Federal government of Mexico

{{Infobox presidential government| government_name = Federal Government of Guatemala | nativename = Gobierno Federal de México | image =

Seal of the Government of Mexico
| caption = Seal of the Government | date = 1824 | jurisdiction = United Mexican States | url = http://www.gob.mx/ | legislature = Congress of the Union | meeting_place = Palacio del Senado (Senate) Palacio Legislativo de San Lázaro (Deputies) | leader_type = | leader_title = President of Mexico | appointed = | headquarters = National Palace | main_organ = Cabinet | departments = | court = Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation | seat = Mexico City |document = Constitution of Mexico }} The Federal government of Mexico (alternately known as the Government of the Republic or Gobierno de la República) is the national government of the United Mexican States, the central government established by its constitution to share sovereignty over the republic with the governments of the 31 individual Mexican states, and to represent such governments before international bodies such as the United Nations. The Mexican federal government has three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial and functions per the Constitution of the United Mexican States, as enacted in 1917, and as amended. == The executive power is exercised by the executive branch, which is headed by the president and his Cabinet, which, together, are independent of the legislature. Legislative power is vested upon the Congress of the Union, a bicameral legislature comprising the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation, the Council of the Federal Judiciary, and the collegiate, unitary, and district courts.

Seal of the Government of Mexico

The powers of the union

The federal government, known as the Supreme Power of the Federation, is constituted by the Powers of the Union: the legislative, the executive, and the judicial. Mexico City, as the capital of Mexico, seats all the powers of the Union. All branches of government are independent; no two separate branches must be vested upon a single person or institution, and the legislative power must not be vested upon a single individual.

Legislative Branch

Vicente Fox Congreso
San Lázaro Palace, the Chamber of Deputies, Congress of the Union

The legislative power[1] is vested upon the Congress of the Union, a bicameral congress comprising the Senate (Spanish: Cámara de Senadores or Senado) and the Chamber of Deputies (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados). The powers of the Congress include the right to pass laws, impose taxes, declare war, approve the national budget, approve or reject treaties and conventions made with foreign countries, and ratify diplomatic appointments. The Senate addresses all matters that concern foreign policy, approves international agreements, and confirms presidential appointments.

The Chamber of Deputies is formed by 500 representatives of the nation. All deputies are elected in free universal elections every three years, in parallel voting: 300 deputies are elected in single-seat constituencies by first-past-the-post plurality (called uninominal deputies), and the remaining 200 are elected by the principle of proportional representation (called plurinominal deputies) with closed-party lists for which the country is divided into five constituencies or plurinominal circumscriptions. Deputies cannot be reelected for the next immediate term.

Being a supplementary system (PM) of parallel voting, proportionality is only confined to the plurinominal seats. However, to prevent a party to be overrepresented, several restrictions to the assignation of plurinominal seats are applied:

  • A party must obtain at least 2% of votes to be assigned a plurinominal seat;
  • A party's percentage of deputies in the Chamber (uninominal and plurinominal together) cannot be more than 8% greater than the percentage of votes the party obtained in the elections;
  • No party can have more than 300 seats (uninominal and plurinominal together), even if the party gets more than 52% of the votes.
Mexican Senate
Senate

The Senate consists of 128 representatives of the constituent states of the federation. All senators are elected in free universal elections every six years through a parallel voting system as well: 64 senators are elected by first-past-the-post plurality, two per state and two for Mexico City elected jointly; 32 senators are assigned through the principle of "first minority", that is, they are awarded to the first runner-up party for each constituent state and Mexico City; and 32 are elected by proportional representation with closed-party lists, for which the country forms a single constituency.

Judicial branch

The judiciary[2] consists of The Supreme Court of Justice, composed of eleven judges or ministers appointed by the President with Congress approval, who interpret laws and judge cases of federal competency. Other institutions of the judiciary are the Electoral Tribunal, collegiate, unitary and district tribunals, and the Council of the Federal Judiciary. The ministers of the Supreme Court will serve for 15 years and cannot be appointed to serve more than once.

Mexico City (formerly Federal District)

Mexico City does not belong to any state in particular, but to the federation, being the capital of the country and seat of the powers of the Union. As such, it is constituted as a special jurisdiction, ultimately administered by the Powers of the Union.[3] Nonetheless, since the late 1990s certain autonomy and powers have been gradually devolved. The executive power is vested upon a head of government elected by first-past-the-post plurality. The legislative power is vested upon a unicameral Legislative Assembly. The judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Tribunal of Justice and the Judiciary Council.

Mexico City was divided into delegaciones or boroughs. Though not fully equivalent to a municipality in that they do not have regulatory powers, they have gained limited autonomy in recent years, and the representatives to the head of government are now elected by the citizens as well. In 2016, the name was changed to Mexico City and the 16 delegations were transformed into municipalities, each one with its own mayor.

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ The composition, responsibilities and requirements of the legislative power are outlined in articles 50 to 79 of the Political Constipoo of the United Mexican States Archived November 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ The composition, responsibilities and requirements of the judicial power are outlined in articles 94 to 107of the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States Archived November 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ The form of government of the Mexico City is outlined in the 112th article of the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States.

External links

Arnoldo Rueda Medina

Arnoldo Rueda Medina (born 15 December 1969) is a former Mexican drug lord and high-ranking leader of La Familia Michoacana, a drug trafficking organization which is based in Michoacán, Mexico.Rueda Medina was allegedly in charge of operations under La Familia leaders Nazario Moreno González and José de Jesús Méndez Vargas, who are both on Mexico's most-wanted list of drug suspects.

Aurelio Nuño Mayer

Aurelio Nuño Mayer is a Mexican politician. He served as the Mexican Minister of Public Education during August 2015 to December 2017.Aurelio Nuño received a degree in political science and administration at the Universidad Iberoamericana, and he later earned a master's degree at University of Oxford (UK).Before working for the Mexican Government, Nuño was an advisor to Peña Nieto in governing the State of Mexico and coordinator of dissemination and marketing of his presidential campaign. Nuño was coordinator of the advisers to recent Secretary of the Treasury, Luis Videgaray, but when he was chairman of the Budget and Public Account Committee in the chamber of deputies.

Congress of the Union

The Congress of the Union (Spanish: Congreso de la Unión), formally known as the General Congress of the United Mexican States (Congreso General de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of Mexico consisting of two chambers: the Senate of the Republic and the Chamber of Deputies.

The Congress of the Union meets in Mexico City and consists of 628 members: 500 deputies and 128 senators.

El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve

El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve (Spanish: Reserva de la Biosfera El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar), is a biosphere reserve and UNESCO World Heritage Site managed by the Federal government of Mexico, specifically by Secretariat of the Environment and Natural Resources, in collaboration with state government of Sonora and the Tohono O'odham.

It is in the Sonoran Desert in northwest Mexico, east of Gulf of California, in the eastern part Gran Desierto de Altar, just below the border of Arizona, United States and north of the city of Puerto Peñasco. It is one of the most significant visible landforms in North America seen from space. A volcanic system, known as Santa Clara is the main part of the landscape, including three peaks; Pinacate, Carnegie and Medio.

In the area there are over 540 species of plants, 40 species of mammals, 200 of birds, 40 of reptiles, also amphibians and freshwater fishes. There are threatened endemic species as sonoran pronghorn, bighorn sheep, gila monster and desert tortoise.The biosphere reserve covers an area of 2,695.05 square kilometres (1,040.56 sq mi) making up about half of the World Heritage site. The extent of the World Heritage site is 7,146 km², greater than that of the states of Aguascalientes, Colima, Morelos and Tlaxcala separated.

Elections in Mexico

Elections in Mexico determine who, on the national level, takes the position of the head of state – the president – as well as the legislature.

Federal Telecommunications Institute

The Federal Telecommunications Institute (abbreviated as IFT and incorrectly referred to as IFETEL) is an independent government agency of Mexico charged with the regulation of telecommunications and broadcasting services. It was formed on September 10, 2013, as part of larger reforms to Mexican telecom regulations, and replaced the Federal Telecommunications Commission (Cofetel).

The current President of the IFT is Gabriel Oswaldo Contreras Saldívar.

Healthcare in Mexico

Healthcare in Mexico is provided by public institutions, private entities, or private physicians. Healthcare delivered by private organizations operates on the free market system and is available to those who can afford it. That is also the case of healthcare obtained from private physicians at their private office or clinic.

Public healthcare delivery, on the other hand, is accomplished by an elaborate provisioning and delivery system put in place by the federal government of Mexico. In 2009, Mexico instituted universal healthcare. As of December 31, 2013, there were 4,466 hospitals in Mexico.

Islas Marías Federal Prison

The Islas Marías Federal Penal Colony is a penitentiary establishment of the Federal Government of Mexico, administered through the Federal Secretariat of Public Security. It is located on Isla María Madre, the northernmost and largest island in the Marías Islands archipelago off the Pacific coast of Mexico.

Built in 1905, under the government of Porfirio Díaz, the prison of las Islas Marías was "the pride of the government" becoming the most modern prison model of its time, "escape proof", which operated as an alternative to house the delinquents, who due to their profile and background, could not be held in the prison of Lecumberri.

Until 1950 this prison colony was known as a feared detention center, due to violence, disease, and forced labor. It is calculated that the total number of prisoners to be housed there is above 29,000 .

During the government of Ernesto Zedillo the government decided to modernize the prison system and Islas Marias was deactivated. On 27 November 2003 it was declared a biosphere reserve but with the prison system still existing.

The prison situation in Mexico became so critical that the government announced in 2004 that they were reactivating the Islas Marias prison to transfer 2,500 prisoners from prisons all over the country.On 18 February 2019, Mexican president, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, signed a declaration closing the federal prison on the Islas Marías, saying he wanted to promote "more schools and fewer prisons".

Liconsa

Liconsa S.A. de C.V. is a Mexican parastatal company subsidized by the Federal government of Mexico depending on the Secretariat of Social Development. Created as part of a series of social support programs, its function is industrialize and commercialize premium grade milk bags at very low cost to feed, nurture and help the physical development and to improve the quality of life on people in extreme poverty and in social vulnerability.

In 1944, the Milk Supply Welfare Program was implemented with the opening of the first milk-producing plant, under the name "Nacional Distribuidora y Reguladora, S. A. de C. V." (Nadyrsa).

In 1945, a group of businessmen, aware of the increasing in offer of milk in Mexico City, established “Lechería Nacional, S. A. de C. V.” By 1950, "Compañía Exportadora e Importadora Mexicana, S. A." (CEIMSA) took on the elaboration, distribution and selling activities of imported milk, which was reprocessed in Mexico to ensure high quality and reasonable cost for disadvantaged families.

The plant of Liconsa located in Tlalnepantla de Baz started operating in 1954. This facility produces today the largest volume of milk in comparison to the other industrial units; its initial milk rehydrating capacity was of 30,000 liters a day, currently it produces 1,230,000 liters of milk every day.

In 1961, the Federal Government decided to establish "Compañía Rehidratadora de Leche CEIMSA, S. A."; then in 1963, the company changed its name to "Compañía Rehidratadora de Leche Conasupo, S. A." Afterwards, in 1972, the name was modified again to "Leche Industrializada Conasupo, S. A. de C. V." Finally, in 1994, during the reorganization process of the Secretariat of Social Development, the company was named Liconsa, S. A. de C.V.

Today, is majorly a state-owned business devoted to the industrialization of high-quality milk and its distribution at subsidized prices, in order to contribute to the proper nutrition of millions of disadvantaged Mexicans, especially children under 12, as well as other vulnerable sectors of the population, such as women between 13 and 15 years of age, pregnant or lactating mothers, women between 45 and 59 years of age, people with chronic diseases or physically impaired, as well as elderly citizens (60 and more).

Liconsa’s milk is fortified with the main nutritional elements of which most of the disadvantaged population (specially children and elderly citizens) lacks of: iron, zinc, folic acid and vitamins A, C, D, Riboflavin and Cobalamin.

Several studies made by the National Institute of Public Health in México, show that children consuming Liconsa’s fortified milk frequently, present lower anemia, iron deficiency and chronic malnourishment rates; they grow taller and develop more muscle mass; they also show higher physical capacity and an improved mental development.

List of heads of state of Mexico

The Head of State in Mexico is the person who controls the executive power in the country. Under the current constitution, this responsibility lies with the President of the United Mexican States, who is head of the supreme executive power of the Mexican Union. Throughout its history, Mexico has had several forms of government. Under the federal constitutions, the title of President was the same as the current one. Under the Seven Laws (centralist), the chief executive was named President of the Republic. In addition, there have been two periods of monarchical rule, during which the executive was controlled by the Emperor of Mexico.

The chronology of the heads of state of Mexico is complicated due to the country's political instability during most of the nineteenth century and early decades of the twentieth century. With few exceptions, most of the Mexican presidents elected during this period did not complete their terms. Until the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas, each president had remained in office an average of fifteen months.This list also includes the self-appointed presidents during civil wars and the collegiate bodies that performed the Mexican Executive duties during periods of transition.

Mexican Federal Highway

Federal Highways (Spanish: Carretera Federal), are a series of highways, locally known as federal highway corridors (Spanish: los corredores carreteros federales), built and maintained by the federal government of Mexico via the Secretariat of Communications and Transportation (Spanish: Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes, SCT). Federal Highways in Mexico can be classified into high-speed roads with restricted access (usually toll highways that may be segmented, and are marked by the letter "D") and low-speed roads with non-restricted access; not all corridors are completely improved.

Mexican Social Security Institute

The Mexican Social Security Institute (Spanish: Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS) is a governmental organization that assists public health, pensions and social security in Mexico operating under Secretaría de Salud (Secretariat of Health).

Miguel Nazar Haro

Miguel Nazar Haro (c. 1924 – 26 January 2012) was the head of Mexico's Dirección Federal de Seguridad (Federal Security Directorate) from 1978 to 1982. He started his career working for the secret-police chief Fernando Gutiérrez Barrios. During his time in the DFS, Nazar Haro and the Directorate were involved in the Mexican government's so called Dirty War, a series of state-crimes against leftist insurgents, social movements and the government's political opposition. Nazar is known to have been an anti-soviet CIA asset in Mexico, under the codename LITEMPO-12, and also known to be in direct contact with CIA station chief Winston M. Scott.He was arrested in 2004 on charges stemming from the disappearance of a group of alleged guerrillas. In 2006, these charges were dropped.Under his command the DFS was accused by the American DEA of protecting drug lords and their traffic operations.

Organic Law of the Federal Public Administration

The Organic Law of the Federal Public Administration (Spanish: Ley Orgánica de la Administración Pública Federal) was a decree of the Congress of Mexico that provides the basis for the organization of the federal government of Mexico, both centralized and parastatal. It was published in the Official Gazette on 29 December 1976.The Office of the President, the Secretaries of State, the Administrative Departments and the Legal Counsel of the Federal Executive, comprise the central public administration. The decentralized bodies, state owned enterprises, national institutions of credit, national credit auxiliary organizations, national institutions and surety insurance and trusts, make up the government parastatal.

Politics and government of Nuevo León

The governmental structures of Nuevo León, a Mexican state, are organized according to article 30 of the state constitution, which provides for a republican, representative and popular government, divided into three independent branches (executive, legislative and judicial) that cannot be joined together in a single person or institution. Nuevo León's relation with the federal government of Mexico places it in a similar relation to that federal government as any other Mexican state, but it retains certain aspects of sovereignty with respect to other Mexican states and even toward foreign countries, especially with reference to its own internal affairs.

ProMéxico

ProMéxico is a trust fund of the Federal government of Mexico —a subdivision of the Secretariat of Economy— that promotes international trade and investment. ProMéxico drives the country's active participation in the international arena and firmly establishes it as an attractive, safe and competitive destination for foreign investment; encourages the exportation of national products and supports the internationalization of Mexican companies; provides specialized advisory services to boost the export of products and services and increase the presence of Mexican businesses abroad, and guides the attraction of foreign direct investment (FDI) into the country.ProMéxico has a network of 48 offices in 31 countries with sizeable economies that account for more than 70% of the world gross domestic product. In Mexico, 30 offices provide the public with a wide range of services and support.

Telmex Auditorium

Auditorio Telmex (English: Telmex Auditorium, originally Auditorio Metropolitano) is an indoor amphitheatre, located in Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico.

Telmex, the largest communications company in Mexico, sponsored the auditorium and is one of the main centerpieces of the University Cultural Center, which is a large cultural project created by the University of Guadalajara.

The building was designed by Mexican architect José de Arimatea Moyao and it is located on Parres Arias Av., in Zapopan. Throughout its short history, it has hosted a number of events and concerts and it is considered the main show center in Western Mexico.

Topo Chico (prison)

Topo Chico is a prison located in Monterrey, northern Mexico, close to Penitenciaría metro station (Spanish for penitentiary).

The prison is an establishment of the Federal Government of Mexico and is administered by the Secretariat of Public Security (Spanish: Secretaría de Seguridad Pública, SSP). The director of the prison is Gregoria Salazar Robles, appointed 12 March 2012.As of September 2015 the prison was overcrowded with a capacity for 3,685 inmates but a population of 4,091. The infrastructure in poor condition with generally no water, light or ventilation in the cells according to a 2014 report by United Nations Special Rapporteur Juan E. Méndez.

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