Federally Administered Tribal Areas

The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA; Pashto: فدرالي قبايلي سيمې‎; Urdu: وفاق کے زیر انتظام قبائلی علاقہ جات‎) was a semi-autonomous tribal region in northwestern Pakistan that existed from 1947 until being merged with neighboring province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, in 2018. It consisted of seven tribal agencies (districts) and six frontier regions, and were directly governed by Pakistan's federal government through a special set of laws called the Frontier Crimes Regulations. It bordered Pakistan's provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan to the east and south, and Afghanistan's provinces of Kunar, Nangarhar, Paktia, Khost and Paktika to the west and north. The territory is almost exclusively inhabited by the Pashtun, who also live in the neighbouring provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Northern Balochistan, and straddle across the border into Afghanistan. They are mostly Muslim.

Since the 9/11 attacks in the United States in 2001, the tribal areas are a major theatre of militancy and terrorism. Pakistan Army launched 10 operations against the Taliban since 2001, most recently Operation Zarb-e-Azb in North Waziristan. The operations have displaced about two million people from the tribal areas, as schools, hospitals, and homes have been destroyed in the war.[1] On 2 March 2017, the federal government considered a proposal to merge the tribal areas with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and to repeal the Frontier Crimes Regulations.[2] However, some political parties have opposed the merger, and called for the tribal areas to instead become a separate province of Pakistan.[1]

On 24 May 2018, the National Assembly of Pakistan voted in favour of an amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan for the FATA-KP merger which was approved by the Senate the following day.[3] Since the change was to affect the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, it was presented for approval in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly on 27 May 2018, and passed with majority vote. On 28 May 2018, the President of Pakistan signed the FATA Interim Governance Regulation, a set of interim rules for FATA until it merges with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa within a timeframe of two years.[4]

The 25th Amendment received assent from President Mamnoon Hussain on 31 May 2018, after which FATA was officially merged with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.[5]

Federally Administered Tribal Areas
وفاق کے زیر انتظام قبائلی علاقہ جات
Autonomous territory of Pakistan
1947–2018
Flag of FATA
Flag
Location of FATA
Former Location of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas
History
 •  Established 14 August 1947
 •  Merged into Khyber Pakthunkhwa 31 May 2018
Population
 •  2017 5,001,676 
Today part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

History

Although the British never succeeded in completely calming unrest in the region,[6] it served as a buffer from unrest in Afghanistan.[7] The British Raj attempted to control the population of the annexed tribal regions with the Frontier Crimes Regulations, which gave considerable power to govern to local nobles so long as these nobles were willing to meet the needs of the British.[7][8][9] Due to the nobles placing unchecked discretionary power into the hands of the Political Agent, resulting in extensive human rights violations, the Frontier Crimes Regulations has come to be known as the "black law."[9]

Colonial period

In 1935–36, a Hindu-Muslim clash occurred over the abduction of a Hindu girl by a Muslim in Bannu. The tribesmen rallied around Mirzali Khan, a tribal leader in Waziristan, who was later given the title of "the Faqir of Ipi" by the British. Jihad was declared against the British. Mirzali Khan, with his huge lashkar (force), started a guerrilla warfare against the British forces in Waziristan.

In 1938, Mirzali Khan shifted from Ipi to Gurwek, a remote village in Waziristan on the Durand Line near Razmak, where he declared an independent state and continued the raids against the British forces. In June 1947, Mirzali Khan, along with his allies, including the Khudai Khidmatgars and members of the Provincial Assembly, declared the Bannu Resolution. The resolution demanded that the Pashtuns be given a choice to have an independent state of Pashtunistan, composing all Pashtun majority territories of British India, instead of being made to join Pakistan. However, the British Raj refused to comply with the demand of this resolution.[10][11] After the creation of Pakistan in August 1947, Mirzali Khan and his followers refused to recognise Pakistan, and launched a campaign against Pakistan. They continued their guerilla warfare against the new nation’s government.[12] In 1950, they announced the creation of Pashtunistan as an independent nation. A Pashtun tribal jirga, held in Razmak, appointed Mirzali Khan as the President of the National Assembly for Pashtunistan. He didn't surrender to the government of Pakistan throughout his life. However, his popularity among the people of Waziristan declined over the years, with several jirgas in Waziristan deciding to support Pakistan. He died a natural death in 1960 in Gurwek.[13]

After independence

The annexed areas continued to be governed through the Frontier Crimes Regulations after the creation of Pakistan in 1947, by the Dominion of Pakistan in 1947, and into the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in 1956.[14] Even in the 1970s travellers through the Khyber Pass, such as those taking the Hippie Trail, were warned to stay close to the road because the Pakistani government had no control over the adjacent lands.

According to the United States Institute of Peace, the character of the region underwent a shift beginning in the 1980s. Mujahideen entered to fight against the jirgas as allies of the CIA Operation Cyclone; both were opposed to forces of the Soviet Union prior to the fall of the Berlin Wall and collapse of Soviet Union.[15]

In 2001, the Tehrik-e-Taliban militants began entering into the region.[15] In 2003, Taliban forces sheltered in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas began crossing the border into Afghanistan, attacking military and police after the United States invasion.[16] Shkin, Afghanistan is a key location for these frequent battles. This heavily fortified military base has housed mostly American special operations forces since 2002 and is located six kilometers from the Pakistani border. It is considered the most dangerous location in Afghanistan.[17][18]

With the encouragement of the United States, 80,000 Pakistani troops entered the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in March 2004 to search for al-Qaeda operatives. They were met with fierce resistance from Pakistani Taliban.[16] It was not the elders, but the Pakistani Taliban who negotiated a truce with the army, an indication of the extent to which the Pakistani Taliban had taken control.[16] Troops entered the region, into South Waziristan and North Waziristan, eight more times between 2004 and 2006, and faced further Pakistani Taliban resistance. Peace accords entered into in 2004 and 2006 set terms whereby the tribesmen in the area would stop attacking Afghanistan, and the Pakistanis would halt major military actions against the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, release all prisoners, and permit tribesmen to carry small guns.[16] On 4 June 2007, the National Security Council of Pakistan met to decide the fate of Waziristan and take up a number of political and administrative decisions to control "Talibanization" of the area. The meeting was chaired by President Pervez Musharraf and it was attended by the Chief Ministers and Governors of all four provinces. They discussed the deteriorating law and order situation and the threat posed to state security. To crush the armed militancy in the Tribal regions and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, the government decided to intensify and reinforce law enforcement and military activity, take action against certain madrassahs, and jam illegal FM radio stations.[19]

Merger with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

On 24 January 2017, the federal government decided to merge FATA with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, for which required legislation would be managed in Parliament after approval from the federal cabinet. Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif would apprise the ministers of the issue of FATA with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in upcoming federal cabinet meetings. After approval for this merger, the Law Ministry would be asked to prepare the draft of the bill that would be presented in parliament for approval.

The JUI-F, a major ally and coalition partner of the ruling PML (N), opposed this move on various political grounds. The Pakhtunkhwa Mili Awami Party led by Mehmood Achakzai also opposed the merger.

Under the plan, FATA would be put under the control of the provincial government through amendments to the Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR). An annual grant of Rs100 billion has been proposed for FATA's development under the proposed merger and the amount will be given from the Federal Divisible Pool.

Most political parties in Pakistan supported the demand of the merger of FATA with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, including Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI), Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Qaumi Watan Party (QWP) and Jamaat-e-Islami (JI).

The FATA Reforms Committee proposed in 2016 a set of "parallel and concurrent" political, administrative, judicial and security reforms, as well as a massive reconstruction and rehabilitation programme, to prepare FATA for merger with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

The proposed merger was near finalized at a meeting presided over by President Mamnoon Hussain at the Presidency in January 2017. The Prime Minister gave approval after discussing the issue with all the stakeholders.[20] By March 2017, the federal cabinet approved the merger of FATA with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and other reforms.[21]

National Implementation Committee on FATA Reforms

On 18 December 2017, the National Implementation Committee (NIC) on FATA Reforms, chaired by Prime Minister Shahid Khaqan Abbasi, endorsed the FATA-Khyber Pakhtunkhwa merger and agreed to let FATA elect 23 members to the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly in the July 2018 general elections. The NIC also decided to remove controversial sections of the Frontier Crimes Regulations and to allow colonial-era regulation to continue with a sunset clause to be replaced entirely once a proper judicial system is in place in the tribal region.[22]

Constitutional amendment

On 24 May 2018, the National Assembly of Pakistan passed a bill to enact the Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan which calls for the merger of FATA with the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The vote was 229-1 in favor of the amendment. Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam-Fazal and Pakhtunkhwa Milli Awami Party lawmakers walked out from the assembly ahead of the vote. The sole dissenter was Dawar Kundi of the PTI.

On 25 May 2018, Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan was passed with a majority in the Senate of Pakistan. A total of 69 votes was needed for the bill to be approved; the vote was 71-5 in favor of the amendment for FATA, K-P merger.[3]

On 27 May 2018, Thirty-first Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan was passed with a majority in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly. A total of 83 votes was needed for the bill to be approved; the vote was an 87-7 in favor of the amendment for FATA, K-P merger.[3]

Qabailistan proposal

Parliamentarians from tribal areas have taken strong exception to a resolution adopted by the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa assembly asking for merger of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas with their province. The Awami National Party have also made similar demands that the FATA be merged with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. These proposals have been opposed by tribal parliamentarians in Islamabad.[23] Should the Federally Administered Tribal Areas become a province of Pakistan, the name Qabailistan has been proposed.[24] Qabailistan proposal never got any traction and was dropped in favor of merging FATA into Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province.[24][23][5]

Geography

Mohmand Agency Nahqi picture
Mohmand Agency

The Federally Administered Tribal Areas were bordered by: Afghanistan to the north and west with the border marked by the Durand Line, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the east, and Balochistan to the south.

The seven Tribal Areas lay in a north-to-south strip that is adjacent to the west side of the six Frontier Regions, which also lie in a north-to-south strip. The areas within each of those two regions are geographically arranged in a sequence from north to south.

The geographical arrangement of the seven Tribal Areas in order from north to south was: Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Orakzai, Kurram, North Waziristan, South Waziristan. The geographical arrangement of the six Frontier Regions in order from north to south was: FR Peshawar, FR Kohat, FR Bannu, FR Lakki Marwat, FR Tank, FR Dera Ismail Khan.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
19511,332,005—    
19611,847,195+3.32%
19722,491,230+2.76%
19812,198,547−1.38%
19982,746,490+1.32%
20175,001,676+3.21%
Source: [25]

Languages

Mohmand Agency Baizai
Pashtuns in the Baizai area

The total population of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas was estimated in 2000 to be about 3,341,080 people, or roughly 2% of Pakistan's population. Only 3.1% of the population resides in established townships.[27] It is thus the most rural administrative unit in Pakistan. According to 2011 estimates FATA gained 62.1% population over its 1998 figures, totaling up to 4,452,913. This is the fourth-highest increase in population of any province, after that of Balochistan, Sindh and Gilgit-Baltistan.[28] 99.1% of population speaks the Pashto language.[29]

The main tribes of the Pashtuns living in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas are Wazir, Afridi, Mohmand, Tarkani, Mahsud, Dawar, Bettani, Sherani, Turi, Orakzai, Bangash, Shinwari, and Safi and utmanzi..

Religions

Government and politics

Democracy and parliamentary representation

In 1996, the Government of Pakistan finally granted the Federally Administered Tribal Areas the long requested "adult franchise", under which every adult would have the right to vote for their own representatives in the Majlis-e-Shoora.[15][31] The Federally Administered Tribal Areas were not allowed to organize political parties.[31] Islamist candidates were able to campaign through mosques and madrassahs, as a result of which mullahs were elected to represent the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in the National Assembly in 1997 and 2002.[15] This was a departure from prior tribal politics, where power was focused in the hands of secular authorities, Maliks.[15]

Women and elections

All of the FATA's adults were legally allowed to vote in the Majlis-e-Shoora of Pakistan under the "adult franchise" granted in 1996.[15] Stephen Tierney, in Accommodating National Identity, reported that women came out to do so in the thousands for the 1997 office, possibly motivated by competition for voter numbers among the tribes.[31] However, Ian Talbot in Pakistan, a Modern History states that elders and religious leaders attempted to prevent female participation by threatening punishment against tribesmen whose women registered, leading to under-registration in the female population.[32] In 2008, the Taliban ordered women in the FATA regions of Bajaur, Kurram and Mohmand against voting under threat of "serious punishment," while Mangal Bagh, chief of the Lashkar-e-Islam, forbade women to vote in the Jamrud and Bara subdivisions of the Khyber Agency.[33]

Administration

The region is controlled by the Federal government of Pakistan. On behalf of the President, the Governor of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly NWFP) exercises the federal authority in the context of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas.

The Constitution of Pakistan governs the FATA through the same rules which were framed by the British in 1901 as Frontier Crimes Regulations (FCR). The Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and High Court of Pakistan does not extend to FATA and Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA), according to Article 247 and Article 248, of existing 1973 Constitution of Pakistan. The Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Provincial Assembly has no power in FATA, and can exercise its powers in PATA only for that which is part of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.

The Pashtun tribes who inhabit the areas are semi-autonomous. Until the fall of the Taliban in neighbouring Afghanistan and the break out of warfare, the tribes had cordial relations with the Pakistan government.[34]

People of FATA are represented in the Parliament of Pakistan by their elected representatives both in National Assembly of Pakistan and the Senate of Pakistan. FATA has 12 members in the National Assembly and 8 members in the Senate. FATA has no representation in the Provincial Assembly of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.

The administrative head of each tribal agency is the Political Agent who represents the President of Pakistan and the appointed Governor of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.

Each Tribal Agency, depending on its size, has about two to three Assistant Political Agents, about three to ten Tehsildars, and a number of Naib Tehsildars with the requisite supporting staff.

The FRs differ from the agencies only in the chain of command so that each FR is headed by the DC/DCO of the adjacent settled district (DC/DCO Peshawar heads FR Peshawar and so on). Under his supervision there is one Assistant Political Agent and a number of Tehsildars and Naib Tehsildars and support staff.

Each Tribal Agency has roughly 2–3,000 Khasadars and levies force of irregulars and up to three to nine wings of the para-military Frontier Corps for maintenance of law and order in the Agency and borders security. The Frontier Corps Force is headed by Pakistan's regular army officers, and its soldiers are recruited mostly from the Pashtun tribes.

The militancy situation has, however, improved after successive military operations carried out by Pakistan Army in Bajaur, Swat, Waziristan, Orakzai and Mohmand.

Relations with the Pakistani Military

In 2001 the Pakistani military entered the Federally Administered Tribal Areas for the first time which was previously governed by Frontier Corps. In 2010 The New America Foundation and Terror Free Tomorrow conducted the first comprehensive public opinion survey in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. The results showed that, on the issue of fighting militancy in the region, the people of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas overwhelmingly support the Pakistani military. Nearly 70 percent back the Pakistani military pursuing Al-Qaeda and Taliban fighters in the Tribal Areas. According to a survey, when asked how the Federally Administered Tribal Areas should be governed, 79 percent said it should be governed by the Pakistani military.[35]

In 2014, about 929,859 people were reported to be internally displaced from North Waziristan as a result of Operation Zarb-e-Azb, a military offensive conducted by the Pakistan Armed Forces along the Durand Line.[36][37]

Administrative divisions

FATA (8)
Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA)

The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) consist of two types of areas i.e. Tribal Agencies (Tribal Districts) and Frontier Regions (FRs). There are seven Tribal Agencies and six Frontier Regions.

Tribal Agencies

These are (from North to South):

Agencies are further divided into Subdivisions, and Tehsils. According to the Election Commission of Pakistan, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas consist of the following subdivisions and tehsils:[38]

Agency / FR Subdivision Tehsil
Bajaur Agency Khaar Khara Bajaur
Utman Khel
Salarzai
Nawagai Nawagai
Mamund
Barang
Bar Chamer Kand
Mohmand Agency Lower Mohmand Yake Ghund
Ambar Utman Khel
Pindiali
Pran Ghar
Upper Mohmand Safi
Upper Mohmand
Halim Zai
Khyber Agency Jamrud Jamrud
Mula Gori
Landi Kotal Landi Kotal
Bara Bara
Orakzai Agency Lower Orakzai Lower
Central
Upper Orakzai Ismail Zai
Upper
Kurram Agency Lower Kurram Lower Kurram
Central Kurram Central Kurram F.R.
Upper Kurram Upper Kurram
North Waziristan Agency Mirali Mir Ali
Spinwam
Shewa
Miramshah Miran Shah
Datta Khel
Ghulam Khan
Razmak Razmak
Dossali
Gharyum
South Waziristan Agency Ladha Ladha
Makin
Sararogha
Sarwakai Serwekai
Tiarza
Wanna Wana
Birmil
Toi Khullah

Frontier Regions

The Frontier Regions are named after their adjacent settled Districts in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. The administration of the FR is carried out by the DCO / DC of the neighbouring named district. The overall administration of the frontier regions is carried out by the FATA Secretariat, based in Peshawar and reporting to the Governor of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. The six regions are:

Urban Areas

Economy

NWFP FATA
District map of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and FATA.

The Federally Administered Tribal Areas are the most impoverished part of the nation. Despite being home to 2.4% of Pakistan's population, it makes up only 1.5% of Pakistan's economy with a per capita income of only $663 in 2010[40] only 34% of households managed to rise above the poverty level.[41]

Due to the Federally Administered Tribal Areas' tribal organization, the economy is chiefly pastoral, with some agriculture practiced in the region's few fertile valleys. Its total irrigated land is roughly 1,000 square kilometres.[42] The region is a major center for opium trafficking, as well the smuggling of other contraband.[42]

Foreign aid to the region is a difficult proposition, according to Craig Cohen, an analyst at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C. Since security is difficult, local nongovernmental organizations are required to distribute aid, but there is a lack of trust amongst NGOs and other powers that hampers distribution. Pakistani NGOs are often targets of violent attacks by Islamist militants in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Due to the extensive hostility to any hint of foreign influence, the American branch of Save the Children was distributing funding anonymously in the region as of July 2007.[42]

Mining

The Federally Administered Tribal Areas contain proved commercially viable reserves of marble, copper, limestone and coal. However, in the current socio-political conditions, there is no chance of their exploitation in a profitable manner.

Industrialization

Industrialization of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas is another route or remedy proposed for rapidly breaking up tribal barriers and promoting integration. The process of industrialization through a policy of public/private partnership would not only provide employment opportunities and economic benefits but also assist in bringing the youth of the tribal area on par with those of developed cities in the rest of the country.

Reconstruction Opportunity Zones (ROZs)

The concept of setting up ROZs in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Afghanistan is an element in the United States Government's counter-terrorism and regional economic integration strategies.[43]

Irrigation projects

Water is scarce in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. When the British forces occupied Malakand they started work on the Amandara headworks to divert the Swat River through a tunnel to irrigate the plains of Mardan and Charsadda. The aim was not to get more wheat or sugarcane, but to ‘tame the wild tribes’.

Social issues

Health

There is one hospital bed for every 2,179 people in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, compared to one in 1,341 in Pakistan as a whole. There is one doctor for every 7,670[44] people compared to one doctor per 1,226 people in Pakistan as a whole. 43% of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas' citizens have access to clean drinking water.[38] Much of the population is suspicious about modern medicine, and some militant groups are openly hostile to vaccinations.

In June 2007, a Pakistani doctor was blown up in his car "after trying to counter the anti-vaccine propaganda of an imam in Bajaur", Pakistani officials told The New York Times.[42]

Education

FATA has a total of 6,050 government education institutions out of which 4,868 are functional. Out of these 4,868 functional institutions, 77 percent (3,729) are primary schools. Total enrolment in government institutions is 612,556 out of which 69 percent are studying at primary stage. Total number of working teachers in FATA is 22,610 out of which 7,540 are female. The survival rate from Grade KG to Grade 5 is 36 percent while the transition rate from primary to middle in public schools in FATA is 64 percent (73 percent for boys and 45 percent for girls).[45]

Literacy Rate Tribal Areas 2007 FATA excl FRs
Literacy Map Tribal Areas, Source:[46]

The Federally Administered Tribal Areas has one university, FATA University in Akhurwal, Darra Adam Khel, FR Kohat, which was approved by Mir Hazar Khan Khoso in May 2013.[47] Classes commenced on 24 October 2016, under the direction of Dr. Mohammad Tahir Shah, former professor of geology at University of Peshawar.[48] The university plans to open sub-campuses at Khar, Miran Shah, and Parachinar.[49]

The Federally Administered Tribal Areas' literacy rate is 22%, which is well below the nationwide rate of 56%. 35.8% of men, and only 7.5% of women receive education, compared to a nationwide 44% of women.[46][50]

Agency Literacy rate 2007[46]
Male Female Total
Khyber 57.2% 10.1% 34.2%
Kurram 37.9% 14.4% 26.5%
South Waziristan 32.3% 4.3% 20%
Orakzai 29.5% 3.4% 17%
Mohmand 28.5% 3.5% 16.6%
Bajaur Agency 27.9% 3.1% 16.5%
North Waziristan (1998)[51] 26.77% 1.47% 15.88%

Sports

FATA has produced some world-class sportspersons like cricketer Shahid Afridi from Khyber Agency and squash player Maria Toorpakay Wazir from South Waziristan who won the National Women’s Squash championship in 2010. FATA is home to the domestic cricket team FATA Cheetahs. The Federally Administered Tribal Areas cricket team gained first class status in 2015.[52]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Zahra-Malik, Mehreen (2018-02-06). "In Pakistan, Long-Suffering Pashtuns Find Their Voice". The New York Times. Retrieved 2018-02-07.
  2. ^ Sikander, Sardar (2017-03-02). "Federal cabinet approves FATA's merger with K-P, repeal of FCR". The Express Tribune. Karachi, Pakistan. Retrieved 2017-03-02.
  3. ^ a b c "Senate approves FATA, K-P merger bill". Express Tribune. Tribune. 2018-05-25. Retrieved 2018-05-25.
  4. ^ "Tribespeople freed of FCR as president signs FATA governance regulation". geo.tv. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  5. ^ a b "President signs 'Constitutional Amendment' to merge FATA with KP". nation.com.pk. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  6. ^ Rabasa, Angel; Boraz, Steven; Chalk, Peter (2007). Ungoverned territories: understanding and reducing terrorism of terrorists groups risks. Santa Monica, CA, USA: RAND. p. 49. ISBN 0-8330-4152-5. The British annexed the area during the nineteenth century but never fully pacified the area.
  7. ^ a b Bjørgo, Tore; Horgan, John (2009). Leaving Terrorism Behind: Individual and Collective Disengagement. Abingdon-on-Thames, UK: Routledge. p. 227. ISBN 0-203-88475-2.
  8. ^ "Analysis: Pakistan's tribal frontiers". BBC. 14 December 2001. Retrieved 2009-05-19.
  9. ^ a b Ali, Shaheen Sardar; Rehman, Javaid (2001). Indigenous peoples and ethnic minorities of Pakistan: constitutional and legal perspectives. Abingdon-on-Thames, UK: Routledge. p. 52. ISBN 0-7007-1159-7.
  10. ^ Shah, Ali; Vaqar, Sayyid (1993). Marwat, Fazal-ur-Rahim Khan, ed. Afghanistan and the Frontier. Peshawar, Pakistan: Emjay Books International. p. 256.
  11. ^ Johnson, Thomas H.; Zellen, Barry (2014). Culture, Conflict, and Counterinsurgency. Stanford University Press. p. 154. ISBN 9780804789219.
  12. ^ Munir, Asad (2010-11-15). "The Faqir of Ipi of North Waziristan". The Express Tribune. Karachi, Pakistan.
  13. ^ Ali, Zulfiqar (2016-04-18). "The legendary guerilla Faqir of Ipi unremembered on his 115th anniversary". The Express Tribune. Karachi, Pakistan.
  14. ^ Tierney, Stephen (2000). Accommodating national identity: new approaches in international and domestic law (21 ed.). Leiden, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 190–191. ISBN 90-411-1400-9.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Fair, C. Christine; Howenstein, Nicholas; Thier, J. Alexander (December 2006). "Troubles on the Pakistan-Afghanistan Border". Washington, DC, USA: United States Institute of Peace. Archived from the original on 9 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-19.
  16. ^ a b c d Crews, Robert D.; Tarzi, Amin (2008). The Taliban and the crisis of Afghanistan. Cambridge, MA, USA: Harvard University Press. p. 231. ISBN 0-674-02690-X.
  17. ^ Pike, John. "Fire Base Shkin / Fire Base Checo". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
  18. ^ Scahill, Jeremy (2008-05-27). Blackwater: the rise of the world's most powerful mercenary army. New York, NY, USA: PublicAffairs. p. 110. ISBN 9781568584065. Retrieved 2012-03-08.
  19. ^ Khan, Ismail (2007). "Plan ready to curb militancy in Fata, settled areas". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan: Pakistan Herald Publications. Archived from the original on 2007-07-11. Retrieved 2007-06-27.
  20. ^ "Govt decides to merge Fata with KP". The News International. Karachi, Pakistan: Jang Group of Newspapers. 2017-01-25.
  21. ^ "Cabinet approves Fata merger with KP". The News International. Karachi, Pakistan: Jang Group of Newspapers. 2017-03-02.
  22. ^ Khan, Ismail (2017-12-26). "Historic decision on Fata-KP merger taken". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan: Pakistan Herald Publications. Retrieved 2018-04-09.
  23. ^ a b Mian, Bakhtawar (2012-05-09). "Tribal lawmakers oppose move to merge Fata with KP". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan: Pakistan Herald Publications. Retrieved 2013-07-12.
  24. ^ a b "Qabailistan province proposed". Karachi, Pakistan: The News International. 2012-05-10. Archived from the original on 2012-05-10. Retrieved 2018-04-09.
  25. ^ "Preliminary 2017 census result" (PDF). Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 September 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
  26. ^ "POPULATION BY MOTHER TONGUE" (PDF). Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.
  27. ^ Zaman, Arshad; Ara, Iffat (September 2002). "Rising urbanization in Pakistan: Some facts and suggestions" (PDF). The Journal. NIPA Karachi. 7 (3). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 November 2004. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  28. ^ "Pak population increased by 46.9% between 1998 and 2011". The Times of India. Retrieved 27 January 2016.
  29. ^ "Percentage Distribution of Households by Language Usually Spoken and Region/Province,1998 Census" (PDF). Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.
  30. ^ "POPULATION BY RELIGION" (PDF). Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.
  31. ^ a b c Tierney, 206.
  32. ^ Talbot, Ian (1998). Pakistan, a modern history (revised ed.). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 2–3. ISBN 0-312-21606-8.
  33. ^ "Poll doors closed on a third of FATA women". Press Trust of India. 17 February 2008. Archived from the original on 31 May 2009. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  34. ^ Baker, Aryn (22 March 2007). "The Truth About Talibanistan". Time. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  35. ^ Bergen, Peter; Doherty, Patrick C.; Ballen, Ken (2010-09-28). "Public Opinion in Pakistan's Tribal Regions". Washington, DC, USA: New America Foundation. Archived from the original on 2010-11-29. Retrieved 2018-04-09.
  36. ^ Sherazi, Zahir Shah (2014-06-08). "North Waziristan IDPs figure reaches 800,000". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan: Pakistan Herald Publications.
  37. ^ "Air raids flatten 5 militant hideouts". The Express Tribune. Karachi, Pakistan. 14 July 2014. Retrieved 14 July 2014.
  38. ^ a b "FATA – Official Web Portal". fata.gov.pk. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
  39. ^ "Pakistan Urban Areas". Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. 2017. Retrieved 2018-04-10.
  40. ^ Burki, Shahid Javed (2010-01-08). "Economics and extremism". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan: Pakistan Herald Publications. Archived from the original on 2010-01-08. Retrieved 2018-04-09.
  41. ^ Markey, Daniel S. (2008). Securing Pakistan's Tribal Belt. New York, NY, USA: Council on Foreign Relations. p. 5. ISBN 0-87609-414-0.
  42. ^ a b c d Perlez, Jane (2007-07-16). "Aid to Pakistan in Tribal Areas Raises Concerns". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-11-09.
  43. ^ Bolle, Mary Jane (2009-10-15). "Afghanistan and Pakistan Reconstruction Opportunity Zones (ROZs), H.R. 1318/H.R. 1886/H.R. 2410 and S. 496: Issues and Arguments" (PDF). Washington, DC, USA: Congressional Research Service.
  44. ^ Pakistan Smart Book (PDF) (First ed.). Sierra Vista, AZ, USA: TRADOC Cultural Center. January 2010.
  45. ^ "Pakistan Education Atlas 2015" (PDF).
  46. ^ a b c "Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS)" (PDF). 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-16. Retrieved 2010-09-03.
  47. ^ "PM approves FATA University in FR Kohat". Khyber News. 2013-05-21. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2018-04-11.
  48. ^ Shah, Sadia Qasim (2016-10-14). "Classes at Fata University to start on Oct 24". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan: Pakistan Herald Publications. Retrieved 2018-04-11.
  49. ^ Mir, Rukhshan (2017-07-25). "FATA University To Establish Sub Campus At Bajaur Agency". UrduPoint. Retrieved 2018-04-11.
  50. ^ "Literacy Day: Education not on govt's priority list". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan: Pakistan Herald Publications. 2009-09-08. Archived from the original on 2009-09-11. Retrieved 2018-04-09.
  51. ^ "Agency/FR wise Literacy Ratio of (Population 10 years and above) in FATA 1998 Census". Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 2012-02-27. Retrieved 2018-04-09.
  52. ^ Farooq, Umar. "FATA make it to Pakistan's first-class tournament". ESPNcricinfo. Bengalaru, India. Retrieved 1 November 2015.

External links

Bab-e-Khyber

Bab-e-Khyber (Pashto and Urdu: باب خیبر‎; "Khyber Gate") is a monument which stands at the entrance of the Khyber Pass in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. The gate is immediately west of Peshawar, while the historic Jamrud Fort is adjacent to the gate.

Bazar Caves

The Bazar Caves otherwise Bāzār Caves are located in the Khyber in the mountainous Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan.

Datta Khel Subdivision

Datta Khel Subdivision is a subdivision located in North Waziristan district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The population is 75,116 according to the 2017 census.

Economy of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas

The economy of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas is relatively underdeveloped compared to other provinces and administrative territories of Pakistan. The Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are the most impoverished and least developed areas in the country. While FATA has 2.4% of Pakistan's population, it contributes only 1.5% to Pakistan's economy, making it the smallest Pakistani provincial economy in terms of GDP. As of 2010, the per capita income of FATA was $663 and roughly 34% of households had a sustainable living standard above the poverty level.Because of FATA's tribal society, the local economy is mainly pastoral-based, with some practice of agriculture. Households are involved in primary-level activities like subsistence agriculture, rearing of livestock (see animal husbandry in Pakistan) and small-scale businesses. Many locals seek employment as skilled and unskilled labourers while others join security agencies and paramilitary forces. Those who are better off or are able to travel migrate to larger cities and urban centres outside the tribal areas within Pakistan and across the Middle East. A significant number of these are highly qualified professionals and in many cases have settled permanently along with their families outside FATA, contributing to a brain drain effect and shortage of skilled workers in FATA. Members of the diaspora receive their earnings and send remittances to FATA to support their families and relatives at home.There are abundant natural resources prevalent in FATA such as marble, copper, limestone and coal which can create a potentially thriving mining industry, although the current socio-economic situation has partly hindered their profitable exploitation. Trade with neighboring Afghanistan plays an active role in FATA's economy, and items imported and exported to the country via trucks pass through supply routes in FATA. The area has also been influenced to a great extent by the active Afghan opium trade. This has made FATA a transitional point for smuggling and trafficking of goods, as well as black markets. There is a sizeable indigenous weapons and firearms manufacturing industry present (see gun politics in Pakistan).

Foreign aid to the region often remains a difficult challenge, according to Craig Cohen, an analyst at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, D.C.. Because security is difficult, local nongovernmental organizations are required to distribute aid, but there is a lack of trust amongst NGOs and other powers that hampers distribution. Pakistani NGOs are often targets of violent attacks by Islamist militants in the FATA. Because of the extensive hostility to any hint of foreign influence, the American branch of Save the Children was distributing funding anonymously in the region as of July 2007. There have been calls to implement greater measures for integrating FATA into the mainstream economy. In this regard, there are several economic, industrial and social development reconstruction ventures that have been undertaken by the government recently in order to aid FATA's economy, including the launch of organisations such as the FATA Development Authority.

Federally Administered Tribal Areas cricket team

The Federally Administered Tribal Areas cricket team (FATA) are a first-class cricket side who have competed in Pakistan domestic cricket since the 2015–16 season. FATA entered the Quaid-e-Azam Trophy through a qualifying round. In their first ever first-class match, they drew with Habib Bank Limited cricket team in the 2015–16 Quaid-e-Azam Trophy. They won their first match in round 6 of the same edition of the tournament, when they defeated Rawalpindi by four wickets.In August 2016 they took part in Pakistan's domestic Twenty20 cricket tournament, the 2016–17 National T20 Cup. In their first match, they beat Rawalpindi by 15 runs. In November 2017, they reached the semi-finals of the 2017–18 National T20 Cup, but lost to Lahore Blues by 10 runs.

Jamrud Fort

The Jamrud Fort is located beside Bab-e-Khyber at the entrance to the Khyber Pass from the Peshawar side in the Tribal districts of KPK, Pakistan.

Jamrud Subdivision

Jamrud Subdivision is a subdivision located in Khyber District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The population is 228,001 according to the 2017 census.

Khyber District

Khyber District (Pashto: خېبر ولسوالۍ‎, Urdu: ضِلع خېبر‎) is a district in Peshawar Division of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in Pakistan. Until 2018, it was an agency of Federally Administered Tribal Areas, with merger of FATA with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, it became a district. It ranges from the Tirah valley down to Peshawar. It borders Nangarhar Province to the west, Orakzai District to the south, Kurram District to south west, Peshawar to the east and Mohmand District in north.

List of cultural heritage sites in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Following is the list of monuments and archaeological sites in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total 85 sites in the province were under the protection of the Federal Government. The list includes the only completely inscribed UNESCO World Heritage Site in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the Buddhist Ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Neighbouring City Remains at Sahr-i-Bahlol as well as sites which are part of the World Heritage Sites at Taxila.

List of tehsils of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas

In Pakistan, a tehsil is an administrative sub-division of a District. Those are sub-divided into union councils. Here is a list of all the tehsils of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (F.A.T.A.).

Nawagai Subdivision

Nawagai Subdivision is a subdivision located in Bajaur District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The population is 79,002 according to the 2017 census.

Pindiali Subdivision

Pindiali Subdivision is a subdivision located in Mohmand District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The population is 88,363 according to the 2017 census.

Roads in Pakistan

Roads in Pakistan (Urdu: پاکستان میں سڑکیں‎) can be classified as federal, provincial and municipal roads.

Safi Subdivision

Safi Subdivision is a subdivision located in Mohmand District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The population is 99,114 according to the 2017 census.

Salarzai

The Salarzai are one of the four Tarkani clans. They inhabit what is now Bajaur District in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, where in 2014 they may have been the majority tribe among the area's 600,000 population. In common with some other tribes of the area, it has been reported that they have formed militias to oppose the Taliban.The Salarzai have a close connection to some inhabitants of the neighbouring Kunar Province.

Salarzai Subdivision

Salarzai Subdivision is a subdivision located in Bajaur District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The population is 268,517 according to the 2017 census.

Sararogha Subdivision

Sararogha is a subdivision located in South Waziristan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The population is 98,389 according to the 2017 census.

Tiarza Subdivision

Tiarza Subdivision is a subdivision located in South Waziristan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The population is 45,210 according to the 2017 census.

Wana Subdivision

Wana Subdivision is a subdivision located in South Waziristan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The population is 152,881 according to the 2017 census.

Places adjacent to Federally Administered Tribal Areas
Provinces
Territories
Autonomous regions
 Pakistan Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA)
Agencies
Frontier Regions

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.