Federal law enforcement in the United States

The federal government of the United States empowers a wide range of law enforcement agencies to maintain law and public order related to matters affecting the country as a whole.[1]

US Park Police at 2005 presidential inaugural
U.S. Park Police officers awaiting deployment during the 2005 Inauguration Day

Overview

Federal law enforcement authorities have authority given to them under various parts of the United States Code (U.S.C.). Federal law enforcement officers enforce various laws, generally at only the federal level. There are exceptions, with some agencies and officials enforcing state and tribal codes. Most are limited by the U.S. Code to investigating matters that are explicitly within the power of the federal government. Some federal investigative powers have become broader in practice, since the passage of the USA PATRIOT Act in October 2001.[2]

The Department of Justice was formerly the largest, and is still the most prominent, collection of Federal law enforcement agencies. It has handled most law enforcement duties at the federal level.[3] It includes the United States Marshals Service (USMS), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP), and others.

However, upon its creation in 2002; in response to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks; the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) became the Department with the most sworn armed Federal law enforcement officers and agents after it incorporated agencies seen as having roles in protecting the country against terrorism. This included large agencies such as Immigration and Customs Enforcement - Homeland Security Investigations (HSI), the U.S. Secret Service (USSS), the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), the U.S. Transportation Security Administration (TSA), and the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP)—which combined the former agencies of the United States Border Patrol, United States Customs Service, and the United States Department of Agriculture's Animal Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) into a single agency within the DHS.[1]

While the majority of federal law enforcement employees work for the departments of Justice and Homeland Security, there are dozens of other federal law enforcement agencies under the other executive departments, as well as under the legislative and judicial branches of the federal government.

History

Federal law enforcement in the United States is more than two hundred years old. For example, the Postal Inspection Service can trace its origins back to 1772.[4]

List of agencies and units of agencies

Agencies in bold text are law enforcement agencies (LEAs).

Executive Branch

Department of Agriculture

Department of Commerce

Department of Defense

Department of Education

Department of Energy

Department of Health and Human Services

Department of Homeland Security

CBP Officers pay tribute 2007
CBP Officers and Border Patrol Agents at a ceremony in 2007
CBP female officers going aboard a ship
U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers board a ship.

Department of Housing and Urban Development

  • Office of Inspector General (HUD-OIG)
  • Protective Service Division (HUD-PSD)

Department of the Interior

Department of Justice

Department of Labor

Department of State

Department of Transportation

Department of the Treasury

Bureau of Engraving and Printing Police
A Bureau of Engraving and Printing Police (BEP) patrol car.

Department of Veterans Affairs

Legislative Branch

Judicial Branch

Other federal law enforcement agencies

Independent Agencies and federally-administered institutions;

List of former agencies and units of agencies

Statistics

  • In 2004, federal agencies employed approximately 105,000 full-time personnel authorized to make arrests and carry firearms in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Compared with 2002, employment of such personnel increased by 13%.
  • Nationwide, there were 36 federal officers per 100,000 residents. Outside the District of Columbia, which had 1,662 per 100,000, State ratios ranged from 90 per 100,000 in Arizona to 7 per 100,000 in Iowa.
  • As of 2004, about 3 in 4 federal law enforcement officers working outside the Armed Forces were employed within the Department of Homeland Security or the Department of Justice.
  • Federal officers' duties included criminal investigation (38%), police response and patrol (21%), corrections and detention (16%), inspections (16%), court operations (5%), and security and protection (4%).
  • Women accounted for 16% of federal officers in 2004, an increase from 14.8% in 2002.
  • A third (33.2%) of federal officers were members of a racial or ethnic minority in 2004. This included 17.7% who were Hispanic or Latino, and 11.4% who were black or African American. In 2002, racial or ethnic minorities officers comprised 32.4% of federal officers.
  • Twenty-seven federal offices of inspector general (IG) employed criminal investigators with arrest and firearm authority in 2004. Overall, these agencies employed 2,867 such officers in the 50 states and District of Columbia.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "CBP Through the Years - U.S. Customs and Border Protection".
  2. ^ Hatcher, Jeanette. "LibGuides: Criminal Justice: Federal Law Enforcement Agencies".
  3. ^ Langeluttig, Albert (1927). The Department of Justice of the United States. Johns Hopkins Press. pp. 9–14.
  4. ^ "Chronology of U.S. Postal Inspection Service". Retrieved 2013-11-26.
  5. ^ "Protective Operations Division". www.usda.gov. Missing or empty |url= (help); |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  6. ^ bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov Federal Law Enforcement United States Bureau of Justice Statistics Publications & Products. Page last revised on 17 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-17.
Bureau of Prohibition

The Bureau of Prohibition (or Prohibition Unit) was the federal law enforcement agency formed to enforce the National Prohibition Act of 1919, commonly known as the Volstead Act, which elaborated upon the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution regarding the prohibition of the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages. When it was first established in 1920, it was a unit of the Bureau of Internal Revenue. On April 1, 1927, it became an independent entity within the Department of the Treasury, changing its name from the Prohibition Unit to the Bureau of Prohibition. In 1930, it became part of the Department of Justice. By 1933, with the Repeal of Prohibition imminent, it was briefly absorbed into the FBI, or "Bureau of Investigation" as it was then called, and became the Bureau's "Alcohol Beverage Unit," though, for practical purposes it continued to operate as a separate agency. Very shortly after that, once Repeal became a reality, and the only federal laws regarding alcoholic beverages being their taxation, it was switched back to Treasury, where it was renamed the Alcohol Tax Unit.

CBP Office of Field Operations

The Office of Field Operations (OFO) is a federal law enforcement agency within the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) responsible for managing United States customs operations at 20 Field Operations offices, 328 ports of entry, and 16 pre-clearance stations in Canada, Ireland, the UAE, and the Caribbean. Headed by a CBP Assistant Commissioner, OFO directs the activities of more than 27,000 employees, including more than 22,000 CBP Officers and Agriculture Specialists.

CBP Office of Field Operations is the largest component in CBP. It is headed by Assistant Commissioner Todd Owen.

California Department of Justice

The California Department of Justice (CA DOJ/CAL DOJ) is both a statewide investigative law enforcement agency and state legal department in the California executive branch under the elected leadership of the California Attorney General (AG) which carries out complex criminal & civil investigations, prosecutions, and other legal services throughout the state.

Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2013

The Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2013 (H.R. 1447) is a bill that would require the United States Department of Justice to collect data from U.S. states and territories about the deaths of prisoners in their custody. States and territories would face monetary penalties for noncompliance. The bill would also require federal agencies to report on the deaths of prisoners in their custody. The Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2013 was introduced into the United States House of Representatives during the 113th United States Congress.

Department of the Air Force Police

The United States Air Force Police are the civilian uniformed police service of the United States Air Force, responsible for the force protection of assets and all aspects of law enforcement on U.S. Air Force installations, and other facilities operated by United States Air Force.The Air Force Police are a federal law enforcement agency with full authority to enforce laws, rules and regulations and make arrests on Air Force–controlled property. Air Force Police operate throughout the United States under the direction of the installation commanders and the Air Provost Marshal. Air Force Police can issue the DD Form 1408 Armed Forces Traffic Ticket, and the DD Form 1805 U.S. District Court Violation Notice. The DD Form 1408 does not have any monetary fines associated with it and is typically use as a warning or other type of punishment. The DD Form 1805 can carry a monetary fine or require a mandatory appearance in U.S. District Court. Points are also assessed on all 50 states driver licenses.

The Air Force Police occasionally provide executive protection services for visiting dignitaries.

The U.S. Air Force Police are part of the largest governmental agency, The Department of Defense.

The U.S. Air Force Police attend a 6-week training academy at the Department of Veterans Affairs Law Enforcement Training Center (LETC). This is an Air Force specific course that does not certify the Officers to work at the V.A., only Air Force installations. located at the former Fort Logan H. Roots in Little Rock, Arkansas alongside the Eugene J. Towbin Veterans Medical Center.

Director of the United States Secret Service

The Director of the United States Secret Service is the head of the United States Secret Service, and responsible for the day-to-day operations.

The Secret Service is a federal law enforcement agency that is part of the United States Department of Homeland Security. The Service is mandated by Congress to carry out a unique dual mission: safeguarding the financial and critical infrastructure of the United States, and protecting the nation’s leaders.The Director is appointed by, and serves at the pleasure of the President of the United States, and is not subject to Senate confirmation. The Director reports to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and operates with the general directions thereof. Prior to March 1, 2003, the Secret Service was a part of the United States Department of the Treasury.

FLE

FLE may refer to:

Family life education

Federal law enforcement in the United States

Flair Airlines

Fleet railway station

Football League of Europe

Four Lane Ends Interchange, of the Tyne and Wear Metro

Français langue étrangère, French as a foreign language

Frontal lobe epilepsy

FLE standard time; see Eastern European Time

Federal Protective Service (United States)

The Federal Protective Service (FPS) is the uniformed security police division of the National Protection and Programs Directorate of the United States Department of Homeland Security. FPS is "the federal agency charged with protecting and delivering integrated law enforcement and security services to facilities owned or leased by the General Services Administration (GSA)"—over 9,000 buildings—and their occupants.

The FPS is a federal law enforcement agency, and employs approximately 900 law enforcement officers who receive initial training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC). FPS provides integrated law enforcement and security services to U.S. Federal buildings, courthouses, and other properties administered by the General Services Administration (GSA) and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS).

To support that mission, FPS contracts with private security firms to provide 13,000 contract Armed Protective Security Officers (PSO) providing access control and security response within federal buildings. These PSOs are not federal law enforcement but private security employees trained by FPS. FPS also protects other properties as authorized and carries out various other activities for the promotion of homeland security as the Secretary of Homeland Security may prescribe, to include providing a uniformed police response to National Security Special Events, and national disasters.

The FPS (Federal Protective Service) was formerly a part of the Immigration and Customs Enforcement until October 2009, when it was transferred to the National Protection and Programs Directorate.

List of United States state and local law enforcement agencies

This is a list of U.S. state and local law enforcement agencies — local, regional, special and statewide government agencies (state police) of the U.S. states, of the federal district, and of the territories that provide law enforcement duties, including investigations, prevention and patrol functions. In addition, the Attorney General's office of each state may have their own investigators.

The Bureau of Justice Statistics conducted a census of state and local law enforcement agencies every four years 1992-2008.

List of law enforcement agencies in Alabama

This is a list of law enforcement agencies in the state of Alabama.

According to the US Bureau of Justice Statistics' 2008 Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, the state had 417 law enforcement agencies employing 11,631 sworn police officers, about 251 for each 100,000 residents.

List of law enforcement agencies in California

This is a list of law enforcement agencies in California, including local (city), county, and statewide agencies. Historic agencies are included.

According to the US Bureau of Justice Statistics' 2008 Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, the state had 509 law enforcement agencies employing 79,431 sworn peace officers, about 217 for each 100,000 residents.

List of law enforcement agencies in Oregon

This is a List of Law Enforcement Agencies in the U.S. state of Oregon.

According to the US Bureau of Justice Statistics' 2008 Census of State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies, the state had 174 law enforcement agencies employing 6,695 sworn police officers, about 177 for each 100,000 residents.

Office of Criminal Investigations

The Office of Criminal Investigations (OCI) was established to provide the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a specific Office to conduct and coordinate Criminal investigations. OCI special agents employ customary federal law enforcement methods and techniques in the investigation of suspected criminal violations of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the Federal Anti-Tampering Act, and other related federal statutes. OCI investigations concentrate on significant violations of these laws, with a priority on conduct that may present a danger to the public health. OCI is a relatively small agency, employing approximately 180 Special Agents.

The FDA regulates approximately 25 cents of every dollar spent annually by American consumers. FDA is responsible for regulating products to ensure the safety of foods, drugs, biological products, medical devices, cosmetics, radiation-emitting devices, and more. As the law enforcement arm of FDA, the Office of Criminal Investigations conducts and coordinates criminal investigations regarding possible violations of the laws which regulate these products.

Pursuant to its investigative mission, OCI maintains liaison and cooperative investigative efforts with various federal, state, local, and international law enforcement agencies. OCI is designated by the Commissioner as the Agency's point of contact with the U.S. intelligence community as it relates to the Agency's counter-terrorism mission. OCI has representation at the Interpol U.S. National Central Bureau in Washington, D.C.

Security police

In some countries, security police are those persons employed by or for a governmental agency or corporations with large campuses who provide police and security services to those agencies' properties.

Security police protect their agency's facilities, properties, personnel, users, visitors and operations from harm and may enforce certain laws and administrative regulations. Most security police have at least some arrest authority. The law enforcement powers of security police vary widely: in some cases limited to those of private persons yet in others amounting to full police powers equivalent to state/provincial, or local law enforcement.

As distinct from general law enforcement, the primary focus of security police is on the protection of specific properties and persons. This causes some overlap with functions normally performed by security guards. However, security police are distinguished from guards by greater authority: often higher levels of training, and correspondingly higher expectations of performance in the protection of life and property.

In other countries, 'security police' is the name given to the secret security and intelligence services charged with protecting the state at the highest level, including responsibilities such as personal protection of the head of state, counter-espionage, and anti-terrorism.

United States Army Counterintelligence

United States Army Counterintelligence is the component of United States Army Military Intelligence which conducts counterintelligence activities to detect, identify, assess, counter, exploit and/or neutralize adversarial, foreign intelligence services, international terrorist organizations, and insider threats to the United States Army and U.S. Department of Defense.

United States Border Patrol

The United States Border Patrol (USBP) is an American federal law enforcement agency whose mission is to detect and prevent illegal aliens, terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States, and prevent illegal trafficking of people and contraband. It is the mobile, uniformed law enforcement arm of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), a component of the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS).With 19,437 agents, the Border Patrol is one of the largest law enforcement agencies in the United States. For fiscal year 2017, Congress enacted a budget of $3,805,253,000 for the Border Patrol.The current chief of the Border Patrol is Carla Provost.

United States Department of Veterans Affairs Police

The United States Department of Veterans Affairs Police is the uniformed law enforcement service of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, responsible for the protection of the VA Medical Centers and other facilities such as VA Medical Centers (VAMC), Outpatient Clinics (OPC) and Community Based Outpatient Clinics (CBOC) operated by United States Department of Veterans Affairs and its subsidiary components of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) as well as the National Cemetery Administration (NCA) and the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) respectively. The VA Police have several divisions and operate separately but alongside the VA Law Enforcement Training Center (VA LETC) under the umbrella of the Office of Security and Law Enforcement. The primary role of VA Police is to serve as a protective uniformed police force in order to deter and prevent crime, maintain order, and investigate crimes (ranging from summary to felony offenses) which may have occurred within the jurisdiction of the Department or its federal assets. Some cases are investigated in conjunction with agents from the Office of the Inspector General (VA OIG).

The Office of Security and Law Enforcement (OS&LE) is the parent agency of the VA Police within the Law Enforcement Oversight & Criminal Investigation Division (LEO/CID) which provides national oversight to individual VA Police Services at each location throughout the United States. They also facilitate support, guidance, funds and regulation of the Police Service and their corresponding independent facilities. Upper level management and specialty positions other than Police Officer include (in no particular order); Detective and Special Agent (1811 Series Criminal Investigator). Other semi standardized rank structures are developed within each VA Police Service at the local level. These serve to reflect job title, function, and/or role and range from Sergeant to Chief. The VA Police also maintain groups of specialty service elements such as K-9, bicycle, boat and motorcycle patrols.

The VA Police are an armed, federal law enforcement and protective service entity that operates in and around the various Veterans Affairs Medical Centers, National Cemeteries and other VA facilities located throughout the whole of United States to include Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands. Among others, the VA Police are a specialized federal law enforcement agency, whose officers have full police powers derived from statutory authority to enforce all federal laws, VA rules and regulations, and to make arrests on VA controlled property whether owned or leased.

Specialization

VA Police encounters and methods of law enforcement are often unique because the majority of their work is conducted in and around a clinical or medical setting. Enhanced methodology and incident solutions (including advanced interpersonal communication, conflict resolution, and problem solving skills) are required by their officers to be successful; as in addition to the full range of incidents and calls for service one might normally associate with police work, the VA Police also often encounter trained military veterans suffering from medical and psychological traumas. Beyond normal law enforcement contact with the general public, VA Police officers also work in an environment which includes an extremely high percentage of individuals (to include patients and even other VA employees) who are military trained veterans (with an increasingly large number of individuals who are returning combat veterans). VA Police officers must strive to enforce the law while working with other VA staff to maintain an equitable balance; ensuring that the medical needs of the veterans/patients are being met while at the same time continuing to operate as a full federal law enforcement agency.

Although the Office of Security and Law Enforcement exists and policies and training are standardized, VA Police operate throughout the United States under the direction of individual facility directors (much like a municipal agency would function under a mayor), causing an extensive amount of difference in operational format. VA Police personnel serving in the Executive Protection Division provide Protective Services for the United States Secretary of Veterans Affairs and the Deputy Secretary of Veterans Affairs. The Veterans Affairs Police (Service) is made up of over 4000 appointed officers and administrative personnel. The agency's motto is "Protecting Those Who Served".

United States Fish and Wildlife Service

The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS or FWS) is an agency of the US Federal Government within the US Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish, wildlife, and natural habitats. The mission of the agency is "working with others to conserve, protect, and enhance fish, wildlife, plants and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the American people."

Aurelia Skipwith is current President Donald Trump's nominee.Among the responsibilities of the FWS are enforcing federal wildlife laws; protecting endangered species; managing migratory birds; restoring nationally significant fisheries; conserving and restoring wildlife habitat, such as wetlands; helping foreign governments with their international conservation efforts; and distributing money to states' fish and wildlife agencies through the Wildlife Sport Fish and Restoration Program.Sub-units of the FWS include:

National Wildlife Refuge System—560 National Wildlife Refuges and thousands of small wetlands and other special management areas covering over 150 million acres (607,000 km²)

Division of Migratory Bird Management

Federal Duck Stamp

National Fish Hatchery System—70 National Fish Hatcheries and 65 Fish and Wildlife Conservation Offices

Endangered Species program—86 Ecological Services Field Stations

International Affairs Program

National Conservation Training Center

USFWS Office of Law Enforcement

Clark R. Bavin National Fish and Wildlife Forensic Laboratory

Landscape Conservation CooperativesThe vast majority of fish and wildlife habitat is on non-federal state or private land. Therefore, the FWS works closely with private groups such as Partners in Flight and Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council to promote voluntary habitat conservation and restoration.

The FWS employs approximately 9,000 people and is organized into a central administrative office in Falls Church, Virginia, eight regional offices, and nearly 700 field offices distributed throughout the United States.

United States Postal Inspection Service

The United States Postal Inspection Service (USPIS) is the law enforcement arm of the United States Postal Service. Its jurisdiction is defined as "crimes that may adversely affect or fraudulently use the U.S. Mail, the postal system or postal employees." The mission of the U.S. Postal Inspection Service is to support and protect the U.S. Postal Service, its employees, infrastructure, and customers by enforcing the laws that defend the nation's mail system from illegal or dangerous use.

In fiscal year 2014, USPIS had 2,376 field employees, a decline of 44.7% from fiscal year 1995. (This figure excludes headquarters staff.) In 2008, the U.S. Postal Inspection Service had 2,288 full-time personnel with the authority to make arrests and carry firearms on duty. This represented a 23.1% drop over the previous five years.

Federal law enforcement agencies of the United States
Department of Commerce
Department of Defense
Department of
Health and Human Services
Department of
Homeland Security
Department of
the Interior
Department of Justice
Department of State
Department of Transportation
Department of the Treasury
United States Congress
Judicial branch
Other federal law
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Lists of law enforcement agencies by country

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