A city of federal importance (Russian: город федерального значения, tr. gorod federalnogo znacheniya) or federal city in Russia is a city that has a status of both an inhabited locality and a constituent federal subject.
The Russian Federation is divided into eighty-five federal subjects, three of which are federal cities. Two of them are the largest cities in the country: Moscow, the national capital; and Saint Petersburg, an important port on the Baltic Sea. The third and newest federal city, Sevastopol, is in the disputed region of Crimea, which was annexed by the Russian Federation in 2014 but is recognised as Ukrainian territory by most of the international community.
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City status is a symbolic and legal designation given by a national or subnational government. A municipality may receive city status because it already has the qualities of a city, or because it has some special purpose.
Historically, city status was a privilege granted by royal letters of patent. The status would allow markets and/or foreign trade, in contrast to towns. Sovereigns could establish cities by decree, e.g. Helsinki, regardless of what was in the location beforehand. Also, with the establishment of federal governments, the new capital could be established from scratch, e.g. Brasília, without going through organic growth from a village to a town.
British city status was historically conferred on settlements with a diocesan cathedral; in more recent times towns apply to receive city status at times of national celebration. In the United States city can be used for much smaller settlements.
The Government of China in 1982–1997 upgraded many counties to cities by decree, thereby increasing their city count from 250 to more than 650 during this period. Almost 15% of the counties in China became cities. The new "cities" may include large rural areas as well as urban areas. The upgrade was considered desirable by local governments because the new status provides additional powers of taxation and administration, the right to expand the size of government, and an increase in the proportion of land which could be converted from agriculture to buildings.Government of Moscow
The Government of Moscow (Russian: Правительство Москвы) is the highest executive body of state authority of Moscow. The Government of Moscow is headed by the highest official of the city of Moscow, i.e. the Mayor of Moscow.The members of the Government of Moscow are the Mayor of Moscow, the Deputy Mayors of Moscow in the Moscow Government and the Moscow Government ministers. The Government of Moscow issues orders (orders of the Government of Moscow) that are signed by the Mayor of Moscow. The Government of Moscow has legal personality. Structure and functioning of the Government of Moscow are established by the law of Moscow, adopted by Moscow City Duma.According to the Constitution of the Russian Federation, Moscow is an independent federal subject of the Russian Federation, the so-called city of federal importance.Judiciary of Russia
The Judiciary of Russia interprets and applies the law of Russia. It is defined under the Constitution and law with a hierarchical structure with the Constitutional Court, Supreme Court, and Supreme Court of Arbitration at the apex. The district courts are the primary criminal trial courts, and the regional courts are the primary appellate courts. The judiciary is governed by the All-Russian Congress of Judges and its Council of Judges, and its management is aided by the Judicial Department of the Supreme Court, the Judicial Qualification Collegia, the Ministry of Justice, and the various courts' chairpersons. And although there are many officers of the court, including jurors, the Prosecutor General remains the most powerful component of the Russian judicial system.
The judiciary faces many problems and a widespread lack of confidence but has also made much progress in recent times. There have been serious violations of the accepted separation of powers doctrine, systematic attempts to undermine jury trials, problems with access to justice, problems with court infrastructure, financial support, and corruption. But the judiciary has also seen a fairer and more efficient administration, a strengthening of the rule of law, moves towards a more adversarial system, and increased utilization of the justice system under Putin.Moscow
Moscow (, in US mainly: ; Russian: Москва́, tr. Moskvá, IPA: [mɐskˈva] (listen)) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities.
Moscow is the major political, economic, cultural, and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city (both by population and by area) entirely on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, and the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, and is also one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index.
Moscow is the northernmost and coldest megacity on Earth. It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe; the Federation Tower, the second-tallest skyscraper in Europe; and the Moscow International Business Center. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers (421 to 970 sq mi), resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area; it also gained an additional population of 233,000 people.Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city. The city is well known for its architecture, particularly its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012.
The city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress that is today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are also one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament (the State Duma and the Federation Council) also sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists, scientists, and sports figures and because of the presence of museums, academic and political institutions and theatres.
The city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, and the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 222 stations.Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome (Третий Рим), the Whitestone One (Белокаменная), the First Throne (Первопрестольная), the Forty Soroks (Сорок Сороков) ("sorok" meaning both "forty, a great many" and "a district or parish" in Old Russian).
Moscow is also one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" (moskvich) for male or "москвичка" (moskvichka) for female, rendered in English as Muscovite.
The name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK" (МСК in Russian).Outline of Russia
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Russia.
The Russian Federation, commonly known as Russia, is the most extensive country in the world, covering 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), more than an eighth of the Earth’s land area. Russia is a transcontinental country extending across the whole of northern Asia and 40% of Europe; it spans 11 time zones and incorporates a great range of environments and landforms. With 143 million people, Russia is the ninth most populated country. Russia has the world's largest mineral and energy resources, has the world's largest forest reserves, and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the Earth's fresh liquid water.Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk] (listen)) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015). An important Russian port on the Baltic Sea, it has a status of a federal subject (a federal city).
Situated on the Neva River, at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea, it was founded by Tsar Peter the Great on 27 May [O.S. 16 May] 1703. During the periods 1713–1728 and 1732–1918, Saint Petersburg was the capital of Imperial Russia. In 1918, the central government bodies moved to Moscow, which is about 625 km (388 miles) to the south-east.
Saint Petersburg is often considered Russia's cultural capital. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is home to the Hermitage, one of the largest art museums in the world. Many foreign consulates, international corporations, banks and businesses have offices in Saint Petersburg.Sevastopol
Sevastopol (; Russian: Севасто́поль; Ukrainian: Севастополь; Crimean Tatar: Акъяр, Aqyar) is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port. Since annexing Crimea in 2014, the Russian Federation has administered Sevastopol as a federal city. Nevertheless, Ukraine and most of the UN member countries continue to regard Sevastopol as a city with special status within Ukraine. The population is made up of mostly Russians with small amounts of Ukrainians and Tatars.
Sevastopol has a population of 393,304 (2014 Census), concentrated mostly near the Sevastopol Bay and surrounding areas. The location and navigability of the city's harbours have made Sevastopol a strategically important port and naval base throughout history. The city has been a home to the Russian Black Sea Fleet, which is why it was considered as a separate city in Crimea of significant military importance and was once operated by the Soviet Union as a closed city.
Although relatively small at 864 square kilometres (334 sq mi), Sevastopol's unique naval and maritime features have been the basis for a robust economy. The city enjoys mild winters and moderate warm summers; characteristics that help make it a popular seaside resort and tourist destination, mainly for visitors from the former Soviet republics. The city is also an important centre for marine biology research. In particular, dolphins have been studied and trained in the city by the military since the end of World War II.Soviet of Nationalities (Supreme Soviet of Russia)
The Soviet of the Nationalities (Russian: Совет Национальностей) was one of the two chambers of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR (Russian Federation). In 1990–1993 it consisted of 126 deputies. The Soviet of the Republic was established in 1989, as one of the chambers of the formerly unicameral Supreme Soviet, and elected in 1990.
Soviet of Nationalities was elected by and from among the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation on the following basis:
three deputies from each republic
one deputy from each autonomous oblast
one deputy from each autonomous district
63 deputies from krais, oblasts and federal cities of Russia.On 1 November 1991 the Congress passed the following addition to the Constitution:
If it's impossible to represent republics of the Russian SFSR, autonomous oblast, autonomous districts, krais and oblasts in Soviet of Nationalities of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR, then deputies from the national districts may propose deputies from territorial districts to be included into Soviet of Nationalities.
This was intended to make chambers equally sized, because there are not enough deputies from national districts.
On 21 September 1993 the Soviet of Nationalities was disbanded by President of Russia, together with the Supreme Soviet and the Congress of People's Deputies. This got actual force after the armed siege of parliament.