) was prepared by the Constituent Assembly of Northern Cyprus after the declaration of independence on 15 November 1983, and was approved by the Turkish Cypriot electorate in a referendum on 5 May 1985 with a majority of 70.2% in favour. The constitution is similar to the 1975 Constitution of the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus, but had a number of new provisions regulating the needs of the new Republic. It has 164 articles and 13 transitional articles.

The constitution envisages a parliamentary democracy. Sovereignty is vested in the people comprising the citizens of Northern Cyprus and is exercised by authorized organs in the name of the people. No organ or authority can exercise any State authority which does not emanate from the constitution. Article 7 provides for the supremacy of the constitution.

Declaration of Independence of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

The declaration of Independence of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus was a unilateral declaration of independence from the Republic of Cyprus by the Turkish Cypriot parliament on 15 November 1983.

Eight years after the Turkish Federated State of North Cyprus was proclaimed (in 1975), the declaration of North Cyprus was presented to the Turkish Cypriot parliament in North Nicosia by Turkish Cypriot Leader and Northern Cypriot State President Rauf Denktaş on November 15, 1983. Containing text espousing human rights and a desire to live side-by-side with the Greek Cypriot population, it ended with a declaration that Northern Cyprus was an independent and sovereign state, naming the entity the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The Turkish Cypriot Parliament passed a unanimous resolution later that day ratifying the declaration.

Federal territory

A federal territory is an area under the direct and usually exclusive jurisdiction of a federation's central or national government. A federal territory is an area that is part of a federation but not part of any federated state. The federated states constitute the federation itself and share sovereignty with the federal government, while a territory does not have sovereign status.

Unlike a federal district, a territory may have some degree of self-rule, but the terms are used somewhat differently in different federations.

Flag of Northern Cyprus

The flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) (Turkish: Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti Bayrağı) is based on the flag of Turkey with the colors reversed and two horizontal red stripes added at the top and bottom. The flag was drawn by Turkish Cypriot artist Emin Çizenel. It was adopted in 1984 by the TRNC, a self-declared state that is recognised only by Turkey, after its unilateral declaration of independence in 1983. The TRNC succeeded the Turkish Federated State of Cyprus, also self-declared and recognized only by Turkey, which had been established in 1975 following the 1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus, and had used the flag of Turkey.

Free State of Oldenburg

The Free State of Oldenburg (German: Freistaat Oldenburg) was a federated state of the Weimar Republic. It was established in 1918 following the abdication of the Grand Duke Frederick Augustus II following the German Revolution.

In 1937, it lost the exclave districts of Eutin near the Baltic coast and Birkenfeld in southwestern Germany to Prussia and gained the City of Wilhelmshaven; however, this was a formality, as the Hitler regime had de facto abolished the federal states in 1934.

By the beginning of World War II in 1939, as a result of these territorial changes, Oldenburg had an area of 5,375 km2 (2,075 sq mi) and 580,000 inhabitants.

After World War II, Oldenburg was merged into the newly founded state of Lower Saxony as the administrative region (Verwaltungsbezirk) of Oldenburg, both of which became a part of Federal Republic of Germany in 1949. The two enclaves became part of the States of Schleswig-Holstein and Rhineland-Palatinate respectively.

Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a territory in Northern Germany held by the House of Mecklenburg residing at Schwerin. It was a sovereign member state of the German Confederation and became a federated state of the North German Confederation and finally of the German Empire in 1871.

Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was a territory in Northern Germany, held by the younger line of the House of Mecklenburg residing in Neustrelitz. Like the neighbouring Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, it was a sovereign member state of the German Confederation and became a federated state of the North German Confederation and finally of the German Empire upon the unification of 1871. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–19 it was succeeded by the Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

Landtag

A Landtag (State Diet) is a representative assembly (parliament) in German-speaking countries with legislative authority and competence over a federated state (Land). Landtage assemblies are the legislative bodies for the individual states of Germany and states of Austria, and have authority to legislate in non-federal matters for the regional area.

Likewise, the Landtag of South Tyrol (Italian: Consiglio della Provincia autonoma di Bolzano) is the legislature of the autonomous province of South Tyrol in northeast Italy. In the sovereign principality of Liechtenstein the national parliament is called the Landtag of Liechtenstein.

List of Prime Ministers of Northern Cyprus

This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of Northern Cyprus. A new number is allocated to each new Prime Minister.

List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names

The following is a partial list of adjectival forms of place names in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these places.

Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. Singular forms simply remove the final 's' or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms.

The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (e.g. an Irishman and a Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding 'e' (-oisecode: fra promoted to code: fr / aisecode: fra promoted to code: fr ) makes them singular feminine; 'es' (-oisescode: fra promoted to code: fr / aisescode: fra promoted to code: fr ) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish termination "-o" usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by replacing the "-o" with "-a". The plural forms are usually "-os" and "-as" respectively.

Adjectives ending -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' sound (e.g., the adjective Czech does not qualify).

Where an adjective is a link, the link is to the language or dialect of the same name. (Reference: Ethnologue, Languages of the World)

Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) Notable examples are cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. (See List of words derived from toponyms.)

National Day (Cameroon)

National Day is a holiday in Cameroon celebrated on 20 May. On the 20th of May 1972, in a national referendum Cameroonians voted for a unitary state as opposed to the existing federal state. The United Nations Trust Territory known as French Cameroun achieved independence from France on 1 January 1960, and British Southern Cameroons changed status from a Trusteeship under British administration to a federated state within Cameroon on 1 October 1961. The government chose 20 May as Cameroon's National Day to commemorate President Ahmadou Ahidjo's abolishment of the federal system of government in favor of a unitary country in 1972.

Even though it is considered a holiday, children all over the country go to schools and celebrate National Day usually by singing, carrying out parades or marches all around the different parts of their various cities.

Speeches are made by the Head of State and other important personalities.

The day is presided over by the head of state in Yaounde the capital of Cameroon. In the regional headquarters, it is presided by the governor who represents the government. The divisional officers preside over the day in their various divisions.

Politics of Northern Cyprus

Politics of Northern Cyprus takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the president is head of state and the prime minister is the head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Assembly of the Republic. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

Since the Turkish invasion of 1974, the Republic of Cyprus has been divided: the northern third of the island was unilaterally declared to be the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) by its Turkish Cypriot population. The United Nations considers the declaration of independence of Northern Cyprus to be legally invalid and calls for the withdrawal of troops from Turkey that invaded the island in support of the Turkisk Cypriot minority. The government of Northern Cyprus has not been diplomatically recognized except by the Government of Turkey since its unilateral declaration of independence in 1983.

In 1974, the Greek-backed Cypriot National Guard took over the government in a coup. Turkey sent troops in response, claiming it had authority under the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee, Turkish Cypriots set up their own institutions as the "Turkish Federated State of North Cyprus". In 1983, the Turkish Cypriots unilaterally declared independence as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). In 1985, they adopted a constitution and held elections—an arrangement thus far recognized only by Turkey.

Regional language

A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federated state or province, or some wider area.

Internationally, for the purposes of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, "regional or minority languages" means languages that are:

traditionally used within a given territory of a State by nationals of that State who form a group numerically smaller than the rest of the State's population; and

different from the official language(s) of that StateRecognition of regional or minority languages must not be confused with recognition as an official language.

Salomon Tandeng Muna

Salomon Tandeng Muna (1912 – January 22, 2002) was a Cameroonian politician of the Cameroonian National Union. He served as the first Prime Minister of the federated state of West Cameroon from January 11, 1968 to June 2, 1972. Additionally, he served as Vice President of the Federal Republic of Cameroon from 1970 to 1972. He was President of the National Assembly of Cameroon from 1973 to 1988.Muna was very active in international Scouting, where he became the Vice-President of the World Scout Committee (the first African member), after serving as Chief Scout of Cameroon, as well as Chairman of the African Scout Committee.

Muna was awarded the Bronze Wolf, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting, in 1981.

Socialist Republic of Serbia

The Socialist Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Социјалистичка Република Србија / Socijalistička Republika Srbija), previously known as Federal State of Serbia and People’s Republic of Serbia, commonly referred to as Socialist Serbia, or simply as Serbia, was one of the six constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It was the largest constituent republic in terms of population and territory. Its capital, Belgrade, was also the federal capital of Yugoslavia.

State forest

A state forest is a forest that is administered or protected by some agency of a sovereign or federated state, or territory.

Turkish Federated State of Cyprus

The Turkish Federated State of Cyprus (Turkish: Kıbrıs Türk Federe Devleti) was the name of a state on the region of Northern Cyprus declared in 1975 and existing until 1983, that was not recognized by the international community. It was succeeded by the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which is equally only recognized by the Republic of Turkey.

Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization

The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) is an international membership organization established to facilitate the voices of unrepresented and marginalised nations and peoples worldwide. It was formed on 11 February 1991 in The Hague, Netherlands. Its members consist of indigenous peoples, minorities, and unrecognised or occupied territories. UNPO works to develop the understanding of and respect for the right to self-determination, provides advice and support related to questions of international recognition and political autonomy, trains groups on how to advocate for their causes effectively, and directly advocates for an international response to human rights violations perpetrated against UNPO member groups. Some former members, such as Armenia, East Timor, Estonia, Latvia, Georgia and Palau, have gained full independence and joined the United Nations (UN).

Autonomous types of first-tier subdivision administration
Federalism
Unitary state
See also
Designations for types of administrative territorial entities

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