The Federal Security Agency (FSA) was an independent agency of the United States government established in 1939 pursuant to the Reorganization Act of 1939. For a time, the agency oversaw food and drug safety as well as education funding and the administration of public health programs and the Social Security old-age pension plan.
The Reorganization Act of 1939 authorized the President of the United States to devise a plan to reorganize the executive branch of government. Pursuant to the Act, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued "Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1939" on April 25, 1939. The reorganization plan was designed to reduce the number of agencies reporting directly to the president.
The reorganization plan created the Federal Security Agency. Included in the FSA were the Social Security Board, the U.S. Public Health Service, the Food and Drug Administration, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Office of Education (later the United States Department of Education), the National Youth Administration and a number of other agencies. Its first director was Paul V. McNutt. Secretly, the FSA was also a cover agency from 1942 to 1944 for the War Research Service, a secret program to develop chemical and biological weapons.
The Federal Security Agency (FSA) was established on July 1, 1939, under the Reorganization Act of 1939, P.L. 76-19. The objective was to bring together in one agency all federal programs in the fields of health, education, and social security. The first Federal Security Administrator was Paul V. McNutt.
The new agency originally consisted of the following major components: (1) Office of the Administrator, (2) Public Health Service (PHS), (3) Office of Education, (4) Civilian Conservation Corps, and (5) Social Security Board.
When the war ended, President Truman moved to "strengthen the arm of the federal government for better integration of services in the fields of health, education, and welfare."
In 1949, the United States Congress enacted the "Reorganization Act of 1949" (5 U.S.C. 901). Subsequently, President Dwight D. Eisenhower promulgated "Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953." The Federal Security Agency was abolished and most of its functions were transferred to the newly formed United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW).
Unlike statutes authorizing the creation of other executive departments, the contents of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953 were never properly codified within the United States Code, although Congress did codify a later statute ratifying the Plan. Today, the Plan is included as an appendix to Title 5 of the United States Code. The result is that HHS is the only executive department whose statutory foundation today rests on a confusing combination of several codified and uncodified statutes.
Miller often served as Acting Administrator while McNutt served as both FSA Administrator and Chair of the War Manpower Commission from April 18, 1942.
The President's Committee on Administrative Management, commonly known as the Brownlow Committee or Brownlow Commission, was a committee that in 1937 recommended sweeping changes to the executive branch of the United States government. The recommendations made by the committee resulted in the creation of the Executive Office of the President. It had three members; they were Louis Brownlow, Charles Merriam, and Luther Gulick. The staff work was managed by James P. Harris, Director of Research for the committee.
Some of the most important recommendations from the council include creating aides to the President in order to deal with the administrative tasks assigned to the President. It also suggested that the President should have direct control over the administrative departments. In its third suggestion, the committee said that the managerial agencies - The Civil Service Administration, the Bureau of the Budget, and the National Resources Board - should be part of the Executive Office.The Reorganization Act of 1939 incorporated only two of the recommendations in the 53-page report delivered by the committee. However, the Act provided to President Franklin D. Roosevelt the authority to make changes so that most of the various agencies and government corporations were organized within various cabinet-level departments, greatly improving accountability among the various agencies.
The most important results of the actions taken by Roosevelt were the creation of the Executive Office of the President and the creation of a group of six executive level assistants. The Brownlow Committee warned that the agencies had grown increasingly powerful and independent, and proposed reforms designed to tighten the president's control over these agencies. The committee proposed a plan to consolidate over 100 agencies into 12 departments and allowed the president to appoint several assistants.
Most Americans opposed giving the president any more power, as a Gallup poll found in April 1938. Nevertheless, after winning the approval of Congress, Roosevelt signed the Reorganization Act of 1939. Roosevelt then established the Executive Office of the President, which increased the president's control over the executive branch. Roosevelt combined several government public works and welfare agencies into the Federal Works Agency and the Federal Security Agency. He also transferred the powerful Bureau of the Budget from the Treasury Department to the Executive Office of the President. The new law also made possible in 1940, the Office of Emergency Management, which enabled the immediate creation of numerous wartime agencies. The reorganization is best known for allowing the President to appoint numerous assistants and advisers. Those who built a network of support in Congress became virtually independent "czars" in their specialized domains.Defense Security Service
The Defense Security Service (DSS) is a federal security agency of the United States Department of Defense (DoD). Within areas of DoD responsibility, DSS is tasked with facilitating personnel security investigations, supervising industrial security, and performing security education and awareness training. DSS is an authorized Federal Security Agency. Industrial Security Representatives and Information System Security Professionals are credentialed government agents. Originally known as the Defense Investigative Service (DIS), DIS was established in 1972. DSS changed its name from DIS in 1999.
For fiscal year 2016 DSS was authorized 800 civilian employees. Of those, about 400 were field personnel directly responsible for security oversight of approximately 13,000 cleared defense contractor facilities. ISS Industrial Security Representatives and Information System Security Professionals are credentialed Special Agents. Stanley Sims, the Director of DSS, retired in 2016. He is now the Director of Security of the foreign-owned (Canadian) defense contractor CGI.
In November 2004, investigators from DSS were transferred to the Office of Personnel Management (OPM). This move consolidated the vast majority of federal government personnel background investigations within OPM. DSS still processes industrial clearance requests for the DoD, and acts as the liaison to the OPM for the DoD.Ellen Sullivan Woodward
Ellen Sullivan Woodward was a federal civil servant and state legislator. She served as director of work relief programs for women organized as part of the Roosevelt administration's New Deal in the 1930s.
The daughter of William Van Amberg Sullivan, an attorney who later served as a congressman from Mississippi and United States senator, and Belle Murray Sullivan, she was born in Oxford, Mississippi. She was educated in Oxford and in Washington, D.C..In 1906, she married Albert Y. Woodward, an attorney; the couple had one son. Her husband served in the Mississippi House of Representatives. When he died in 1925, she was elected to serve the remainder of his term, becoming the second woman to serve as a representative for the state.Woodward did not run for reelection. She became director of civic development for the Mississippi State Board of Development, serving as executive director for the board from 1929 to 1933. She was also a delegate to the 1928 Democratic National Convention.She was director of the Women’s Division of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) from 1933 to 1935; director of the Women’s and Professional Projects of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) from 1935 to 1938; and a member of the three-member Social Security Board from 1938 to 1946. She served in advisory roles to the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) and the United Nations Economic and Social Council.In 1947 the Women's College of the University of North Carolina awarded Woodward an honorary degree in recognition of her dedication to public welfare in Mississippi, social security in the nation, and domestic and international relief efforts.In 1946, Woodward was named director of a division in the newly created Federal Security Agency; she retired in December 1953. She died in Washington at the age of 84.Federal Employees' Compensation Act
The Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA), is a United States federal law, enacted on September 7, 1916. Sponsored by Sen. John W. Kern (D) of Indiana and Rep. Daniel J. McGillicuddy (D) of Maine, it established compensation to federal civil service employees for wages lost due to job-related injuries. This act became the precedent for "disability insurance" across the country and the precursor to broad-coverage health insurance.President Woodrow Wilson signed H.R. 15316 into law on September 7, 1916.The Federal Employees' Compensation Commission was the original administrator of the FECA. However, the Commission did not exist at the time the FECA went into effect and claims accumulated for more than six months while members were selected and sworn into office. The Federal Employees' Compensation Commission officially began its duties on March 14, 1917. The Commission was abolished on May 16, 1946 by President Harry S. Truman as part of the Reorganization Act of 1939. Its duties were transferred to the Federal Security Agency on July 16, 1946.Federal Works Agency
The Federal Works Agency (FWA) was an independent agency of the federal government of the United States which administered a number of public construction, building maintenance, and public works relief functions and laws from 1939 to 1949. Along with the Federal Security Agency and Federal Loan Agency, it was one of three catch-all agencies of the federal government pursuant to reorganization plans authorized by the Reorganization Act of 1939, the first major, planned reorganization of the executive branch of the government of the United States since 1787.Harry McAlpin
Harry S. McAlpin (July 21, 1906 - July 18, 1985) was the first African-American reporter to attend a U.S. Presidential news conference in 1944.Born on July 21, 1906, in St. Louis, Missouri, Harry McAlpin studied journalism and advertising at the University of Wisconsin. After graduating in 1926, he moved to Washington, D.C., where he worked as a reporter, editor, and office manager for the Washington Tribune, an African American weekly paper, from 1926 to 1929. He then handled publicity and advertising for the National Benefit Life Insurance Company from 1929 to 1933.When the New Deal got underway in 1933, McAlpin joined the New Negro Alliance to "protect employment of Negroes under the NRA [National Recovery Administration] program." He served in the Federal Security Agency and the U.S. Employment Service while attending the Robert H. Terrell Law School at night. He passed the D.C. bar examination in 1937. McAlpin became an assistant to Mary McLeod Bethune, Director of Negro Affairs at the National Youth Administration. On the side, he worked as a part-time Washington correspondent for the Chicago Defender.In 1943 the National Negro Publishers Association (NNPA) petitioned the White House Correspondents Association (WHCA) for press credentials on the grounds that the Atlanta Daily World was one of its member papers. All other African American papers at the time were weeklies, and the press credentials were limited to reporters for daily papers. The WHCA agreed but it took several more months before the NNPA could afford to open its own Washington bureau and hire McAlpin as its full-time Washington correspondent. On February 8, 1944 he attended his first presidential press conference and was greeted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who shook his hand and said, "I'm glad to see you, McAlpin, and very happy to have you here."Although accredited at the White House, McAlpin was rejected when he applied for a congressional press pass. The Standing Committee of Correspondents that controlled accreditation for the newspaper press galleries at the Capitol regarded him as a reporter for mostly weekly papers, while the Periodical Press gallery rejected him because he reported for newspapers rather than magazines. McAlpin believed that these actions were influenced "by my racial identity rather than the flimsy technicality publicly stated."Strong competition from a rival news service, the Associated Negro Press (ANP), led the NNPA to replace McAlpin as its Washington Correspondent with Louis Lautier. McAlpin moved to Louisville, Kentucky, where he served as the only African American assistant commonwealth attorney until 1953, when he resigned after being dropped from a criminal prosecution of three white women. McAlpin became head of the Louisville chapter of the NAACP. He died on July 18, 1985.
He was posthumously honored by the White House Correspondents Association at their May 3, 2014 dinner. The WHCA created a scholarship in his memory, and President Barack Obama noted his pioneering journalism.Josephine Roche
Josephine Aspinwall Roche (December 2, 1886 – July 1976) was a Colorado humanitarian, industrialist, Progressive Era activist, and politician. As a New Deal official she helped shape the modern American welfare stateNathan Sonenshein
Nathan Sonenshein (August 2, 1915 – April 13, 2001) was a rear admiral in the United States Navy. A native of Lodi, New Jersey, Sonenshein began his four-decade naval career by attending and receiving a commission from the U.S. Naval Academy. In 1970, he was head of the Navy's Bureau of Ships, just before it became the Naval Ship Systems Command.
After his retirement in 1974, Sonenshein lived in Fairfax, Virginia. He moved to Moraga, California less than a decade later and became assistant to the president of Global Marine Development, Inc., in Newport Beach, California. In 1982, he received the American Society of Naval Engineers' Harold E. Saunders Award, which honors "an individual whose reputation in naval engineering spans a long career of notable achievement and influence." In 1983, he was a member of the Marine Board of the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems of the National Research Council. During his tenure, the board produced a report, "Criteria for the Depths of Dredged Navigational Channels".
On July 1, 1984, he was appointed by President Ronald Reagan to a two-year term as one of eight members of the National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere. The Reagan Administration's choices for the panel membership drew criticism from environmentalists, who noted that it included no atmospheric scientists.
One of the committee's more controversial reports during his tenure suggested that U.S. shipyards be allowed to go out of business rather than be propped up by government subsidy. The report, released July 16, 1985, concluded that the country's shipyard capacity is "considerably greater" than would be required in a major conventional war. Using classified Pentagon studies, the report concluded that shipyards could expand production by 3½ to six times, providing all the new ships that would be needed. "Look at England in the Falklands", Sonenshein told the Washington Post. "In less than two months, they were able to modify and convert some 50 of their merchant ships that were then used for naval operations...Sure, it's always better to have more shipyards and more merchant ships to give you a margin of safety. But the hard question is, are you going to pay for it? I wouldn't pay for any more than we now have." Sonenshein died at Kaiser Permanente in San Rafael, California, aged 85. He was buried at Oakmont Cemetery in Lafayette, California.
He was an uncle of political science professor Raphael Sonenshein and a brother of Israel L. Sonenshein, who was general counsel of the Federal Security Agency in Washington in the late 1940s and early 1950s and helped draft federal laws on Social Security and child support.National Youth Administration
The National Youth Administration (NYA) was a New Deal agency sponsored by the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States that focused on providing work and education for Americans between the ages of 16 and 25. It operated from June 26, 1935 to 1939 as part of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and included a Division of Negro Affairs headed by Mary McLeod Bethune who worked at the agency from 1936 to 1943. Following the passage of the Reorganization Act of 1939, the NYA was transferred from the WPA to the Federal Security Agency. In 1942, the NYA was transferred to the War Manpower Commission (WMC). The NYA was discontinued in 1943.
By 1938, college youth were paid from $6 to $40 a month for "work study" projects at their schools. Another 155,000 boys and girls from relief families were paid $10 to $25 a month for part-time work that included job training. Unlike the Civilian Conservation Corps, it included young women. The youth normally lived at home, and worked on construction or repair projects. Its annual budget was approximately $58,000,000.
The NYA was headed by Aubrey Willis Williams, a prominent liberal from Alabama who was close to Harry Hopkins and Eleanor Roosevelt. The head of the Texas division at one point was Lyndon B. Johnson, who was later to become president of the United States.
The NYA operated several programs for out-of-school youth.Newell A. George
Newell Adolphus George (September 24, 1904 – October 22, 1992) was a U.S. Representative from Kansas.
Born in Kansas City, Missouri, George attended public schools in Kansas City, Kansas, Wentworth Military Academy in Lexington, Missouri, Park College in Parkville, Missouri, and University of Kansas School of Law. He graduated from the George Washington University, Washington, D.C., in 1935. He was admitted to the District of Columbia bar in 1935 and to the Kansas bar in 1941. He commenced the practice of law in Kansas City, Kansas. He served as member of the staff of United States Senator George McGill of Kansas in 1933 and 1934. Regional attorney, Bureau of Employment Security from 1941 to 1945, and Federal Security Agency 1947-1953. Chief legal counsel, Regional War Manpower Commission, during the Second World War. First assistant Wyandotte County attorney 1953-1958. He served as delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1960.
George was elected as a Democrat to the Eighty-sixth Congress (January 3, 1959 – January 3, 1961). He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1960 to the Eighty-seventh Congress. He was appointed United States attorney for the district of Kansas March 28, 1961, and served until June 20, 1968. He was a resident of Kansas City, Kansas, until his death on October 22, 1992.Oveta Culp Hobby
Oveta Culp Hobby (January 19, 1905 – August 16, 1995) was the first secretary of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, first director of the Women's Army Corps, and a chairperson of the board of the Houston Post.Paul V. McNutt
Paul Vories McNutt (July 19, 1891 – March 24, 1955) was an American diplomat and politician who served as the 34th Governor of Indiana, high commissioner to the Philippines, administrator of the Federal Security Agency, chairman of the War Manpower Commission and ambassador to the Philippines.Social Security Administration
The United States Social Security Administration (SSA) is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government that administers Social Security, a social insurance program consisting of retirement, disability, and survivors' benefits. To qualify for most of these benefits, most workers pay Social Security taxes on their earnings; the claimant's benefits are based on the wage earner's contributions. Otherwise benefits such as Supplemental Security Income (SSI) are given based on need.
The Social Security Administration was established by a law codified at 42 U.S.C. § 901. Its current leader, Deputy Commissioner of Operations Nancy Berryhill, was acting commissioner from January 19, 2017 through November 17, 2017.SSA is headquartered in Woodlawn, Maryland, just to the west of Baltimore, at what is known as Central Office. The agency includes 10 regional offices, 8 processing centers, approximately 1300 field offices, and 37 Teleservice Centers. As of 2018, about 60,000 people were employed by SSA. Headquarters non-supervisory employees of SSA are represented by American Federation of Government Employees Local 1923. Social Security is the largest social welfare program in the United States. For 2014, the net cost of Social Security was $906.4 billion, an amount corresponding to 21% of US Federal Government expenditures.It has been named the 12th best place to work in the U.S. federal government (out of 55 large agencies).Social hygiene movement
The social hygiene movement was an attempt by Progressive-era reformers to control venereal disease, regulate prostitution and vice, and disseminate sexual education through the use of scientific research methods and modern media techniques. Social hygiene as a profession grew alongside social work and other public health movements of the era. Social hygienists emphasized sexual continence and strict self-discipline as a solution to societal ills, tracing prostitution, drug use and illegitimacy to rapid urbanization. The movement remained alive throughout much of the 20th century and found its way into American schools, where it was transmitted in the form of classroom films about menstruation, sexually transmitted disease, drug abuse and acceptable sexual behavior in addition to an array of pamphlets, posters, textbooks and films.Title 42 of the United States Code
Title 42 of the United States Code is the United States Code dealing with public health, social welfare, and civil rights.
42 U.S.C. ch. 1—The Public Health Service
42 U.S.C. ch. 1A—The Public Health Service, Supplemental Provisions
42 U.S.C. ch. 2—Sanitation and Quarantine
42 U.S.C. ch. 3—Leprosy
42 U.S.C. ch. 3A—Cancer
42 U.S.C. ch. 4—Viruses, Serums, Toxins, Antitoxins, Etc.
42 U.S.C. ch. 5—Maternity and Infancy Welfare and Hygiene
42 U.S.C. ch. 6—The Children's Bureau
42 U.S.C. ch. 6A—Public Health Service (Public Health Service Act)
42 U.S.C. ch. 7—Social Security
42 U.S.C. ch. 7A—Temporary Unemployment Compensation Program
42 U.S.C. ch. 8—Low-Income Housing
42 U.S.C. ch. 8A—Slum Clearance, Urban Renewal, and Farm Housing
42 U.S.C. ch. 8B—Public Works or Facilities
42 U.S.C. ch. 8C—Open-Space Land
42 U.S.C. ch. 9—Housing of Persons Engaged in National Defense
42 U.S.C. ch. 10—Federal Security Agency
42 U.S.C. ch. 11—Compensation for Disability or Death to Persons Employed at Military, Air, and Naval Bases Outside United States
42 U.S.C. ch. 12—Compensation for Injury, Death, or Detention of Employees of Contractors with United States Outside United States
42 U.S.C. ch. 13—School Lunch Programs
42 U.S.C. ch. 13A—Child Nutrition
42 U.S.C. ch. 14—Development and Control of Atomic Energy
42 U.S.C. ch. 15—Disaster Relief
42 U.S.C. ch. 15A—Reciprocal Fire Protection Agreements
42 U.S.C. ch. 15B—Air Pollution Control
42 U.S.C. ch. 16—National Science Foundation
42 U.S.C. ch. 16A—Grants for Support of Scientific Research
42 U.S.C. ch. 16B—Contracts for Scientific and Technological Research
42 U.S.C. ch. 17—Federal Employment Service
42 U.S.C. ch. 18—Youth Medals
42 U.S.C. ch. 19—Saline and Salt Waters
42 U.S.C. ch. 19A—Water Resources Research Program
42 U.S.C. ch. 19B—Water Resources Planning
42 U.S.C. ch. 20—Elective Franchise
42 U.S.C. ch. 20A—Civil Rights Commission
42 U.S.C. ch. 21—Civil Rights
42 U.S.C. ch. 21A—Privacy Protection
42 U.S.C. ch. 21B—Religious Freedom Restoration
42 U.S.C. ch. 21C—Protection of Religious Exercise in Land Use and by Institutionalized Persons
42 U.S.C. ch. 22—Indian Hospitals and Health Facilities
42 U.S.C. ch. 23—Development and Control of Atomic Energy
42 U.S.C. ch. 24—Disposal of Atomic Energy Communities
42 U.S.C. ch. 25—Federal Flood Insurance
42 U.S.C. ch. 26—National Space Program
42 U.S.C. ch. 26A—National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program
42 U.S.C. ch. 26B—Biomedical Research in Space
42 U.S.C. ch. 27—Loan Service of Captioned Films and Educational Media for Handicapped
42 U.S.C. ch. 28—Area Redevelopment Program
42 U.S.C. ch. 29—Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Offenses Control
42 U.S.C. ch. 30—Manpower Development and Training Program
42 U.S.C. ch. 31—Public Works Acceleration Program
42 U.S.C. ch. 32—Third Party Liability for Hospital and Medical Care
42 U.S.C. ch. 33—Community Mental Health Centers
42 U.S.C. ch. 34—Economic Opportunity Program
42 U.S.C. ch. 35—Programs for Older Americans
42 U.S.C. ch. 35A—Community Service Employment for Older Americans
42 U.S.C. ch. 36—Compensation of Condemnees in Development Programs
42 U.S.C. ch. 37—Community Facilities and Advance Land Acquisition
42 U.S.C. ch. 38—Public Works and Economic Development
42 U.S.C. ch. 39—Solid Waste Disposal
42 U.S.C. ch. 40—Soil Information Assistance for Community Planning and Resource Development
42 U.S.C. ch. 41—Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Program
42 U.S.C. ch. 42—Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation
42 U.S.C. ch. 43—Department of Health and Human Services
42 U.S.C. ch. 44—Department of Housing and Urban Development
42 U.S.C. ch. 45—Fair Housing
42 U.S.C. ch. 46—Justice System Improvement
42 U.S.C. ch. 47—Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Control
42 U.S.C. ch. 48—Guarantees for Financing New Community Land Development
42 U.S.C. ch. 49—National Housing Partnerships
42 U.S.C. ch. 50—National Flood Insurance
42 U.S.C. ch. 51—Design and Construction of Public Buildings to Accommodate Physically Handicapped
42 U.S.C. ch. 52—Intergovernmental Cooperation
42 U.S.C. ch. 52A—Joint Funding Simplification
42 U.S.C. ch. 53—Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations
42 U.S.C. ch. 54—Cabinet Committee on Opportunities for Spanish-Speaking People
42 U.S.C. ch. 55—National Environmental Policy
42 U.S.C. ch. 56—Environmental Quality Improvement
42 U.S.C. ch. 57—Environmental Pollution Study
42 U.S.C. ch. 58—Disaster Relief
42 U.S.C. ch. 59—National Urban Policy and New Community Development
42 U.S.C. ch. 60—Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment, and Rehabilitation Program
42 U.S.C. ch. 61—Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies for Federal and Federally Assisted Programs
42 U.S.C. ch. 62—Intergovernmental Personnel Program
42 U.S.C. ch. 63—Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention
42 U.S.C. ch. 63A—Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction
42 U.S.C. ch. 64—Public Service Employment Programs
42 U.S.C. ch. 65—Noise Control
42 U.S.C. ch. 66—Domestic Volunteer Services
42 U.S.C. ch. 67—Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform
42 U.S.C. ch. 68—Disaster Relief
42 U.S.C. ch. 69—Community Development
42 U.S.C. ch. 70—Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards
42 U.S.C. ch. 71—Solar Energy
42 U.S.C. ch. 72—Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
42 U.S.C. ch. 73—Development of Energy Sources
42 U.S.C. ch. 74—Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development
42 U.S.C. ch. 75—Programs for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities
42 U.S.C. ch. 76—Age Discrimination in Federally Assisted Programs
42 U.S.C. ch. 77—Energy Conservation
42 U.S.C. ch. 78—National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska
42 U.S.C. ch. 79—Science and Technology Policy, Organization and Priorities
42 U.S.C. ch. 80—Public Works Employment
42 U.S.C. ch. 81—Energy Conservation and Resource Renewal
42 U.S.C. ch. 82—Solid Waste Disposal
42 U.S.C. ch. 83—Energy Extension Service
42 U.S.C. ch. 84—Department of Energy
42 U.S.C. ch. 85—Air Pollution Prevention and Control
42 U.S.C. ch. 86—Earthquake Hazards Reduction
42 U.S.C. ch. 87—Water Research and Development
42 U.S.C. ch. 88—Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act
42 U.S.C. ch. 89—Congregate Housing Services
42 U.S.C. ch. 90—Neighborhood and City Reinvestment, Self-Help and Revitalization
42 U.S.C. ch. 91—National Energy Conservation Policy
42 U.S.C. ch. 92—Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use
42 U.S.C. ch. 93—Emergency Energy Conservation
42 U.S.C. ch. 94—Low-Income Energy Assistance
42 U.S.C. ch. 95—United States Synthetic Fuels Corporation
42 U.S.C. ch. 96—Biomass Energy and Alcohol Fuels
42 U.S.C. ch. 97—Acid Precipitation Program and Carbon Dioxide Study
42 U.S.C. ch. 98—Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Research and Development
42 U.S.C. ch. 99—Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
42 U.S.C. ch. 100—Wind Energy Systems
42 U.S.C. ch. 101: Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering
42 U.S.C. ch. 102: Mental Health Systems
42 U.S.C. ch. 103: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability
42 U.S.C. ch. 104: Nuclear Safety Research, Development, and Demonstration
42 U.S.C. ch. 105: Community Services Programs
42 U.S.C. ch. 106: Community Services Block Grant Program
42 U.S.C. ch. 107: Consumer-Patient Radiation Health and Safety
42 U.S.C. ch. 108: Nuclear Waste Policy
42 U.S.C. ch. 109: Water Resources Research
42 U.S.C. ch. 109a: Membrane Processes Research
42 U.S.C. ch. 110: Family Violence Prevention and Services
42 U.S.C. ch. 111: Emergency Federal Law Enforcement Assistance
42 U.S.C. ch. 112: Victim Compensation and Assistance
42 U.S.C. ch. 113: State Justice Institute
42 U.S.C. ch. 114: Protection And Advocacy For Mentally Ill Individuals
42 U.S.C. ch. 115: Child Development Associate Scholarship Assistance Program
42 U.S.C. ch. 116: Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know
42 U.S.C. ch. 117: Encouraging Good Faith Professional Review Activities
42 U.S.C. ch. 118: Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias Research
42 U.S.C. ch. 119: Homeless Assistance
42 U.S.C. ch. 120: Enterprise Zone Development
42 U.S.C. ch. 121: International Child Abduction Remedies
42 U.S.C. ch. 122: Native Hawaiian Health Care
42 U.S.C. ch. 123: Drug Abuse Education and Prevention
42 U.S.C. ch. 124: Public Housing Drug Elimination
42 U.S.C. ch. 125: Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness
42 U.S.C. ch. 126: Equal Opportunity For Individuals With Disabilities
42 U.S.C. ch. 127: Coordinated Services For Children, Youth, and Families
42 U.S.C. ch. 128: Hydrogen Research, Development, And Demonstration Program
42 U.S.C. ch. 129: National and Community Service
42 U.S.C. ch. 130: National Affordable Housing
42 U.S.C. ch. 131: Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS
42 U.S.C. ch. 132: Victims of Child Abuse
42 U.S.C. ch. 133: Pollution Prevention
42 U.S.C. ch. 134: Energy Policy
42 U.S.C. ch. 135: Residency and Service Requirements in Federally Assisted Housing
42 U.S.C. ch. 136: Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement
42 U.S.C. ch. 137: Management of Rechargeable Batteries and Batteries Containing Mercury
42 U.S.C. ch. 138: Assisted Suicide Funding Restriction
42 U.S.C. ch. 139: Volunteer Protection
42 U.S.C. ch. 140: Criminal Justice Identification, Information, and Communication
42 U.S.C. ch. 140A: Jennifer's Law
42 U.S.C. ch. 141: Commercial Space Opportunities and Transportation Services
42 U.S.C. ch. 142: Poison Control Center Enhancement and Awareness
42 U.S.C. ch. 143: Intercountry Adoptions
42 U.S.C. ch. 144: Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights
42 U.S.C. ch. 145: Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor and Tributes
42 U.S.C. ch. 146: Election Administration Improvement
42 U.S.C. ch. 147: Prison Rape Elimination
42 U.S.C. ch. 148: Windstorm Impact Reduction
42 U.S.C. ch. 149: Energy Policy, 2005
42 U.S.C. ch. 150: National Aeronautics and Space Programs, 2005
42 U.S.C. ch. 151: Child Protection and Safety
42 U.S.C. ch. 152: Energy Independence and SecurityUnited States Department of Health and Human Services
The United States Department of Health & Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. Its motto is "Improving the health, safety, and well-being of America". Before the separate federal Department of Education was created in 1979, it was called the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW).
HHS is administered by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, who is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The United States Public Health Service (PHS) is the main division of the HHS and is led by the Assistant Secretary for Health. The current Secretary, Alex Azar, assumed office on January 29, 2018, upon his appointment by President Trump and confirmation by the Senate.
The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the uniformed service of the PHS, is led by the Surgeon General who is responsible for addressing matters concerning public health as authorized by the Secretary or by the Assistant Secretary of Health in addition to his or her primary mission of administering the Commissioned Corps.United States Public Health Service
The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) is a division of the Department of Health and Human Services concerned with public health. It contains eight out of the department's eleven operating divisions. The Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) oversees the PHS. The Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) is the federal uniformed service of the USPHS, and is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
Its origins can be traced to the establishment of 1798 of a system of marine hospitals. In 1870 these were consolidated into the Marine Hospital Service, and the position of Surgeon General was established. In 1889, the PHSCC was established. As the system's scope grew, it was renamed the Public Health Service in 1912. The Public Health Service Act of 1944 consolidated and revised previous laws and is the current legal basis for the PHS. It became the primary division of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, established in 1953, which later became the Department of Health and Human Services in 1979.War Manpower Commission
The War Manpower Commission was a World War II agency of the United States Government charged with planning to balance the labor needs of agriculture, industry and the armed forces.War Research Service
The War Research Service (WRS) was a civilian agency of the United States government established during World War II to pursue research relating to biological warfare. Established in May 1942 by Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, the WRS was embedded in the Federal Security Agency, the federal agency that administered Social Security and other New Deal programs in the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Headed by George W. Merck, president of the Merck & Co. pharmaceutical firm, the WRS was headquartered at Fort Detrick, Maryland.
Being a civilian agency, the WRS was initially tasked to supervise the military Chemical Warfare Service's biological program.
However, the WRS was disbanded in 1944, and the weapons research was continued under the exclusive oversight of the CWS.