Federal Security Agency

The Federal Security Agency (FSA) was an independent agency of the United States government established in 1939 pursuant to the Reorganization Act of 1939. For a time, the agency oversaw food and drug safety as well as education funding and the administration of public health programs and the Social Security old-age pension plan.

Fsa gov logo

History

The Reorganization Act of 1939 authorized the President of the United States to devise a plan to reorganize the executive branch of government. Pursuant to the Act, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued "Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1939" on April 25, 1939. The reorganization plan was designed to reduce the number of agencies reporting directly to the president.

The reorganization plan created the Federal Security Agency. Included in the FSA were the Social Security Board, the U.S. Public Health Service, the Food and Drug Administration, the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Office of Education (later the United States Department of Education), the National Youth Administration and a number of other agencies.[1] Its first director was Paul V. McNutt. Secretly, the FSA was also a cover agency from 1942 to 1944 for the War Research Service, a secret program to develop chemical and biological weapons.[2]

Origins

The Federal Security Agency (FSA) was established on July 1, 1939, under the Reorganization Act of 1939, P.L. 76-19. The objective was to bring together in one agency all federal programs in the fields of health, education, and social security. The first Federal Security Administrator was Paul V. McNutt.[3]

The new agency originally consisted of the following major components: (1) Office of the Administrator, (2) Public Health Service (PHS), (3) Office of Education, (4) Civilian Conservation Corps, and (5) Social Security Board.

  • These components, however, are traceable to the early days of the Republic. On July 16, 1798, President John Adams signed an act creating the Marine Hospital Service to furnish treatment to sick and disabled American merchant seamen. On April 29, 1878, the first Federal Quarantine Act enlarged the Service's responsibilities to include prevention of epidemics from abroad. On August 14, 1912, the name was changed to the Public Health Service (PHS). On May 26, 1930, the Hygienic Laboratory of the Service was redesignated the National Institutes of Health (NIH). PHS was transferred from the Treasury Department to the FSA in 1939.
  • Even though the first steps toward public education were taken in 1647 by the Massachusetts Bay Colony and land was set aside for public schools by the Congress of the Confederation in 1785, the idea of universal, free public schools did not become firmly established until the Civil War era. Even then, only half of the States had an efficient public school system. In 1867, Congress established the Department of Education to promote the cause of education and collect and disseminate facts and statistics about education. Until it was transferred to the FSA, the Office of Education and its predecessor organization had been part of the Department of the Interior.
  • The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was born during the Great Depression to provide employment for American youth and advance conservation of the Nation's natural resources. It operated from April 5, 1933, until June 30, 1942. During that time, the CCC provided work training to 3 million men and advanced conservation by more than 25 years. It was an independent agency until it came to FSA.
  • The Nation's social security and public assistance programs also were born during the Depression with approval of the Social Security Act on August 14, 1935. The initial Act of 1935 established the Social Security Board to administer Titles I, II, III, IV, and X of the Act. It remained an independent organization until its transfer to FSA. The Social Security Act Amendments of 1939 revised and expanded basic provisions of the program and eligibility requirements and extended protection to aged wives, dependent children and certain survivors of insured workers.
  • Organized in 1855 and incorporated by the Kentucky Legislature in 1858, the American Printing House for the Blind was established to produce educational materials for the blind and since 1879 has received an allocation of federal funds to help support this activity. Federal responsibility regarding the Printing House was transferred to FSA from the Treasury Department on July 1, 1939.
  • Established in 1935 to provide youth with work training, the National Youth Administration later trained young people for jobs in war industries. It was supervised by the Office of the Administrator from the time FSA was created in 1939 until 1942, when it was transferred to the War Manpower Commission.

Early years

  • Under a Reorganization Plan that became effective on June 30, 1940, the organization of the Federal Security Agency (FSA) was enlarged:[3]
    1. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was transferred from the Department of Agriculture; and
    2. Saint Elizabeth's Hospital, Freedmen's Hospital, and
    3. Federal functions relating to Howard University and the Columbia Institution for the Deaf were transferred to FSA from the Department of the Interior
    • As a result of pressure for the federal government to control adulterated and misbranded foods and drugs, the Food and Drugs Act was enacted on June 30, 1906. These responsibilities were entrusted to the Bureau of Chemistry in the Department of Agriculture in 1907 and were organized into a Food, Drug and Insecticide Administration in 1927, renamed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1931. Transferred to FSA in 1940, FDA also was responsible for administering the Tea Importation Act (1897), the Filled Milk Act (1923), the Caustic Poison Act (1927), and the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (1938).
    • Saint Elizabeths Hospital, created by Act of Congress in 1852 as the Government Hospital for the Insane, received its first patients on January 15, 1855. Founder of Saint Elizabeth's was Dorothea Dix, the most prominent humanitarian of the era. The name was changed by Act of Congress in 1916. Freedmen's Hospital was an outgrowth of the Bureau for the Relief of Freedmen and Refugees authorized by the Act of March 3, 1865. In 1871, the hospital was transferred to the Department of the Interior.
    • Howard University' was established by an act of March 2, 1867, to provide higher education for Negroes. Education for the deaf was made available in the District of Columbia through the Columbia Institution for the Deaf established by the Act of February 16, 1857. The name was changed to Gallaudet College in 1954.
  • The Vocational Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1943 expanded functions relating to vocational rehabilitation and assigned them to the Federal Security Administrator, who established the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation on September 4, 1943, to carry out these functions. Since the original Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1920, certain vocational rehabilitation and vocational education activities had been a responsibility of the Office of Education, first when it was part of the Department of Interior, then after it became part of FSA in 1939.
  • Impact of World War II
    • World War II had a broad impact on the social programs of FSA. Between 1941 and 1947, the Government recognized the need to maintain essential health and welfare services. The Federal Security Administrator also served as coordinator of the Office of Health, Welfare, and related Defense Activities, renamed the Office of Defense, Health, and Welfare Services in September 1941, which provided health care, education, and related services necessitated by the war effort. It was responsible for adjusting the distribution of remaining professional personnel to meet the requirements of the population. In 1943, the Office's title was again changed to the Office of Community War Services, which was abolished on June 30, 1947.
    • The FDA during the war was charged with maintaining food standards to insure delivery of properly tested foods and drugs to the military establishment.
    • The Public Health Service was in charge of protecting both the general population and military personnel against epidemics and carrying out medical research. DHHS history

Post-WWII

Organizational Changes[3]

When the war ended, President Truman moved to "strengthen the arm of the federal government for better integration of services in the fields of health, education, and welfare."

  • 1946
    • Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1946, effective July 16, 1946, abolished the three-member Social Security Board, creating in its place, the Social Security Administration, headed by a Commissioner of Social Security. The plan transferred the Children's Bureau (created in 1912), exclusive of its Industrial Division, from the Department of Labor to FSA, where it became part of the Social Security Administration (SSA); the US Employees Compensation Commission, formerly an independent organization, to the Office of the Administrator of FSA; functions of the Department of Commerce regarding vital statistics to the FSA Administrator, who delegated them to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service.
    • Legislation of major importance to the Agency also was passed in 1946: the National Mental Health Act; the Vocational Education Act; the Federal Employees Health Act; the 1946 Amendments to the Social Security Act; and the Hospital Survey and Construction Act.
  • 1947. In 1947, the Administrator directed the establishment of a central library, consolidating the resources of three independent libraries at the SSA, the Office of Education, and the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation. This library eventually became the central library of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
  • 1948
    • By 1948, the retail price of food had risen 114 percent over the 1935-39 base, yet the monthly benefits under Social Security had not changed since the 1939 amendments had established a base level. On October 1, 1948, increases in Social Security benefits were authorized.
    • Other key pieces of legislation passed in 1948 included bills creating the National Heart Institute and the National Institute of Dental Research. On June 16, 1948, the name of the National Institute of Health was changed to the National Institutes of Health.
    • On June 30, 1948, the President signed the Water Pollution Bill, delegating national water pollution responsibilities to the Public Health Service.
    • Also in 1948, legislation authorized the transfer of the Federal Credit Union program from the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation to the SSA.
  • 1949
    • The Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 gave the Federal Security Administrator authority to dispose of surplus federal propel property to tax-supported or nonprofit educational institutions for health or educational purposes.
    • During 1949, the Federal Security Agency began the establishment of 10 FSA regional offices to replace the 11 previously operated by the SSA and consolidated those being operated by other FSA constituents into one common regional office structure. Previous to the consolidation, constituent agencies were maintaining five and, in some cases, six independent regional offices in a single city.
  • 1950
    • On May 24, 1950, Reorganization Plan No. 19 of 1950 transferred from FSA to the Department of Labor the Bureau of Employees Compensation and the Employees Compensation Appeals Board. Then, the FSA abolished the Office of Special Services that had administered the two transferred units plus the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation (OVR) and the Food and Drug Administration. The effect of this action was to elevate OVR and FDA to agency status.
    • In 1950, two important national conferences required months of staff work by FSA personnel. The Mid-century White House Conference on Children and Youth was held in Washington, D.C. in December 1950. Nearly 6,000 representatives of 100,000 local and community groups throughout the country met to discuss the "spiritual values, democractic practice, and the dignity and worth of the individual." In August of that year, a Conference on Aging was called by the FSA Administrator to study the needs and problems of the older segment of the population.
    • In September 1950, Congress authorized the impacted aid program-to relieve the impact on local school facilities of a heavy influx of federal civilian and military personnel-and in FY 1951 appropriated $96.5 million for school construction under P.L. 81-815, September 23, 1950, and $23 million for school operating expenses under P.L. 81-874, September 30, 1950.
    • The Social Security Act Amendments of 1950 added to the social security rolls about 10 million persons who previously had been ineligible. These persons included agricultural workers and selfemployed small shop owners. Others who benefitted from the changes were the elderly and those who had job-related disabilities. This expansion of beneficiaries was made possible by revisions to the oldage and survivors insurance and long-term disability insurance sections of the original Act.
  • 1951. In May 1951, a citizens committee, the National Mid-century Committee for Children and Youth, was established to provide national follow-up to the problems discussed at the White House Conference. Staff of the Children's Bureau worked closely with the Committee until it was dissolved in 1953.
  • 1952. The year 1952 was a period of transition for FSA. Despite the contributions made by the Agency during and before the Korean War, most of the defense-related activities in FSA were being phased out. The FDA continued to study chemical and bacteriological warfare agents but other FSA components were mobilized to provide disaster relief and health care assistance to a number of foreign countries. Technical assistance, under the federal "Point IV" and Mutual Security Agency programs, provided needed help to many underdeveloped countries. The Agency also furnished guidance for foreign representatives sent to this country to study American programs and methods in the fields of health and education. Later in the year, FSA accelerated its response to the Nation's social needs.

Replacement with DHEW

President Harry S. Truman attempted to make the FSA a department of the federal government, but this legislation was defeated.[4]

In 1949, the United States Congress enacted the "Reorganization Act of 1949" (5 U.S.C. 901). Subsequently, President Dwight D. Eisenhower promulgated "Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953." The Federal Security Agency was abolished and most of its functions were transferred to the newly formed United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW).[5]

  • 1953. FSA Becomes DHEW
    • By 1953, the Federal Security Agency's programs in health, education, and social security had grown to such importance that its annual budget exceeded the combined budgets of the Departments of Commerce, Justice, Labor and Interior and affected the lives of millions of people.
    • Consequently, in accordance with the Reorganization Act of 1949, President Eisenhower submitted to the Congress on March 12, 1953, Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953, which called for the dissolution of the Federal Security Agency and elevation of the agency to Cabinet status as the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. All of the responsibilities of the Federal Security Administrator would be transferred to the Secretary of Health, Education, end Welfare and the components of FSA would be transferred to the Department. A major objective of the reorganization was to improve administration of the functions of the Federal Security Agency. The plan was approved April 1, 1953, and became effective on April 11, 1953.

Unlike statutes authorizing the creation of other executive departments, the contents of Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953 were never properly codified within the United States Code, although Congress did codify a later statute ratifying the Plan. Today, the Plan is included as an appendix to Title 5 of the United States Code. The result is that HHS is the only executive department whose statutory foundation today rests on a confusing combination of several codified and uncodified statutes.

List of FSA Administrators

Miller often served as Acting Administrator while McNutt served as both FSA Administrator and Chair of the War Manpower Commission from April 18, 1942.

Notes

  1. ^ Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1939. Social Security Administration. Accessed Jan. 22, 2007.
  2. ^ Blake, Paul V. McNutt: Portrait of a Hoosier Statesman, 1966; Series 4: "War Research Service. Committees on Biological Warfare, 1941-1948." Archives of the National Academies. National Academy of Sciences. Accessed Jan. 22, 2007.
  3. ^ a b c "Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. A Common Thread of Service: An Historical Guide to HEW. DHEW Publication No. (OS) 73-45". July 1, 1972. Archived from the original on February 14, 2014. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
  4. ^ Culp, "Whose Security? A Voice from the Past," San Francisco Call, February 22, 2005.
  5. ^ "Oral History Interview with Oscar R. Ewing." Oral History Interviews. Truman Presidential Library. May 1, 1969; Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1953. Title 5: Appendix: Reorganization Plans. Transmitted to the U.S. Senate and U.S. House of Representatives, March 12, 1953.

References

External links

Brownlow Committee

The President's Committee on Administrative Management, commonly known as the Brownlow Committee or Brownlow Commission, was a committee that in 1937 recommended sweeping changes to the executive branch of the United States government. The recommendations made by the committee resulted in the creation of the Executive Office of the President. It had three members; they were Louis Brownlow, Charles Merriam, and Luther Gulick. The staff work was managed by James P. Harris, Director of Research for the committee.

Some of the most important recommendations from the council include creating aides to the President in order to deal with the administrative tasks assigned to the President. It also suggested that the President should have direct control over the administrative departments. In its third suggestion, the committee said that the managerial agencies - The Civil Service Administration, the Bureau of the Budget, and the National Resources Board - should be part of the Executive Office.The Reorganization Act of 1939 incorporated only two of the recommendations in the 53-page report delivered by the committee. However, the Act provided to President Franklin D. Roosevelt the authority to make changes so that most of the various agencies and government corporations were organized within various cabinet-level departments, greatly improving accountability among the various agencies.

The most important results of the actions taken by Roosevelt were the creation of the Executive Office of the President and the creation of a group of six executive level assistants. The Brownlow Committee warned that the agencies had grown increasingly powerful and independent, and proposed reforms designed to tighten the president's control over these agencies. The committee proposed a plan to consolidate over 100 agencies into 12 departments and allowed the president to appoint several assistants.

Most Americans opposed giving the president any more power, as a Gallup poll found in April 1938. Nevertheless, after winning the approval of Congress, Roosevelt signed the Reorganization Act of 1939. Roosevelt then established the Executive Office of the President, which increased the president's control over the executive branch. Roosevelt combined several government public works and welfare agencies into the Federal Works Agency and the Federal Security Agency. He also transferred the powerful Bureau of the Budget from the Treasury Department to the Executive Office of the President. The new law also made possible in 1940, the Office of Emergency Management, which enabled the immediate creation of numerous wartime agencies. The reorganization is best known for allowing the President to appoint numerous assistants and advisers. Those who built a network of support in Congress became virtually independent "czars" in their specialized domains.

Defense Security Service

The Defense Security Service (DSS) is a federal security agency of the United States Department of Defense (DoD). Within areas of DoD responsibility, DSS is tasked with facilitating personnel security investigations, supervising industrial security, and performing security education and awareness training. DSS is an authorized Federal Security Agency. Industrial Security Representatives and Information System Security Professionals are credentialed government agents. Originally known as the Defense Investigative Service (DIS), DIS was established in 1972. DSS changed its name from DIS in 1999.

For fiscal year 2016 DSS was authorized 800 civilian employees. Of those, about 400 were field personnel directly responsible for security oversight of approximately 13,000 cleared defense contractor facilities. ISS Industrial Security Representatives and Information System Security Professionals are credentialed Special Agents. Stanley Sims, the Director of DSS, retired in 2016. He is now the Director of Security of the foreign-owned (Canadian) defense contractor CGI.

In November 2004, investigators from DSS were transferred to the Office of Personnel Management (OPM). This move consolidated the vast majority of federal government personnel background investigations within OPM. DSS still processes industrial clearance requests for the DoD, and acts as the liaison to the OPM for the DoD.

Ellen Sullivan Woodward

Ellen Sullivan Woodward was a federal civil servant and state legislator. She served as director of work relief programs for women organized as part of the Roosevelt administration's New Deal in the 1930s.

The daughter of William Van Amberg Sullivan, an attorney who later served as a congressman from Mississippi and United States senator, and Belle Murray Sullivan, she was born in Oxford, Mississippi. She was educated in Oxford and in Washington, D.C..In 1906, she married Albert Y. Woodward, an attorney; the couple had one son. Her husband served in the Mississippi House of Representatives. When he died in 1925, she was elected to serve the remainder of his term, becoming the second woman to serve as a representative for the state.Woodward did not run for reelection. She became director of civic development for the Mississippi State Board of Development, serving as executive director for the board from 1929 to 1933. She was also a delegate to the 1928 Democratic National Convention.She was director of the Women’s Division of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) from 1933 to 1935; director of the Women’s and Professional Projects of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) from 1935 to 1938; and a member of the three-member Social Security Board from 1938 to 1946. She served in advisory roles to the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) and the United Nations Economic and Social Council.In 1947 the Women's College of the University of North Carolina awarded Woodward an honorary degree in recognition of her dedication to public welfare in Mississippi, social security in the nation, and domestic and international relief efforts.In 1946, Woodward was named director of a division in the newly created Federal Security Agency; she retired in December 1953. She died in Washington at the age of 84.

Federal Employees' Compensation Act

The Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA), is a United States federal law, enacted on September 7, 1916. Sponsored by Sen. John W. Kern (D) of Indiana and Rep. Daniel J. McGillicuddy (D) of Maine, it established compensation to federal civil service employees for wages lost due to job-related injuries. This act became the precedent for "disability insurance" across the country and the precursor to broad-coverage health insurance.President Woodrow Wilson signed H.R. 15316 into law on September 7, 1916.The Federal Employees' Compensation Commission was the original administrator of the FECA. However, the Commission did not exist at the time the FECA went into effect and claims accumulated for more than six months while members were selected and sworn into office. The Federal Employees' Compensation Commission officially began its duties on March 14, 1917. The Commission was abolished on May 16, 1946 by President Harry S. Truman as part of the Reorganization Act of 1939. Its duties were transferred to the Federal Security Agency on July 16, 1946.

Federal Works Agency

The Federal Works Agency (FWA) was an independent agency of the federal government of the United States which administered a number of public construction, building maintenance, and public works relief functions and laws from 1939 to 1949. Along with the Federal Security Agency and Federal Loan Agency, it was one of three catch-all agencies of the federal government pursuant to reorganization plans authorized by the Reorganization Act of 1939, the first major, planned reorganization of the executive branch of the government of the United States since 1787.

Harry McAlpin

Harry S. McAlpin (July 21, 1906 - July 18, 1985) was the first African-American reporter to attend a U.S. Presidential news conference in 1944.Born on July 21, 1906, in St. Louis, Missouri, Harry McAlpin studied journalism and advertising at the University of Wisconsin. After graduating in 1926, he moved to Washington, D.C., where he worked as a reporter, editor, and office manager for the Washington Tribune, an African American weekly paper, from 1926 to 1929. He then handled publicity and advertising for the National Benefit Life Insurance Company from 1929 to 1933.When the New Deal got underway in 1933, McAlpin joined the New Negro Alliance to "protect employment of Negroes under the NRA [National Recovery Administration] program." He served in the Federal Security Agency and the U.S. Employment Service while attending the Robert H. Terrell Law School at night. He passed the D.C. bar examination in 1937. McAlpin became an assistant to Mary McLeod Bethune, Director of Negro Affairs at the National Youth Administration. On the side, he worked as a part-time Washington correspondent for the Chicago Defender.In 1943 the National Negro Publishers Association (NNPA) petitioned the White House Correspondents Association (WHCA) for press credentials on the grounds that the Atlanta Daily World was one of its member papers. All other African American papers at the time were weeklies, and the press credentials were limited to reporters for daily papers. The WHCA agreed but it took several more months before the NNPA could afford to open its own Washington bureau and hire McAlpin as its full-time Washington correspondent. On February 8, 1944 he attended his first presidential press conference and was greeted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who shook his hand and said, "I'm glad to see you, McAlpin, and very happy to have you here."Although accredited at the White House, McAlpin was rejected when he applied for a congressional press pass. The Standing Committee of Correspondents that controlled accreditation for the newspaper press galleries at the Capitol regarded him as a reporter for mostly weekly papers, while the Periodical Press gallery rejected him because he reported for newspapers rather than magazines. McAlpin believed that these actions were influenced "by my racial identity rather than the flimsy technicality publicly stated."Strong competition from a rival news service, the Associated Negro Press (ANP), led the NNPA to replace McAlpin as its Washington Correspondent with Louis Lautier. McAlpin moved to Louisville, Kentucky, where he served as the only African American assistant commonwealth attorney until 1953, when he resigned after being dropped from a criminal prosecution of three white women. McAlpin became head of the Louisville chapter of the NAACP. He died on July 18, 1985.

He was posthumously honored by the White House Correspondents Association at their May 3, 2014 dinner. The WHCA created a scholarship in his memory, and President Barack Obama noted his pioneering journalism.

Josephine Roche

Josephine Aspinwall Roche (December 2, 1886 – July 1976) was a Colorado humanitarian, industrialist, Progressive Era activist, and politician. As a New Deal official she helped shape the modern American welfare state

Nathan Sonenshein

Nathan Sonenshein (August 2, 1915 – April 13, 2001) was a rear admiral in the United States Navy. A native of Lodi, New Jersey, Sonenshein began his four-decade naval career by attending and receiving a commission from the U.S. Naval Academy. In 1970, he was head of the Navy's Bureau of Ships, just before it became the Naval Ship Systems Command.

After his retirement in 1974, Sonenshein lived in Fairfax, Virginia. He moved to Moraga, California less than a decade later and became assistant to the president of Global Marine Development, Inc., in Newport Beach, California. In 1982, he received the American Society of Naval Engineers' Harold E. Saunders Award, which honors "an individual whose reputation in naval engineering spans a long career of notable achievement and influence." In 1983, he was a member of the Marine Board of the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems of the National Research Council. During his tenure, the board produced a report, "Criteria for the Depths of Dredged Navigational Channels".

On July 1, 1984, he was appointed by President Ronald Reagan to a two-year term as one of eight members of the National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere. The Reagan Administration's choices for the panel membership drew criticism from environmentalists, who noted that it included no atmospheric scientists.

One of the committee's more controversial reports during his tenure suggested that U.S. shipyards be allowed to go out of business rather than be propped up by government subsidy. The report, released July 16, 1985, concluded that the country's shipyard capacity is "considerably greater" than would be required in a major conventional war. Using classified Pentagon studies, the report concluded that shipyards could expand production by 3½ to six times, providing all the new ships that would be needed. "Look at England in the Falklands", Sonenshein told the Washington Post. "In less than two months, they were able to modify and convert some 50 of their merchant ships that were then used for naval operations...Sure, it's always better to have more shipyards and more merchant ships to give you a margin of safety. But the hard question is, are you going to pay for it? I wouldn't pay for any more than we now have." Sonenshein died at Kaiser Permanente in San Rafael, California, aged 85. He was buried at Oakmont Cemetery in Lafayette, California.

He was an uncle of political science professor Raphael Sonenshein and a brother of Israel L. Sonenshein, who was general counsel of the Federal Security Agency in Washington in the late 1940s and early 1950s and helped draft federal laws on Social Security and child support.

National Youth Administration

The National Youth Administration (NYA) was a New Deal agency sponsored by the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States that focused on providing work and education for Americans between the ages of 16 and 25. It operated from June 26, 1935 to 1939 as part of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and included a Division of Negro Affairs headed by Mary McLeod Bethune who worked at the agency from 1936 to 1943. Following the passage of the Reorganization Act of 1939, the NYA was transferred from the WPA to the Federal Security Agency. In 1942, the NYA was transferred to the War Manpower Commission (WMC). The NYA was discontinued in 1943.

By 1938, college youth were paid from $6 to $40 a month for "work study" projects at their schools. Another 155,000 boys and girls from relief families were paid $10 to $25 a month for part-time work that included job training. Unlike the Civilian Conservation Corps, it included young women. The youth normally lived at home, and worked on construction or repair projects. Its annual budget was approximately $58,000,000.

The NYA was headed by Aubrey Willis Williams, a prominent liberal from Alabama who was close to Harry Hopkins and Eleanor Roosevelt. The head of the Texas division at one point was Lyndon B. Johnson, who was later to become president of the United States.

The NYA operated several programs for out-of-school youth.

Newell A. George

Newell Adolphus George (September 24, 1904 – October 22, 1992) was a U.S. Representative from Kansas.

Born in Kansas City, Missouri, George attended public schools in Kansas City, Kansas, Wentworth Military Academy in Lexington, Missouri, Park College in Parkville, Missouri, and University of Kansas School of Law. He graduated from the George Washington University, Washington, D.C., in 1935. He was admitted to the District of Columbia bar in 1935 and to the Kansas bar in 1941. He commenced the practice of law in Kansas City, Kansas. He served as member of the staff of United States Senator George McGill of Kansas in 1933 and 1934. Regional attorney, Bureau of Employment Security from 1941 to 1945, and Federal Security Agency 1947-1953. Chief legal counsel, Regional War Manpower Commission, during the Second World War. First assistant Wyandotte County attorney 1953-1958. He served as delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1960.

George was elected as a Democrat to the Eighty-sixth Congress (January 3, 1959 – January 3, 1961). He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1960 to the Eighty-seventh Congress. He was appointed United States attorney for the district of Kansas March 28, 1961, and served until June 20, 1968. He was a resident of Kansas City, Kansas, until his death on October 22, 1992.

Oveta Culp Hobby

Oveta Culp Hobby (January 19, 1905 – August 16, 1995) was the first secretary of the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, first director of the Women's Army Corps, and a chairperson of the board of the Houston Post.

Paul V. McNutt

Paul Vories McNutt (July 19, 1891 – March 24, 1955) was an American diplomat and politician who served as the 34th Governor of Indiana, high commissioner to the Philippines, administrator of the Federal Security Agency, chairman of the War Manpower Commission and ambassador to the Philippines.

Social Security Administration

The United States Social Security Administration (SSA) is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government that administers Social Security, a social insurance program consisting of retirement, disability, and survivors' benefits. To qualify for most of these benefits, most workers pay Social Security taxes on their earnings; the claimant's benefits are based on the wage earner's contributions. Otherwise benefits such as Supplemental Security Income (SSI) are given based on need.

The Social Security Administration was established by a law codified at 42 U.S.C. § 901. Its current leader, Deputy Commissioner of Operations Nancy Berryhill, was acting commissioner from January 19, 2017 through November 17, 2017.SSA is headquartered in Woodlawn, Maryland, just to the west of Baltimore, at what is known as Central Office. The agency includes 10 regional offices, 8 processing centers, approximately 1300 field offices, and 37 Teleservice Centers. As of 2018, about 60,000 people were employed by SSA. Headquarters non-supervisory employees of SSA are represented by American Federation of Government Employees Local 1923. Social Security is the largest social welfare program in the United States. For 2014, the net cost of Social Security was $906.4 billion, an amount corresponding to 21% of US Federal Government expenditures.It has been named the 12th best place to work in the U.S. federal government (out of 55 large agencies).

Social hygiene movement

The social hygiene movement was an attempt by Progressive-era reformers to control venereal disease, regulate prostitution and vice, and disseminate sexual education through the use of scientific research methods and modern media techniques. Social hygiene as a profession grew alongside social work and other public health movements of the era. Social hygienists emphasized sexual continence and strict self-discipline as a solution to societal ills, tracing prostitution, drug use and illegitimacy to rapid urbanization. The movement remained alive throughout much of the 20th century and found its way into American schools, where it was transmitted in the form of classroom films about menstruation, sexually transmitted disease, drug abuse and acceptable sexual behavior in addition to an array of pamphlets, posters, textbooks and films.

Title 42 of the United States Code

Title 42 of the United States Code is the United States Code dealing with public health, social welfare, and civil rights.

42 U.S.C. ch. 1—The Public Health Service

42 U.S.C. ch. 1A—The Public Health Service, Supplemental Provisions

42 U.S.C. ch. 2—Sanitation and Quarantine

42 U.S.C. ch. 3—Leprosy

42 U.S.C. ch. 3A—Cancer

42 U.S.C. ch. 4—Viruses, Serums, Toxins, Antitoxins, Etc.

42 U.S.C. ch. 5—Maternity and Infancy Welfare and Hygiene

42 U.S.C. ch. 6—The Children's Bureau

42 U.S.C. ch. 6A—Public Health Service (Public Health Service Act)

42 U.S.C. ch. 7—Social Security

42 U.S.C. ch. 7A—Temporary Unemployment Compensation Program

42 U.S.C. ch. 8—Low-Income Housing

42 U.S.C. ch. 8A—Slum Clearance, Urban Renewal, and Farm Housing

42 U.S.C. ch. 8B—Public Works or Facilities

42 U.S.C. ch. 8C—Open-Space Land

42 U.S.C. ch. 9—Housing of Persons Engaged in National Defense

42 U.S.C. ch. 10—Federal Security Agency

42 U.S.C. ch. 11—Compensation for Disability or Death to Persons Employed at Military, Air, and Naval Bases Outside United States

42 U.S.C. ch. 12—Compensation for Injury, Death, or Detention of Employees of Contractors with United States Outside United States

42 U.S.C. ch. 13—School Lunch Programs

42 U.S.C. ch. 13A—Child Nutrition

42 U.S.C. ch. 14—Development and Control of Atomic Energy

42 U.S.C. ch. 15—Disaster Relief

42 U.S.C. ch. 15A—Reciprocal Fire Protection Agreements

42 U.S.C. ch. 15B—Air Pollution Control

42 U.S.C. ch. 16—National Science Foundation

42 U.S.C. ch. 16A—Grants for Support of Scientific Research

42 U.S.C. ch. 16B—Contracts for Scientific and Technological Research

42 U.S.C. ch. 17—Federal Employment Service

42 U.S.C. ch. 18—Youth Medals

42 U.S.C. ch. 19—Saline and Salt Waters

42 U.S.C. ch. 19A—Water Resources Research Program

42 U.S.C. ch. 19B—Water Resources Planning

42 U.S.C. ch. 20—Elective Franchise

42 U.S.C. ch. 20A—Civil Rights Commission

42 U.S.C. ch. 21—Civil Rights

42 U.S.C. ch. 21A—Privacy Protection

42 U.S.C. ch. 21B—Religious Freedom Restoration

42 U.S.C. ch. 21C—Protection of Religious Exercise in Land Use and by Institutionalized Persons

42 U.S.C. ch. 22—Indian Hospitals and Health Facilities

42 U.S.C. ch. 23—Development and Control of Atomic Energy

42 U.S.C. ch. 24—Disposal of Atomic Energy Communities

42 U.S.C. ch. 25—Federal Flood Insurance

42 U.S.C. ch. 26—National Space Program

42 U.S.C. ch. 26A—National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program

42 U.S.C. ch. 26B—Biomedical Research in Space

42 U.S.C. ch. 27—Loan Service of Captioned Films and Educational Media for Handicapped

42 U.S.C. ch. 28—Area Redevelopment Program

42 U.S.C. ch. 29—Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Offenses Control

42 U.S.C. ch. 30—Manpower Development and Training Program

42 U.S.C. ch. 31—Public Works Acceleration Program

42 U.S.C. ch. 32—Third Party Liability for Hospital and Medical Care

42 U.S.C. ch. 33—Community Mental Health Centers

42 U.S.C. ch. 34—Economic Opportunity Program

42 U.S.C. ch. 35—Programs for Older Americans

42 U.S.C. ch. 35A—Community Service Employment for Older Americans

42 U.S.C. ch. 36—Compensation of Condemnees in Development Programs

42 U.S.C. ch. 37—Community Facilities and Advance Land Acquisition

42 U.S.C. ch. 38—Public Works and Economic Development

42 U.S.C. ch. 39—Solid Waste Disposal

42 U.S.C. ch. 40—Soil Information Assistance for Community Planning and Resource Development

42 U.S.C. ch. 41—Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Program

42 U.S.C. ch. 42—Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation

42 U.S.C. ch. 43—Department of Health and Human Services

42 U.S.C. ch. 44—Department of Housing and Urban Development

42 U.S.C. ch. 45—Fair Housing

42 U.S.C. ch. 46—Justice System Improvement

42 U.S.C. ch. 47—Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Control

42 U.S.C. ch. 48—Guarantees for Financing New Community Land Development

42 U.S.C. ch. 49—National Housing Partnerships

42 U.S.C. ch. 50—National Flood Insurance

42 U.S.C. ch. 51—Design and Construction of Public Buildings to Accommodate Physically Handicapped

42 U.S.C. ch. 52—Intergovernmental Cooperation

42 U.S.C. ch. 52A—Joint Funding Simplification

42 U.S.C. ch. 53—Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations

42 U.S.C. ch. 54—Cabinet Committee on Opportunities for Spanish-Speaking People

42 U.S.C. ch. 55—National Environmental Policy

42 U.S.C. ch. 56—Environmental Quality Improvement

42 U.S.C. ch. 57—Environmental Pollution Study

42 U.S.C. ch. 58—Disaster Relief

42 U.S.C. ch. 59—National Urban Policy and New Community Development

42 U.S.C. ch. 60—Comprehensive Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Prevention, Treatment, and Rehabilitation Program

42 U.S.C. ch. 61—Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies for Federal and Federally Assisted Programs

42 U.S.C. ch. 62—Intergovernmental Personnel Program

42 U.S.C. ch. 63—Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention

42 U.S.C. ch. 63A—Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction

42 U.S.C. ch. 64—Public Service Employment Programs

42 U.S.C. ch. 65—Noise Control

42 U.S.C. ch. 66—Domestic Volunteer Services

42 U.S.C. ch. 67—Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform

42 U.S.C. ch. 68—Disaster Relief

42 U.S.C. ch. 69—Community Development

42 U.S.C. ch. 70—Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards

42 U.S.C. ch. 71—Solar Energy

42 U.S.C. ch. 72—Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

42 U.S.C. ch. 73—Development of Energy Sources

42 U.S.C. ch. 74—Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development

42 U.S.C. ch. 75—Programs for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities

42 U.S.C. ch. 76—Age Discrimination in Federally Assisted Programs

42 U.S.C. ch. 77—Energy Conservation

42 U.S.C. ch. 78—National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

42 U.S.C. ch. 79—Science and Technology Policy, Organization and Priorities

42 U.S.C. ch. 80—Public Works Employment

42 U.S.C. ch. 81—Energy Conservation and Resource Renewal

42 U.S.C. ch. 82—Solid Waste Disposal

42 U.S.C. ch. 83—Energy Extension Service

42 U.S.C. ch. 84—Department of Energy

42 U.S.C. ch. 85—Air Pollution Prevention and Control

42 U.S.C. ch. 86—Earthquake Hazards Reduction

42 U.S.C. ch. 87—Water Research and Development

42 U.S.C. ch. 88—Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act

42 U.S.C. ch. 89—Congregate Housing Services

42 U.S.C. ch. 90—Neighborhood and City Reinvestment, Self-Help and Revitalization

42 U.S.C. ch. 91—National Energy Conservation Policy

42 U.S.C. ch. 92—Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use

42 U.S.C. ch. 93—Emergency Energy Conservation

42 U.S.C. ch. 94—Low-Income Energy Assistance

42 U.S.C. ch. 95—United States Synthetic Fuels Corporation

42 U.S.C. ch. 96—Biomass Energy and Alcohol Fuels

42 U.S.C. ch. 97—Acid Precipitation Program and Carbon Dioxide Study

42 U.S.C. ch. 98—Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Research and Development

42 U.S.C. ch. 99—Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion

42 U.S.C. ch. 100—Wind Energy Systems

42 U.S.C. ch. 101: Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering

42 U.S.C. ch. 102: Mental Health Systems

42 U.S.C. ch. 103: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability

42 U.S.C. ch. 104: Nuclear Safety Research, Development, and Demonstration

42 U.S.C. ch. 105: Community Services Programs

42 U.S.C. ch. 106: Community Services Block Grant Program

42 U.S.C. ch. 107: Consumer-Patient Radiation Health and Safety

42 U.S.C. ch. 108: Nuclear Waste Policy

42 U.S.C. ch. 109: Water Resources Research

42 U.S.C. ch. 109a: Membrane Processes Research

42 U.S.C. ch. 110: Family Violence Prevention and Services

42 U.S.C. ch. 111: Emergency Federal Law Enforcement Assistance

42 U.S.C. ch. 112: Victim Compensation and Assistance

42 U.S.C. ch. 113: State Justice Institute

42 U.S.C. ch. 114: Protection And Advocacy For Mentally Ill Individuals

42 U.S.C. ch. 115: Child Development Associate Scholarship Assistance Program

42 U.S.C. ch. 116: Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know

42 U.S.C. ch. 117: Encouraging Good Faith Professional Review Activities

42 U.S.C. ch. 118: Alzheimer's Disease and Related Dementias Research

42 U.S.C. ch. 119: Homeless Assistance

42 U.S.C. ch. 120: Enterprise Zone Development

42 U.S.C. ch. 121: International Child Abduction Remedies

42 U.S.C. ch. 122: Native Hawaiian Health Care

42 U.S.C. ch. 123: Drug Abuse Education and Prevention

42 U.S.C. ch. 124: Public Housing Drug Elimination

42 U.S.C. ch. 125: Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness

42 U.S.C. ch. 126: Equal Opportunity For Individuals With Disabilities

42 U.S.C. ch. 127: Coordinated Services For Children, Youth, and Families

42 U.S.C. ch. 128: Hydrogen Research, Development, And Demonstration Program

42 U.S.C. ch. 129: National and Community Service

42 U.S.C. ch. 130: National Affordable Housing

42 U.S.C. ch. 131: Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS

42 U.S.C. ch. 132: Victims of Child Abuse

42 U.S.C. ch. 133: Pollution Prevention

42 U.S.C. ch. 134: Energy Policy

42 U.S.C. ch. 135: Residency and Service Requirements in Federally Assisted Housing

42 U.S.C. ch. 136: Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement

42 U.S.C. ch. 137: Management of Rechargeable Batteries and Batteries Containing Mercury

42 U.S.C. ch. 138: Assisted Suicide Funding Restriction

42 U.S.C. ch. 139: Volunteer Protection

42 U.S.C. ch. 140: Criminal Justice Identification, Information, and Communication

42 U.S.C. ch. 140A: Jennifer's Law

42 U.S.C. ch. 141: Commercial Space Opportunities and Transportation Services

42 U.S.C. ch. 142: Poison Control Center Enhancement and Awareness

42 U.S.C. ch. 143: Intercountry Adoptions

42 U.S.C. ch. 144: Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights

42 U.S.C. ch. 145: Public Safety Officer Medal of Valor and Tributes

42 U.S.C. ch. 146: Election Administration Improvement

42 U.S.C. ch. 147: Prison Rape Elimination

42 U.S.C. ch. 148: Windstorm Impact Reduction

42 U.S.C. ch. 149: Energy Policy, 2005

42 U.S.C. ch. 150: National Aeronautics and Space Programs, 2005

42 U.S.C. ch. 151: Child Protection and Safety

42 U.S.C. ch. 152: Energy Independence and Security

United States Department of Health and Human Services

The United States Department of Health & Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. Its motto is "Improving the health, safety, and well-being of America". Before the separate federal Department of Education was created in 1979, it was called the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW).

HHS is administered by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, who is appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The United States Public Health Service (PHS) is the main division of the HHS and is led by the Assistant Secretary for Health. The current Secretary, Alex Azar, assumed office on January 29, 2018, upon his appointment by President Trump and confirmation by the Senate.

The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, the uniformed service of the PHS, is led by the Surgeon General who is responsible for addressing matters concerning public health as authorized by the Secretary or by the Assistant Secretary of Health in addition to his or her primary mission of administering the Commissioned Corps.

United States Public Health Service

The United States Public Health Service (USPHS) is a division of the Department of Health and Human Services concerned with public health. It contains eight out of the department's eleven operating divisions. The Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) oversees the PHS. The Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) is the federal uniformed service of the USPHS, and is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

Its origins can be traced to the establishment of 1798 of a system of marine hospitals. In 1870 these were consolidated into the Marine Hospital Service, and the position of Surgeon General was established. In 1889, the PHSCC was established. As the system's scope grew, it was renamed the Public Health Service in 1912. The Public Health Service Act of 1944 consolidated and revised previous laws and is the current legal basis for the PHS. It became the primary division of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, established in 1953, which later became the Department of Health and Human Services in 1979.

War Manpower Commission

The War Manpower Commission was a World War II agency of the United States Government charged with planning to balance the labor needs of agriculture, industry and the armed forces.

War Research Service

The War Research Service (WRS) was a civilian agency of the United States government established during World War II to pursue research relating to biological warfare. Established in May 1942 by Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, the WRS was embedded in the Federal Security Agency, the federal agency that administered Social Security and other New Deal programs in the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Headed by George W. Merck, president of the Merck & Co. pharmaceutical firm, the WRS was headquartered at Fort Detrick, Maryland.

Being a civilian agency, the WRS was initially tasked to supervise the military Chemical Warfare Service's biological program.

However, the WRS was disbanded in 1944, and the weapons research was continued under the exclusive oversight of the CWS.

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