A federal district is a type of administrative division of a federation, usually under the direct control of a federal government and organized sometimes with a single municipal body. Federal districts often include capital districts, and they exist in various countries worldwide.
The seat of the U.S. federal government in Washington is located in a federal district called the District of Columbia. Other federally administered areas that are within one of the 50 states, but not under its jurisdiction are called federal enclaves.
Additionally, the U.S. federal court system divides each state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico, into one or more federal judicial districts. A United States district court and a bankruptcy court are located in each. There are also regional federal judicial circuits, each consisting of a group of states (except for the District of Columbia Circuit, which consists of the federal district, and the Federal Circuit, whose jurisdiction is based on specific subject matter instead of geography); Puerto Rico and the United States territorial courts are also assigned to circuits. Each circuit has a United States court of appeals.
The Federal Capital Territory, is a federal territory in central Nigeria. Abuja, the capital city of Nigeria, is located in this territory. The Federal Capital Territory was formed in 1976 from parts of the states of Nasarawa, Niger and Kogi. It is within in the Middle Belt region of the country. It is administered by the Federal Capital Territory Administration, headed by a minister appointed by the President.
In Malaysia, the term Federal Territory (Malay: Wilayah Persekutuan) is used for the three territories governed directly by the federal government, namely Kuala Lumpur (national capital), Putrajaya (federal government administrative centre) and Labuan (international offshore financial centre).
In India, the term Union Territory is used for the seven territories governed directly by the central government with its own Chief minister and Lieutenant Governor. They include — Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Delhi, Lakshadweep and Puducherry. Of these Delhi and Puducherry possess partial statehood with their own elected chief ministers.
Russia has three cities of federal significance, established by the Constitution — Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Sevastopol (de jure part of Ukraine, occupied by Russia). Each city is treated as a separate federal subject, and has its own legislative body. Russia has federal districts, but these form an additional administrative layer between the federation government and the federal subjects, rather than being a distinct type of jurisdiction.
Brasília (, Portuguese: [bɾaˈziljɐ]) is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District. The city is located atop the Brazilian highlands in the country's center-western region. It was founded on April 21, 1960, to serve as the new national capital. Brasília is estimated to be Brazil's 3rd most populous city. Among major Latin American cities, Brasília has the highest GDP per capita.Brasília was planned and developed by Lúcio Costa, Oscar Niemeyer and Joaquim Cardozo in 1956 to move the capital from Rio de Janeiro to a more central location. The landscape architect was Roberto Burle Marx. The city's design divides it into numbered blocks as well as sectors for specified activities, such as the Hotel Sector, the Banking Sector and the Embassy Sector. Brasília was chosen as a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its modernist architecture and uniquely artistic urban planning. It has also been named "City of Design" by UNESCO in October 2017 and has been part of the Creative Cities Network since then.All three branches of Brazil's federal government are centered in the city: executive, legislative, and judiciary. Brasília also hosts 124 foreign embassies. The city's international airport connects it to all other major Brazilian cities and many international destinations, and is the third busiest airport in Brazil. Brasília is the most populous Portuguese-speaking capital city. It was one of the main host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and hosted some of the football matches during the 2016 Summer Olympic Games; it also hosted the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup.
The city has a unique status in Brazil, as it is an administrative division rather than a legal municipality like other cities in Brazil. Although Brasília is used as a synonym for the Federal District through synecdoche, the Federal District is composed of 31 administrative regions, only one of which is the area of the originally planned city, also called Plano Piloto. The rest of the Federal District is considered by IBGE to make up Brasília's metro area.Central Federal District
The Central Federal District (Russian: Центра́льный федера́льный о́круг, tr. Tsentralny federalny okrug, IPA: [tsɨnˈtralʲnɨj fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnɨj ˈokrʊk]) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. The word "Central" has a political and historical meaning, being the core of the Russian state and its predecessor, the Grand Duchy of Muscovy. Geographically, the district is situated in the extreme west of present-day Russia; although it can be considered as the central region of European Russia. The district covers an area of 650,200 square kilometers (251,000 sq mi), and recorded a population of 38,427,537 (81.3% urban) in the 2010 Census. The Presidential Envoy to the Central Federal District is Igor Shchyogolev.European Russia
European Russia is the western part of the Russian Federation, which is part of Eastern Europe. With a population of 110 million people, European Russia has about 77% of Russia's population, but covers less than 25% of Russia's territory. European Russia includes Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the two largest cities in Russia.
The eastern boundary of Europe is generally considered, by convention, to run along the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caucasus Mountains, the Turkish Straits. The southern part of Russia has some small areas that lie geographically south of the Caucasus Mountain range, and therefore are geographically in Asia; this territory includes the city of Sochi.
The other, eastern, part of the Russian Federation forms part of northern Asia, and is known as North Asia, also called Asian Russia or Siberia. Europe also forms a subcontinent within Eurasia,
making all of Russia a part of the Eurasian continent.Far Eastern Federal District
The Far Eastern Federal District (Russian: Дальневосто́чный федера́льный о́круг, Dalnevostochny federalny okrug) is the largest of the eight federal districts of Russia but the least populated, with a population of 8,371,257 (75.5% urban) according to the 2010 Census. The entire federal district lies within the easternmost part of Asia and covers the territory of the Russian Far East.Federal District (Brazil)
The Federal District (Portuguese: Distrito Federal [dʒisˈtɾitu fedeˈɾaw]) is one of 27 federative units of Brazil. Located in the Center-West Region, it is the smallest Brazilian federal unit and the only one that has no municipalities, being divided into 31 administrative regions, totaling an area of 5,779,999 km². In its territory, is located the federal capital of Brazil, Brasília, that is also the seat of government of the Federal District.Federal districts of Russia
The federal districts (Russian: федера́льные округа́, federalnyye okruga) are groupings of the federal subjects of Russia. Federal districts are not provisioned by the Constitution of Russia and are not the constituent units of the country, but exist purely for the convenience of governing and operation by federal government agencies. Each district includes several federal subjects and each federal district has a presidential envoy titled a Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District.
The federal districts and positions of Plenipotentiary Representatives were originally created in 2000 by Presidential Decree "to ensure implementation of the President of the Russian Federation of its constitutional powers". Plenipotentiary Representatives are appointed by the President and are employees of the Presidential Administration.LXII Legislature of the Mexican Congress
The LXII Legislature of the Congress of Mexico met from September 1, 2012, to August 31, 2015. All members of both the lower and upper houses of the Congress were elected in the elections of July 2012.LXI Legislature of the Mexican Congress
The LXI Legislature of the Congress of Mexico met from September 1, 2009, to August 31, 2012. Members of the upper house of the Congress were selected in the elections of July 2006 while members of the lower house of the Congress were selected in the elections of July 2009.Mexico City
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Spanish: Ciudad de México, American Spanish: [sjuˈða(ð) ðe ˈmexiko] (listen); abbreviated as CDMX, Nahuatl languages: Āltepētl Mēxihco), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. It is one of the most important cultural and financial centres in the Americas. It is located in the Valley of Mexico (Valle de México), a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters (7,350 ft). The city has 16 boroughs.
The 2009 population for the city proper was approximately 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers (573 sq mi). According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere, the eleventh-largest agglomeration (2017), and the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world.Greater Mexico City has a GDP of $411 billion in 2011, making Greater Mexico City one of the most productive urban areas in the world. The city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, and the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of total national GDP. If it were an independent country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, five times as large as Costa Rica and about the same size as Peru.Mexico's capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Native Americans, the other being Quito, Ecuador. The city was originally built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, which was almost completely destroyed in the 1521 siege of Tenochtitlan and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, and as of 1585, it was officially known as Ciudad de México (Mexico City). Mexico City was the political, administrative, and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824.
After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were finally given the right to elect both a Head of Government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997. Ever since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD) has controlled both of them. The city has several progressive policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, and same-sex marriage.
On January 29, 2016, it ceased to be the Federal District (Spanish: Distrito Federal or D.F.), and is now officially known as Ciudad de México (or CDMX), with a greater degree of autonomy. A clause in the Constitution of Mexico, however, prevents it from becoming a state, as it is the seat of power in the country, unless the capital of the country were relocated elsewhere.North Caucasian Federal District
North Caucasian Federal District (Russian: Се́веро-Кавка́зский федера́льный о́круг, Severo-Kavkazsky federalny okrug) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. It is located in extreme southern Russia, in the geographical area of the North Caucasus. The federal district was split from Southern Federal District on January 19, 2010.The population of the federal subjects comprising the federal district was 9,428,826 according to the 2010 Census, living in an area of 170,400 square kilometers (65,800 sq mi).The current Envoy is Oleg Belaventsev.Northwestern Federal District
Northwestern Federal District (Russian: Се́веро-За́падный федера́льный о́круг, Severo-Zapadny federalny okrug [ˈsʲevʲɪrə ˈzapədnɨj fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnɨj ˈokrʊk]) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. It consists of the northern part of European Russia. Its population was 13,616,057 (83.5% urban) according to the 2010 Census, living in an area of 1,687,000 square kilometers (651,000 sq mi). The current Envoy to the Northwestern Federal District is Alexander Gutsan, who was appointed to the post after previously serving as Deputy Prosecutor General. He replaced former Envoy Alexander Beglov, who was removed from the position and made acting Governor of Saint Petersburg.Rostov Oblast
Rostov Oblast (Russian: Росто́вская о́бласть, tr. Rostovskaya oblast, IPA: [rɐˈstofskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ]) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located in the Southern Federal District. The oblast has an area of 100,800 square kilometers (38,900 sq mi) and a population of 4,277,976 (2010 Census), making it the sixth most populous federal subject in Russia. Its administrative center is the city of Rostov-on-Don, which also became the administrative center of the Southern Federal District in 2002.Siberian Federal District
Siberian Federal District (Russian: Сиби́рский федера́льный о́круг, Sibirsky federalny okrug) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. Its population was 17,178,298 (??% urban) according to the 2010 Census, living in an area of 4,361,800 square kilometers (1,684,100 sq mi). The entire federal district lies within the continent of Asia.
The district was created by presidential decree on May 13, 2000 and covers around 30% of the total land area of Russia. In November 2018, Buryatia and Zabaykalsky Krai were removed from the Siberian Federal District and added to the Far Eastern Federal District in accordance with a decree issued by Russian President Vladimir Putin.Southern Federal District
The Southern Federal District (Russian: Ю́жный федера́льный о́круг, tr. Yuzhny federalny okrug, IPA: [ˈjuʐnɨj fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnɨj ˈokrʊk]) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. Its territory lies mostly on the Pontic-Caspian steppe of southern Russia. The Southern Federal District shares borders with Ukraine, the Azov Sea, and the Black Sea in the west, and Kazakhstan and the Caspian Sea in the east. The Southern Federal District was originally called the North Caucasian Federal District when it was founded in May 2000, but was renamed for political reasons on June 21, 2000. On January 19, 2010, the Southern Federal District was split in two, with its former southern territories forming a new North Caucasian Federal District.On July 28, 2016 Crimean Federal District (which contains the Republic of Crimea and the Federal city of Sevastopol) was abolished and merged into Southern Federal District in order to "improve the governance". Crimean Federal District was established on March 21, 2014 after the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation. The federal district includes both the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol, both recognized as part of Ukraine by most of the international community. Ukraine considers the area, along with the areas of Luhansk People's Republic and Donetsk People's Republic, as temporarily occupied territories.Its population was 13,854,334 (62.4% urban) according to the 2010 Census, living in an area of 420,900 square kilometers (162,500 sq mi).States of Brazil
The Federative Republic of Brazil is a union of 27 federated units (Portuguese: Unidades Federativas, UF): 26 states (estados) and one federal district (distrito federal). The states are generally based on historical, conventional borders which have developed over time. The Federal District cannot be divided into municipalities, according to the Brazilian Constitution, the Federal District assumes the same constitutional and legal powers, attributions and obligations of the states and municipalities, instead, it is divided by administrative regions.
The codes given below are defined in ISO 3166-2:BR.United States district court
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. Both civil and criminal cases are filed in the district court, which is a court of law, equity, and admiralty. There is a United States bankruptcy court associated with each United States district court. Each federal judicial district has at least one courthouse, and many districts have more than one. The formal name of a district court is "the United States District Court for" the name of the district—for example, the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri.
In contrast to the Supreme Court, which was established by Article III of the Constitution, the district courts were established by Congress. There is no constitutional requirement that district courts exist at all. Indeed, after the ratification of the Constitution, some opponents of a strong federal judiciary urged that, outside jurisdictions under direct federal control, like Washington, D.C., and the territories, the federal court system be limited to the Supreme Court, which would hear appeals from state courts. This view did not prevail, however, and the first Congress created the district court system that is still in place today.
There is at least one judicial district for each state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The insular areas of Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the United States Virgin Islands each have one territorial court; these courts are called "district courts" and exercise the same jurisdiction as district courts, but differ from district courts in that territorial courts are Article IV courts, with judges who serve ten-year terms rather than the lifetime tenure of judges of Article III courts, such as the district court judges.There are 89 districts in the 50 states, with a total of 94 districts including territories.United States federal judge
In the United States, the title of federal judge means a judge (pursuant to Article Three of the United States Constitution) appointed by the president of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate pursuant to the Appointments Clause in Article II of the United States Constitution.
In addition to the Supreme Court of the United States, whose existence and some aspects of whose jurisdiction are beyond the constitutional power of Congress to alter, Congress has established 13 courts of appeals (also called "circuit courts") with appellate jurisdiction over different regions of the United States, and 94 United States district courts.
Every judge appointed to such a court may be categorized as a federal judge; such positions include the chief justice and associate justices of the Supreme Court, circuit judges of the courts of appeals, and district judges of the United States district courts. All of these judges described thus far are referred to sometimes as "Article III judges" because they exercise the judicial power vested in the judicial branch of the federal government by Article III of the U.S. Constitution. In addition, judges of the Court of International Trade exercise judicial power pursuant to Article III.
Other judges serving in the federal courts, including magistrate judges and bankruptcy judges, are also sometimes referred to as "federal judges"; however, they are neither appointed by the president nor confirmed by the Senate, and their power derives from Article I instead.Volga Federal District
Volga (Privolzhsky) Federal District (Russian: Приво́лжский федера́льный о́круг, Privolzhsky federalny okrug) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia. It forms the southeastern part of European Russia. Its population was 29,899,699 (70.8% urban) according to the 2010 Census, living on an area of 1,038,000 square kilometers (401,000 sq mi). Igor Komarov was appointed the federal district's Presidential Envoy on 18 September 2018.
The historical center of the district is known as the Idel-Ural region.Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, the first president of the United States and a Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is also one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.The signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U.S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U.S. Congress, and the District is therefore not a part of any state. The states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria. The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land originally ceded by Virginia; in 1871, it created a single municipal government for the remaining portion of the District.
Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents.All three branches of the U.S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress (legislative), president (executive), and the U.S. Supreme Court (judicial). Washington is home to many national monuments, and museums, primarily situated on or around the National Mall. The city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profits, lobbying groups, and professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, and the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress maintains supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws. D.C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961.
Designations for types of administrative territorial entities
1 Used by ten or more countries or having derived terms. Historical derivations in italics.