Federal districts of Russia

The federal districts (Russian: федера́льные округа́, federalnyye okruga) are groupings of the federal subjects of Russia. Federal districts are not provisioned by the Constitution of Russia and are not the constituent units of the country, but exist purely for the convenience of governing and operation by federal government agencies. Each district includes several federal subjects and each federal district has a presidential envoy titled a Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District.

The federal districts and positions of Plenipotentiary Representatives were originally created in 2000 by Presidential Decree "to ensure implementation of the President of the Russian Federation of its constitutional powers".[1] Plenipotentiary Representatives are appointed by the President and are employees of the Presidential Administration.

List of federal districts

Map of Russian districts, 2018-11-04
Federal district[2] Establishment
date
Area
(km²)[3]
Population
(2010 census)
Population density
(per km2)
HDI
(2017)[4]
Nominal GDP (2017)
(RUB/USD)[5]
GDP per capita (2017)[5] Federal
subjects
Administrative
center
Presidential
plenipotentiary envoy
Continent
Central May 18, 2000 650,200 38,438,600 59 0.838 26,164 billion
($448B)
666,426 ₽
($11423)
18 Moscow Igor Shchyogolev Europe
Northwestern May 18, 2000 1,687,000 13,583,800 8 0.827 8,195 billion
($140B)
588,507 
($10088)
11 Saint Petersburg Alexander Beglov
Southern[a][6] May 18, 2000 427,800 16,141,100[b] 33 0.793 5,362 billion
($92B)
326,244 ₽
($5592)
8 Rostov-on-Don Vladimir Ustinov
North Caucasian January 19, 2010 170,400 9,496,800 55 0.785 1,865 billion
($32B)
190,285 ₽
($3262)
7 Pyatigorsk Alexander Matovnikov
Volga May 18, 2000 1,037,000 29,900,400 29 0.797 11,027 billion
($189B)
372,654 ₽
($6388)
14 Nizhny Novgorod Igor Komarov
Ural May 18, 2000 1,818,500 12,082,700 7 0.833 10,678 billion
($183B)
864,540 ₽
($14819)
6 Yekaterinburg Nikolay Tsukanov Asia
Siberian May 18, 2000 4,361,800 17,178,298 4 0.788 7,758 billion
($133B)
401,809 ₽
($6887)
10 Novosibirsk Sergey Menyaylo
Far Eastern May 18, 2000 6,952,600 8,371,257 1 0.801 3,878 billion
($66B)
628,172 ₽
($10767)
11 Vladivostok Yury Trutnev

Source:[8]

  1. ^ Includes Crimea, annexed by Russia in 2014; recognized as a part of Ukraine by most of the international community.
  2. ^ Population figures from the Crimean Census in 2014.[7] Crimea was annexed by Russia in 2014, after the 2010 Russian Census.

History

President Vladimir Putin established seven federal districts in May 2000.[9]

On January 19, 2010 the new North Caucasian Federal District split from the Southern Federal District.[8]

On March 2014, after the Russian military intervention in and annexation of Crimea, the Crimean Federal District was established.[10] The legality of this annexation is disputed by an overwhelming majority of countries.[11] On July 28, 2016 the Crimean Federal District was abolished and merged into the Southern Federal District in order to improve governance.[12]

In November 2018, Buryatia and Zabaykalsky Krai were removed from the Siberian Federal District and added to the Far Eastern Federal District in accordance with a decree issued by Putin.[13] The Administrative Center of the Far Eastern Federal District was moved from Khabarovsk to Vladivostok in December 2018.[14]

Presidential plenipotentiary envoys

See also

References

  1. ^ УКАЗ Президента РФ от 13.05.2000 N 849 "О ПОЛНОМОЧНОМ ПРЕДСТАВИТЕЛЕ ПРЕЗИДЕНТА РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ В ФЕДЕРАЛЬНОМ ОКРУГЕ". Graph.document.kremlin.ru (2000-05-13). Retrieved on 2013-08-20.
  2. ^ "Russia: Federal Districts and Major Cities". City Population. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  3. ^ "1.1. ОСНОВНЫЕ СОЦИАЛЬНО-ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ ПОКАЗАТЕЛИ в 2014 г." [MAIN SOCIOECONOMIC INDICATORS 2014]. Regions of Russia. Socioeconomic indicators - 2015 (in Russian). Russian Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
  4. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-11-04.
  5. ^ a b http://mrd.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/mrd/ru/statistics/grp/
  6. ^ Putin signs set of laws on reunification of Crimea, Sevastopol with Russia
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 4, 2015. Retrieved February 13, 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ a b Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  9. ^ "The Russian Federation". BackGround Places. Russia Profile. Archived from the original on November 6, 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  10. ^ "В России создан Крымский федеральный округ". RBC. March 21, 2014.
  11. ^ "NATO Secretary-General: Russia's Annexation of Crimea Is Illegal and Illegitimate". Brookings. March 19, 2014. Retrieved September 29, 2014.
  12. ^ "Крымский федеральный округ включен в состав Южного федерального округа" (in Russian). Interfax. 28 July 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  13. ^ "Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации". publication.pravo.gov.ru. Retrieved 2018-11-04.
  14. ^ meduza.io https://meduza.io/news/2018/12/13/putin-perenes-stolitsu-dalnevostochnogo-federalnogo-okruga-vo-vladivostok. Retrieved 2018-12-13. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  15. ^ a b c "Игорь Холманских уволен с поста полпреда президента в Уральском федеральном округе" (in Russian). Meduza. 26 June 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  16. ^ "Владимир Путин назначил калининградского губернатора Николая Цуканова полпредом в Северо-Западном федеральном округе" (in Russian). Echo of Moscow. 28 July 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
  17. ^ Ульянова, Жанна; Яна Милюкова (August 31, 2013). Дальнему Востоку подобрали нового управленца (in Russian). Gazeta.ru. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
  18. ^ "Путин освободил Меняйло от должности губернатора Севастополя" (in Russian). Echo of Moscow. 28 July 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016.

External links

Central Federal District

The Central Federal District (Russian: Центра́льный федера́льный о́круг, tr. Tsentralny federalny okrug, IPA: [tsɨnˈtralʲnɨj fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnɨj ˈokrʊk]) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. The word "Central" has a political and historical meaning, being the core of the Russian state and its predecessor, the Grand Duchy of Muscovy. Geographically, the district is situated in the extreme west of present-day Russia; although it can be considered as the central region of European Russia. The district covers an area of 650,200 square kilometers (251,000 sq mi), and recorded a population of 38,427,537 (81.3% urban) in the 2010 Census. The Presidential Envoy to the Central Federal District is Igor Shchyogolev.

Central Russia

Central Russia is, broadly, the various areas in European Russia. Historically, the area of Central Russia varied based on the purpose for which it is being used. It may, for example, refer to European Russia, except the North Caucasus (according to the definition of Europe accepted in Russia, the Caucasus is not a part of Europe), or to the whole of European Russia.

There is also a Central economic region of the Russian Federation, and a Central Federal District of the Russian Federation.

Crimean Federal District

The Crimean Federal District (Russian: Кры́мский федера́льный о́круг) was a federal district of Russia. It was established on March 21, 2014 after the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. The federal district included both the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol, both recognized as part of Ukraine by most of the international community. Ukraine considers the area, along with the areas of Lugansk People's Republic and Donetsk People's Republic, as temporarily occupied territories.Oleg Belaventsev was appointed the presidential envoy, and the administrative centre of the federal district was Simferopol.

On 28 July 2016, the Crimean Federal District, which during its existence was by far the smallest of Russia's federal districts, was abolished and merged into the Southern Federal District, in order to "increase the efficiency of the federal state bodies' work".

Dixy

DIXY (Дикси) is Russia's third largest food retail company. The Moscow-based company and its subsidiaries specialize in sale of food and everyday products. DIXY is a subsidiary of Mercury Group.

As of January 2014, the company has 1489 neighborhood stores, supermarkets and convenience stores in Moscow, St. Petersburg and three federal districts of Russia: Central, Northwest and Urals and also in the Kaliningrad Oblast, including:

1385 Dixy stores,

11 Minimart stores,

19 Megamart stores,

1 Cash store,

10 Dömev stores,

32 Viktoriya stores,

31 stores Viktoriya Supermarket.The company was founded in 1992 in Saint Petersburg and began its expansion in 1999 when it opened a store in Moscow and from there began to expand to other regions of the country. It operates three brands.

DIXY has 8 distribution centers that supply its stores in the key regions and also owns a fleet of trucks, which optimizes transportation costs and ensures prompt deliveries to stores.

The DIXY main competitors are X5 Retail Group, Magnit, Metro Group, Auchan and others.

E4 Group

E4 group is a Russian engineering company, one of the biggest in the Russian Federation. With a presence in all federal districts of Russia, it has a total of 20,000 employees (up to 30,000 with affiliated firms), of which over 100 are PhDs.

The current CEO of E4 Group is Danil Nikitin.

European Russia

European Russia is the western part of the Russian Federation, which is part of Eastern Europe. With a population of 110 million people, European Russia has about 77% of Russia's population, but covers less than 25% of Russia's territory. European Russia includes Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the two largest cities in Russia.

The boundaries between continents are almost exclusively determined by geography, with the one exception being that the eastern boundary of Europe is generally considered, by convention, to run along the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caucasus Mountains, the Turkish Straits. The southern part of European Russia has some small areas that lie geographically south of the Caucasus Mountain range, and therefore are geographically in Asia; this territory includes the city of Sochi.

The other, eastern, part of the Russian Federation forms part of northern Asia, and is known as North Asia, also called Asian Russia or Siberia. Europe also forms a subcontinent within Eurasia,

making all of Russia a part of the Eurasian continent.

Far Eastern Federal District

The Far Eastern Federal District (Russian: Дальневосто́чный федера́льный о́круг, Dalnevostochny federalny okrug) is the largest of the eight federal districts of Russia but the least populated, with a population of 8,371,257 (??% urban) according to the 2010 Census. The entire federal district lies within the easternmost part of Asia and covers the territory of the Russian Far East. In November 2018, Buryatia and Zabaykalsky Krai were added to the federal district. The seat of the Far Eastern Federal District was moved from Khabarovsk to Vladivostok in December 2018.

List of Russian federal districts by GDP

This is a list of Russian federal districts by GDP measures counted in PPP or Nominal.

Moscow Internet Exchange

MSK-IX (Moscow Internet eXchange) is an Internet eXchange Point (IXP) with headquarters in Moscow, Russia. With over 500 connected networks and 2,8Tbps of peak traffic (October 2017), MSK-IX is one of the world's largest IXPs. MSK-IX operates Internet eXchanges (IXes) in 9 cities: Moscow, St.Petersburg, Rostov-on-Don, Stavropol, Samara, Kazan, Ekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Vladivostok and maintains an access PoP in Riga (Latvia). MSK-IX operates a distributed DNS platform, which provides authoritative name servers for the country-code top-level domains (ccTLDs) .RU and .РФ for Russia.

North Caucasian Federal District

North Caucasian Federal District (Russian: Се́веро-Кавка́зский федера́льный о́круг, Severo-Kavkazsky federalny okrug) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. It is located in extreme southern Russia, in the geographical area of the North Caucasus. The federal district was split from Southern Federal District on January 19, 2010.The population of the federal subjects comprising the federal district was 9,428,826 according to the 2010 Census, living in an area of 170,400 square kilometers (65,800 sq mi).The current Envoy is Oleg Belaventsev.

Northwestern Federal District

Northwestern Federal District (Russian: Се́веро-За́падный федера́льный о́круг, Severo-Zapadny federalny okrug [ˈsʲevʲɪrə ˈzapədnɨj fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnɨj ˈokrʊk]) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. It consists of the northern part of European Russia. Its population was 13,616,057 (83.5% urban) according to the 2010 Census, living in an area of 1,687,000 square kilometers (651,000 sq mi). The current Envoy to the Northwestern Federal District is undecided since October 3, 2018 when former Envoy Alexander Beglov was removed from the position and made acting Governor of Saint Petersburg.

Novosibirsk TB Research Institute

Novosibirsk Tuberculosis Research Institute (NTRI) (Russian: Новосибирский научно-исследовательский институт туберкулёза (ННИИТ- [nnʲɪˈit])) - is a Federal State Budgetary Institution of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation and it specializes in the research and treatment of tuberculosis. NTRI provides the organization of TB care to the population in the regions of the Siberian and Far Eastern Federal Districts of Russia.

Presidential Administration of Russia

The Presidential Administration of Russia (also known as Staff of Russia’s president, Presidential Executive Office, in Russian: Администрация Президента Российской Федерации) is the executive office of Russia's president created by a decree of Boris Yeltsin on 19 July 1991 as an institution supporting the activity of the president (then Yeltsin) and vice-president (then Aleksandr Rutskoy, in 1993 the position was abolished) of Russian SFSR (now Russian Federation), as well as deliberative bodies attached to the president, including the Security Council.

The chief of the presidential administration, his deputies, heads of main directorates and services and their deputies are appointed by the President of Russia and don't need to be approved by any other government body. Other staff is appointed by the chief of the presidential administration.

Siberian Federal District

Siberian Federal District (Russian: Сиби́рский федера́льный о́круг, Sibirsky federalny okrug) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. Its population was 17,178,298 (??% urban) according to the 2010 Census, living in an area of 4,361,800 square kilometers (1,684,100 sq mi). The entire federal district lies within the continent of Asia.

The district was created by presidential decree on May 13, 2000 and covers around 30% of the total land area of Russia. In November 2018, Buryatia and Zabaykalsky Krai were removed from the Siberian Federal District and added to the Far Eastern Federal District in accordance with a decree issued by Russian President Vladimir Putin.

Southern Federal District

The Southern Federal District (Russian: Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг, tr. Yuzhny federalny okrug, IPA: [ˈjuʐnɨj fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnɨj ˈokrʊk]) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. Its territory lies mostly on the Pontic-Caspian steppe of southern Russia. The Southern Federal District shares borders with Ukraine and the Azov Sea and the Black Sea in the west and Kazakhstan and Caspian Sea in the east. The Southern Federal District was originally called the North Caucasian Federal District when it was founded in May 2000, but was renamed for political reasons on June 21, 2000. On January 19, 2010, the Southern Federal District was split in two, with its former southern territories forming a new North Caucasian Federal District.On July 28, 2016 Crimean Federal District (which contains the Republic of Crimea and the Federal city of Sevastopol) was abolished and merged into Southern Federal District in order to "improve the governance". Crimean Federal District was established on March 21, 2014 after the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. The federal district includes both the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol, both recognized as part of Ukraine by most of the international community. Ukraine considers the area, along with the areas of Luhansk People's Republic and Donetsk People's Republic, as temporarily occupied territories.Its population was 13,854,334 (62.4% urban) according to the 2010 Census, living in an area of 420,900 square kilometers (162,500 sq mi).

Southern Russia

Southern Russia or the South of Russia (Russian: Юг России, Yug Rossii) is a colloquial term for the southernmost geographic portion of European Russia, generally covering the Southern Federal District and the North Caucasian Federal District.The term does not conform to any official areas of the Russian Federation as designated by the Russian Classification on Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO).

Subdivisions of Russia

Russia is divided into several types and levels of subdivisions.

Ural Federal District

Ural Federal District (Russian: Ура́льский федера́льный о́круг, Uralsky federalny okrug) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. Its population was 12,080,523 (79.9% urban) according to the 2010 Census.The district was established on May 13, 2000 by a decree of the President of Russia. It is located at the border of the European and Asian parts of Russia. The administrative center of the district is the city of Yekaterinburg.

The district contributes 18% to Russia’s Gross Regional Product (GRP), although its population is only 8.5% of the Russian total.

Volga Federal District

Volga (Privolzhsky) Federal District (Russian: Приво́лжский федера́льный о́круг, Privolzhsky federalny okrug) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. It forms the southeastern part of European Russia. Its population was 29,899,699 (70.8% urban) according to the 2010 Census, living on an area of 1,038,000 square kilometers (401,000 sq mi). Igor Komarov was appointed the federal district's Presidential Envoy on 18 September 2018.

The historical center of the district is known as the Idel-Ural region.

Sovereign states
States with
limited recognition
Dependencies and
other territories
Sovereign states
States with limited
recognition
Dependencies and
other entities

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.