The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (Russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (Russian: субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia. Since March 18, 2014, the Russian Federation constitutionally has consisted of 85 federal subjects, although the two most recently added subjects are recognized by most states as part of Ukraine.
According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal importance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, all of which are equal subjects of the Russian Federation. Three Russian cities of federal importance (Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Sevastopol) have a status of both city and separate federal subject which comprises other cities and towns (Zelenograd, Troitsk, Kronstadt, Kolpino, etc.) within each federal city—keeping older structures of postal addresses. In 1993 the Russian Federation comprised 89 federal subjects. By 2008 the number of federal subjects had decreased to 83 because of several mergers. In 2014 Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea became the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia.
Every federal subject has its own head, a parliament, and a constitutional court. Each federal subject has its own constitution and legislation. Subjects have equal rights in relations with federal government bodies. The federal subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council, the upper house of the Federal Assembly. They do, however, differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy (asymmetric federalism).
Post-Soviet Russia formed during the history of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic within the USSR and didn't change at the time of the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. In 1992 during so-called "parade of sovereignties", separatist sentiments and the War of Laws within Russia, the Russian regions signed the Federation Treaty (Russian: Федеративный договор Federativny Dogovor), establishing and regulating the current inner composition of Russia, based on the division of authorities and powers among Russian government bodies and government bodies of constituent entities. The Federation Treaty was included in the text of the 1978 Constitution of the Russian SFSR. The current Constitution of Russia, adopted by national referendum on 12 December 1993, came into force on December 25, 1993 and abolished the model of the Soviet system of government introduced in 1918 by Vladimir Lenin and based on the right to secede from the country and on unlimited sovereignty of federal subjects (in practice it was never allowed), which conflicts with country's integrity and federal laws. The new constitution eliminated a number of legal conflicts, reserved the rights of the regions, introduced local self-government and didn't grant the Soviet-era right to secede from the country. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the political system became de jure closer to other modern federal states with a republican form of government in the world. In the 2000s, following the policy of Vladimir Putin and of the United Russia party (dominant party in all federal subjects), the Russian parliament changed the distribution of tax revenues, reduced the number of elections in the regions and gave more power to the federal authorities.
There are several groupings of Russian regions:
An official government translation of the Constitution of Russia in Article 5 states: "1. The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation."
How to translate the Russian term was discussed during the 49th annual American Translators Association conference in Orlando, in which Tom Fennel, a freelance translator, argued that the term "constituent entity of the Russian Federation" should be preferred to "subject". This recommendation is also shared by Tamara Nekrasova, Head of Translation Department, Goltsblat BLP, who in her "Traps & Mishaps in Legal Translation" presentation in Paris stated that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation is more appropriate than subject of the Russian Federation (subject would be OK for a monarchy)".
|Rank (as given in constitution and ISO)||Russian (Cyrillic)||Russian (Latin)||English – official translation of the constitution ||English – unofficial translation of the constitution||ISO 3166-2:RU (ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-2 (2010-06-30))|
|N/A||субъект Российской Федерации||subʺyekt Rossiyskoy Federatsii||constituent entity of the Russian Federation||subject of the Russian Federation||(not mentioned)|
|4||город федерального значения||gorod federalʹnogo znacheniya||city of federal significance||city of federal importance||autonomous city|
(the Russian term used in ISO 3166-2 is автономный город avtonomnyy gorod)
|5||автономная область||avtonomnaya oblastʹ||autonomous oblast||autonomous region||autonomous region|
|6||автономный округ||avtonomnyy okrug||autonomous okrug||autonomous area||autonomous district|
Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types:
|The most common type of federal subject with a governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centres.|
|Nominally autonomous, each has its own constitution and legislature; is represented by the federal government in international affairs; is meant to be home to a specific ethnic minority.|
|Essentially the same as oblasts. The title "krai" ("frontier" or "territory") is historic, related to geographic (frontier) position in a certain period of history. The current krais are not related to frontiers.|
|With a substantial or predominant ethnic minority.|
|Major cities that function as separate regions.|
1 autonomous oblast
|The only autonomous oblast is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.|
|Federal district||Economic region||Area
|01||Adygea, Republic of||Maykop||Southern||North Caucasus||7,600||447,109||1922|
|02||Bashkortostan, Republic of||Ufa||Volga||Ural||143,600||4,104,336||1919|
|03||Buryatia, Republic of||Ulan-Ude||Far Eastern||East Siberian||351,300||981,238||1923|
|04||Altai Republic||Gorno-Altaysk||Siberian||West Siberian||92,600||202,947||1922|
|05||Dagestan, Republic of||Makhachkala||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||50,300||2,576,531||1921|
|06||Ingushetia, Republic of||Magas
(Largest city: Nazran)
|North Caucasian||North Caucasus||4,000||467,294||1992|
|07||Kabardino-Balkar Republic||Nalchik||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||12,500||901,494||1936|
|08||Kalmykia, Republic of||Elista||Southern||Volga||76,100||292,410||1957|
|09||Karachay-Cherkess Republic||Cherkessk||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||14,100||439,470||1957|
|10||Karelia, Republic of||Petrozavodsk||Northwestern||Northern||172,400||716,281||1956|
|12||Mari El Republic||Yoshkar-Ola||Volga||Volga-Vyatka||23,200||727,979||1920|
|13||Mordovia, Republic of||Saransk||Volga||Volga-Vyatka||26,200||888,766||1930|
|14||Sakha (Yakutia) Republic||Yakutsk||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||3,103,200||949,280||1922|
|15||North Ossetia-Alania, Republic of||Vladikavkaz||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||8,000||710,275||1924|
|16||Tatarstan, Republic of||Kazan||Volga||Volga||68,000||3,779,265||1920|
|17||Tuva Republic||Kyzyl||Siberian||East Siberian||170,500||305,510||1944|
|19||Khakassia, Republic of||Abakan||Siberian||East Siberian||61,900||546,072||1930|
|20||Chechen Republic||Grozny||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||15,300||1,103,686||1991|
|22||Altai Krai||Barnaul||Siberian||West Siberian||169,100||2,607,426||1937|
|23||Krasnodar Krai||Krasnodar||Southern||North Caucasus||76,000||5,125,221||1937|
|24||Krasnoyarsk Krai||Krasnoyarsk||Siberian||East Siberian||2,339,700||2,966,042||1934|
|25||Primorsky Krai||Vladivostok||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||165,900||2,071,210||1938|
|26||Stavropol Krai||Stavropol||North Caucasian||North Caucasus||66,500||2,735,139||1934|
|27||Khabarovsk Krai||Khabarovsk||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||788,600||1,436,570||1938|
|28||Amur Oblast||Blagoveshchensk||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||363,700||902,844||1932|
|31||Belgorod Oblast||Belgorod||Central||Central Black Earth||27,100||1,511,620||1954|
(Largest city: Cherepovets)
|36||Voronezh Oblast||Voronezh||Central||Central Black Earth||52,400||2,378,803||1934|
|38||Irkutsk Oblast||Irkutsk||Siberian||East Siberian||767,900||2,581,705||1937|
(Largest city: Novokuznetsk)
|46||Kursk Oblast||Kursk||Central||Central Black Earth||29,800||1,235,091||1934|
|47||Leningrad Oblast||Largest city: Gatchina[b]||Northwestern||Northwestern||84,500||1,669,205||1927|
|48||Lipetsk Oblast||Lipetsk||Central||Central Black Earth||24,100||1,213,499||1954|
|49||Magadan Oblast||Magadan||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||461,400||182,726||1953|
|50||Moscow Oblast||Largest city: Balashikha[c]||Central||Central||44,300||6,618,538||1929|
|52||Nizhny Novgorod Oblast||Nizhny Novgorod||Volga||Volga-Vyatka||76,900||3,524,028||1936|
|53||Novgorod Oblast||Veliky Novgorod||Northwestern||Northwestern||55,300||694,355||1944|
|54||Novosibirsk Oblast||Novosibirsk||Siberian||West Siberian||178,200||2,692,251||1937|
|55||Omsk Oblast||Omsk||Siberian||West Siberian||139,700||2,079,220||1934|
|61||Rostov Oblast||Rostov-on-Don||Southern||North Caucasus||100,800||4,404,013||1937|
|65||Sakhalin Oblast||Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||87,100||546,695||1947|
|68||Tambov Oblast||Tambov||Central||Central Black Earth||34,300||1,178,443||1937|
|70||Tomsk Oblast||Tomsk||Siberian||West Siberian||316,900||1,046,039||1944|
|72||Tyumen Oblast||Tyumen||Ural||West Siberian||1,435,200||3,264,841||1944|
|79||Jewish Autonomous Oblast||Birobidzhan||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||36,000||190,915||1934|
|83||Nenets Autonomous Okrug||Naryan-Mar||Northwestern||Northern||176,700||41,546||1929|
|86||Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra||Khanty-Mansiysk
(Largest city: Surgut)
|87||Chukotka Autonomous Okrug||Anadyr||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||737,700||53,824||1930|
|89||Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug||Salekhard
(Largest city: Noyabrsk)
|91||Kamchatka Krai||Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky||Far Eastern||Far Eastern||472,300||358,801||2007|
|92||Zabaykalsky Krai||Chita||Far Eastern||East Siberian||431,500||1,155,346||2008|
|?||Crimea, Republic of[d]||Simferopol||Southern||North Caucasus||26,964||1,966,801||2014|
b. ^ According to Article 13 of the Charter of Leningrad Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of St. Petersburg. However, St. Petersburg is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast.
c. ^ According to Article 24 of the Charter of Moscow Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of Moscow and throughout the territory of Moscow Oblast. However, Moscow is not officially named to be the administrative center of the oblast.
e. ^ In February 2000, the former code of 20 for the Chechen Republic was cancelled and replaced with code 95. License plate production was suspended due to the Chechen Wars, causing numerous issues, which in turn forced the region to use a new code.
Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories. In this process, six very sparsely populated subjects (comprising in total 0.3% of the population of Russia) were integrated into more populated subjects, with the hope that the economic development of those territories would benefit from the much larger means of their neighbours. The merging process was finished on 1 March 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008. The six territories became "administrative-territorial regions with special status". They have large proportions of minorities, with Russians being a majority only in three of them. Four of those territories have a second official language in addition to Russian: Buryat (in two of the merged territories), Komi-Permian, Koryak. This is an exception: all the other official languages of Russia (other than Russian) are set by the Constitutions of its constituent Republics (Mordovia, Chechnya, Dagestan etc.). The status of the "administrative-territorial regions with special status" has been a subject of criticism because it does not appear in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
|Date of referendum||Date of merger||Original entities||Original codes||New code||Original entities||New entity|
|2003-12-07||2005-12-01||1, 1a||59 (1), 81 (1a)||90||Perm Oblast (1) + Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (1a)||Perm Krai|
|2005-04-17||2007-01-01||2, 2a, 2b||24 (2), 88 (2a), 84 (2b)||24||Krasnoyarsk Krai (2) + Evenk Autonomous Okrug (2a) + Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (2b)||Krasnoyarsk Krai|
|2005-10-23||2007-07-01||3, 3a||41 (3), 82 (3a)||91||Kamchatka Oblast (3) + Koryak Autonomous Okrug (3a)||Kamchatka Krai|
|2006-04-16||2008-01-01||4, 4a||38 (4), 85 (4a)||38||Irkutsk Oblast (4) + Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug (4a)||Irkutsk Oblast|
|2007-03-11||2008-03-01||5, 5a||75 (5), 80 (5a)||92||Chita Oblast (5) + Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (5a)||Zabaykalsky Krai|
In addition to those six territories that entirely ceased to be subjects of the Russian Federation and were downgraded to territories with special status, another three subjects have a status of subject but are simultaneously part of a more populated subject:
With an estimated population of 49348 as of 2018, Chukotka is currently the least populated subject of Russia that is not part of a more populated subject. It was separated from Magadan Oblast in 1993. Chukotka is one of the richest subjects of Russia (with a GRP per capita equivalent to that of Australia) and therefore does not fit in the pattern of merging a subject to benefit from the economic dynamism of the neighbour.
In 1992, Ingushetia separated from Chechnya, both to stay away from the growing violence in Chechnya and as a bid to obtain the Eastern part of Northern Ossetia (it did not work: the Chechen conflict spread violence to Ingushetia, and North Ossetia retained its Prigorodny District). Those two Muslim republics, populated in vast majority (95%+) by closely related Vainakh people, speaking Vainakhish languages, remain the two poorest subjects of Russia, with the GRP per capita of Ingushetia being equivalent to that of Iraq. According to 2016 statistics, however they are also the safest regions of Russia, and also have the lowest alcohol consumption, with alcohol poisoning at least 40 times lower than the national average.
In 2011–2012, the territory of Moscow increased by 140% (to 2511 km²) by acquiring part of Moscow Oblast.
In 2016, Russian senators suggested two new possible mergers (not appearing on the above map), but with no active step taken so far.
Autonomous okrug (Russian: автономный округ, lit. avtonomny okrug), occasionally also referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects. As of 2014, Russia has four autonomous okrugs of its eighty-five federal subjects. The Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is the only okrug which is not subordinate to an Oblast. The others three are Arkhangelsk Oblast's Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug within Tyumen Oblast.Borders of Russia
Russia has international borders with 16 sovereign states, including two with maritime boundaries (US, Japan), as well as with the partially recognized states of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. With a land border running 20,241 kilometres (12,577 mi) in total, Russia has (after China), the second-longest land border of any country.Federal cities of Russia
A city of federal importance (Russian: город федерального значения, tr. gorod federalnogo znacheniya) or federal city in Russia is a city that has a status of both an inhabited locality and a constituent federal subject.
The Russian Federation is divided into eighty-five federal subjects, three of which are federal cities. Two of them are the largest cities in the country: Moscow, the national capital; and Saint Petersburg, an important port on the Baltic Sea. The third and newest federal city, Sevastopol, is in the disputed region of Crimea, which was annexed by the Russian Federation in 2014 but is recognised as Ukrainian territory by most of the international community.Flag of Novosibirsk Oblast
The Flag of Novosibirsk Oblast (Russian: Флаг Новосибирской области, translit. Flag Novosibirskoj oblasti) is the official symbol of Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia.Flags of the federal subjects of Russia
This gallery of flags of federal subjects of Russia shows the flags of the 85 federal subjects of Russia.Governor (Russia)
The highest official of the subject of the Russian Federation or the holder of the highest office of subject of the Russian Federation (Russian: высшее должностное лицо субъекта Российской Федерации) or the head of the highest executive body of state power of the subject of the Russian Federation (Russian: руководитель высшего исполнительного органа государственной власти субъекта Российской Федерации), colloquially and collectively referred to as the title governor (Russian: губернатор - gubernator) or head of region (Russian: глава региона - glava regiona), is the head and the chief executive of each the federal subjects of Russia, not directly subordinate to the federal authorities, but the political and ceremonial head of the federal subject, all of which are equal constituent entities of Russia.
The office is defined by the Constitution of Russia and Chapters 1, 3 and 4 of Russia's Federal Law No. 184-FZ "On the General Principles of the Organization Of the Legislative (Representative) and Executive Organs Of State Power of the Subjects of the Russian Federation" which came into force in 1999. According to the current revision of the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of 85 federal subjects therefore there are 85 offices of head of region in Russia (see List of current heads of federal subjects of Russia).
The certain title of office is defined by the federal subject's Constitution or Charter. The names include: governor, president (Russian: президент - president), head of administration (Russian: глава администрации - glava administratsii), head of republic (Russian: глава республики - glava respubliki), mayor (Russian: мэр - mer), non-officially and collectively referred to as governors for short. The official title governor is most used in Russia and traditionally it is used in Oblasts of Russia. Presidents of Russia's republics, mayor of Moscow and mayor of St. Petersburg are also governors in this sense.
A head of the subject in Russia is said to serve a administration or executive office, colloquially referred to as gubernatorial administration.Krais of Russia
A krai (Russian: край, tr. kray, IPA: [kraj]) is a type of federal subject of Russia. The country is divided into 85 federal subjects, of which nine are krais. Oblasts, another type of federal subject, are legally identical to krais and the difference between a political entity with the name "krai" or "oblast" is purely traditional, similar to the commonwealths in the United States; both are constituent entities equivalent in legal status in Russia with representation in the Federation Council. During the Soviet era, the autonomous oblasts could be subordinated to republics or krais, but not to oblasts.List of federal subjects of Russia by GDP per capita
This is a list of Russian federal subjects by GDP per capita The equivalent countries which are comparable to the Russian regions in GDP per capita are chosen by Worldbank data for the same year.List of federal subjects of Russia by GRP
The article is a list of Russia Federal subjects by Gross Regional Product (GRP) in main years.List of federal subjects of Russia by Human Development Index
This is a list of Russian federal subjects by Human Development Index as of 2010.Note: this list uses the old HDI methodology, so values will appear higher than when calculated using the new methodology.List of federal subjects of Russia by population
The following is a list of the 85 federal subjects of Russia in order of population according to the 2002 and 2010 Censuses. The totals of all federal subjects do not include nationals living abroad at the time of census.List of federal subjects of Russia by unemployment rate
This is a list of federal subjects of Russia with the corresponding Unemployment Rate. All figures are from Federal State Statistics Service's report on the socio-economic situation in Russia.List of heads of federal subjects of Russia
The following is a list of heads of the federal subjects of the Russian Federation.Music in the Republic of Karelia
Traditional music of Karelia is regarded as the purest expression of Finnish music, less influenced by Germanic and other outside elements. Like Finland, Karelia is a home for rune singing; unlike Finland and like the neighboring Ingrian music of Russia, however, Karelia is also home to musical laments. The kantele is a popular instrument in Karelia as well as throughout Finland.Karelian folk music continues to be performed by groups like the Karelian Folk Music Ensemble, who sing in Finnish, Russian and Karelian, and have toured across Europe and the United States. Bands performing in traditional styles include, among others, Burlakat and Myllärit. The popular Finnish folk group Värttinä has recorded a number of songs based on Karelian melodies.Oblasts of Russia
An Oblast (Russian: область) is a type of federal subject of the Russian Federation.State Assembly of the Republic of Mordovia
The State Assembly of Mordovia is the unicameral regional legislature of the Russian republic of Mordovia. It succeeded the Supreme Council in 1995.
Its members elect the Head of the Republic of Mordovia for a period of five years.
The presiding officer is the Chairman of the State Assembly of Mordovia.State Assembly of the Sakha Republic
State Assembly (Il Tumen) is the name for the unicameral legislature of the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is a legal successor of the Supreme Council of the Sakha Republic.The State Assembly comprises seventy deputies who are elected for five-year terms.State Council of the Republic of Tatarstan
The State Council of the Republic of Tatarstan (Tatar: Татарстан Республикасы Дәүләт Советы; Russian: Государственный Совет Республики Татарстан) is the unicameral legislature of the Russian Republic of Tatarstan. It has hundred seats. Fifty are for the representatives of the political parties, while the other fifty are from the republic's localities. The members are elected for five years. The presiding officer is the Chairman of the State Council.State Council of the Udmurt Republic
The State Council of Udmurtia is the unicameral legislature of the Russian republic of Udmurtia. Initially 100 deputies were elected to the State Council. This number was later reduced to 90, and then to 60. Deputies are elected every five years.
It succeeded the Supreme Council in 1994.
The presiding officer is the Chairman of the State Council of Udmurtia.
Lists of federal subjects of Russia
Articles on first-level administrative divisions of Asian countries