February

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24 25 26 27 28

February is the second and shortest month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendar with 28 days in common years and 29 days in leap years, with the quadrennial 29th day being called the leap day. It is the first of five months to have a length of fewer than 31 days (the other four months that fall under this category are: April, June, September, and November), and the only month to have a length of fewer than 30 days, with the other seven months having 31 days. In 2019, February had 28 days.

February is the third and last month of meteorological winter in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, February is the third and last month of summer (the seasonal equivalent of August in the Northern Hemisphere, in meteorological reckoning).

Pronunciation

February is pronounced either as /ˈfɛbjuɛri/ (listen) FEB-yoo-err-ee or /ˈfɛbruɛri/ FEB-roo-err-ee. Many people pronounce the first "r" as /j/ rather than /r/, as if it were spelled "Febuary". This comes about by analogy with "January" (/ˈdʒænjuɛri/ (listen)), as well as by a dissimilation effect whereby having two "r"s close to each other causes one to change for ease of pronunciation.[1]

History

Februar Leandro Bassano
February, Leandro Bassano
Valentines Day Chocolates from 2005
Chocolates for St. Valentine's Day

The Roman month Februarius was named after the Latin term februum, which means purification, via the purification ritual Februa held on February 15 (full moon) in the old lunar Roman calendar. January and February were the last two months to be added to the Roman calendar, since the Romans originally considered winter a monthless period. They were added by Numa Pompilius about 713 BC. February remained the last month of the calendar year until the time of the decemvirs (c. 450 BC), when it became the second month. At certain intervals February was truncated to 23 or 24 days, and a 27-day intercalary month, Intercalaris, was inserted immediately after February to realign the year with the seasons.

February observances in Ancient Rome include Amburbium (precise date unknown), Sementivae (February 2), Februa (February 13–15), Lupercalia (February 13–15), Parentalia (February 13–22), Quirinalia (February 17), Feralia (February 21), Caristia (February 22), Terminalia (February 23), Regifugium (February 24), and Agonium Martiale (February 27). These days do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar.

Under the reforms that instituted the Julian calendar, Intercalaris was abolished, leap years occurred regularly every fourth year, and in leap years February gained a 29th day. Thereafter, it remained the second month of the calendar year, meaning the order that months are displayed (January, February, March, ..., December) within a year-at-a-glance calendar. Even during the Middle Ages, when the numbered Anno Domini year began on March 25 or December 25, the second month was February whenever all twelve months were displayed in order. The Gregorian calendar reforms made slight changes to the system for determining which years were leap years and thus contained a 29-day February.

Historical names for February include the Old English terms Solmonath (mud month) and Kale-monath (named for cabbage) as well as Charlemagne's designation Hornung. In Finnish, the month is called helmikuu, meaning "month of the pearl"; when snow melts on tree branches, it forms droplets, and as these freeze again, they are like pearls of ice. In Polish and Ukrainian, respectively, the month is called luty or лютий, meaning the month of ice or hard frost. In Macedonian the month is sechko (сечко), meaning month of cutting [wood]. In Czech, it is called únor, meaning month of submerging [of river ice].

In Slovene, February is traditionally called svečan, related to icicles or Candlemas.[2] This name originates from sičan,[3] written as svičan in the New Carniolan Almanac from 1775 and changed to its final form by Franc Metelko in his New Almanac from 1824. The name was also spelled sečan, meaning "the month of cutting down of trees".[2]

In 1848, a proposal was put forward in Kmetijske in rokodelske novice by the Slovene Society of Ljubljana to call this month talnik (related to ice melting), but it did not stick. The idea was proposed by a priest, Blaž Potočnik.[4] Another name of February in Slovene was vesnar, after the mythological character Vesna.[5]

Patterns

Having only 28 days in common years, February is the only month of the year that can pass without a single full moon. Using Coordinated Universal Time as the basis for determining the date and time of a full moon, this last happened in 2018 and will next happen in 2037.[6][7] The same is true regarding a new moon: again using Coordinated Universal Time as the basis, this last happened in 2014 and will next happen in 2033.[8][9]

February is also the only month of the calendar that, once every six years and twice every 11 years consecutively, either back into the past or forward into the future, has four full 7-day weeks. In countries that start their week on a Monday, it occurs as part of a common year starting on Friday, in which February 1st is a Monday and the 28th is a Sunday; this occurred in 1965, 1971, 1982, 1993, 1999 and 2010, and occur will again in 2021. In countries that start their week on a Sunday, it occurs in a common year starting on Thursday, with the next occurrence in 2026, and previous occurrences in 1987, 1998, 2009 and 2015. The pattern is broken by a skipped leap year, but no leap year has been skipped since 1900 and no others will be skipped until 2100.

Astronomy

February meteor showers include the Alpha Centaurids (appearing in early February), the Beta Leonids, also known as the March Virginids (lasting from February 14 to April 25, peaking around March 20), the Delta Cancrids (appearing December 14 to February 14, peaking on January 17), the Omicron Centaurids (late January through February, peaking in mid-February), Theta Centaurids (January 23 – March 12, only visible in the southern hemisphere), Eta Virginids (February 24 and March 27, peaking around March 18), and Pi Virginids (February 13 and April 8, peaking between March 3 and March 9).

Astrology

The western zodiac signs of February are Aquarius (until February 19) and Pisces (February 20 onwards).[10]

February symbols

1760 - Salzburg - Stiftskirche St Peter - Viola
The violet
Primrose primula cultivars in Great Canfield churchyard, Essex, England 01
White and mauve primroses
Améthystre sceptre2
Amethyst crystals

Observances

This list does not necessarily imply either official status nor general observance.

Month-long observances

Non-Gregorian observances, 2019

This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance. Please note that all Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at the sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown of the date in question unless otherwise noted.

Movable observances, 2019 dates

First Friday: February 1

First Saturday: February 2

First Sunday: February 3

First Monday: February 4

First Week of February (first Monday, ending on Sunday): February 4-10

Second Saturday: February 9

Second Sunday: February 10

11th Sunday before Pascha (Eastern Christianity): February 10

Second Monday: February 11

Second Tuesday: February 12

Third Friday: February 15

63 days before Pascha (Eastern Christianity): February 16 [17]

10th Sunday before Pascha in Eastern Christianity: February 17

Week of February 22: February 17-23

Third Monday: February 18

2nd Monday before Clean Monday in Eastern Christianity and the following three days: February 18-21

Third Thursday: February 21

Last Friday: February 22

Last Saturday: February 23

2nd Sunday before Ash Wednesday (Western Christianity): February 24

9th Sunday before Easter in Western Christianity: February 24

Sunday before Ash Wednesday (Western Christianity): February 24

9th Sunday before Pascha (Eastern Christianity): February 24 [19]

Monday before Ash Wednesday (Western Christianity): February 25

Tuesday before Ash Wednesday: February 26

Last Tuesday: February 26

Last Thursday before Lent (Western Christianity): February 28

Thursday of the 8th week before Pascha (Eastern Christianity): February 28[20]

Last day of February: February 28

Fixed observances

References

  1. ^ "February | Definition of February by Merriam-Webster". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
  2. ^ a b "Koledar prireditev v letu 2007 in druge informacije občine Dobrova–Polhov Gradec" [The Calendar of Events and Other Information of the Municipality of Dobrova–Polhov Gradec] (PDF) (in Slovenian). Municipality of Dobrova-Polhov Gradec. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-11-02.
  3. ^ Vasmer, Max, ed. (1972). "Zeitschrift für slavische Philologie". 36–37. Markert&Petters: 115.
  4. ^ "Slovenska imena mesecev" [Slovene Names of Months]. Kmetijske in rokodelske novice. 6 (37). 13 September 1848.
  5. ^ Bogataj, Janez (2005). "Slovenska mitologija – Vesna" [Slovene Mythology – Vesna]. Bilten; poštne znamke [Bulletin: Postage Stamps] (in Slovenian, English, and German) (56). ISSN 1318-6280.
  6. ^ https://www.timeanddate.com/moon/phases/uk/london?year=2018
  7. ^ https://www.timeanddate.com/moon/phases/uk/london?year=2037
  8. ^ https://www.timeanddate.com/moon/phases/uk/london?year=2014
  9. ^ https://www.timeanddate.com/moon/phases/uk/london?year=2033
  10. ^ "Zodiac Signs". Mistupid.com. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
  11. ^ "Birth Month Flowers". Babiesonline.com. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
  12. ^ https://www.1stinflowers.com/fom_february.html
  13. ^ "February Birthstone | Amethyst". Americangemsociety.org. Retrieved 2016-09-17.
  14. ^ "National Children's Dental Health Month". American Dental Association. 2017. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
  15. ^ https://www.saferinternet.org.uk/safer-internet-day/2019
  16. ^ "Lenten and Paschal Cycle". oca.org. Archived from the original on 2016-12-05.
  17. ^ https://anydayguide.com/calendar/16-02-2019
  18. ^ http://suscopts.org/coptic-orthodox/fasts-and-feasts/2019/
  19. ^ "Lenten and Paschal Cycle". oca.org.
  20. ^ https://www.timeanddate.com/holidays/armenia/saint-vartan-feast

Further reading

  • Anthony Aveni, "February's Holidays: Prediction, Purification, and Passionate Pursuit," The Book of the Year: A Brief History of Our Seasonal Holidays (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 29–46.

External links

2018 Winter Olympics

The 2018 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIII Olympic Winter Games (Korean: 제23회 동계 올림픽, translit. Jeisipsamhoe Donggye Ollimpik) and commonly known as PyeongChang 2018, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held between 9 and 25 February 2018 in Pyeongchang County, Gangwon Province, South Korea, with the opening rounds for certain events held on 8 February 2018, the eve of the opening ceremony.

Pyeongchang was elected as the host city in July 2011, during the 123rd IOC Session in Durban, South Africa. This was the first time that South Korea had hosted the Winter Olympics and the second Olympics held in the country overall, after the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. It was the third time that an East Asian country had hosted the Winter Games, after Sapporo (1972) and Nagano (1998), both in Japan. It was also the first of three consecutive Olympics to be held in East Asia, the other two being the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo and the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing.

The Games featured 102 events over fifteen disciplines in seven sports, with the addition of "big air" snowboarding, mass start speed skating, mixed doubles curling, and mixed team alpine skiing to the Winter Olympic programme. 2,914 athletes from 92 NOCs competed, including the debuts of Ecuador, Eritrea, Kosovo, Malaysia, Nigeria and Singapore. After a state-sponsored doping program was exposed following the 2014 Winter Olympics, the Russian Olympic Committee was suspended, and selected athletes were allowed to compete neutrally under the IOC designation of "Olympic Athletes from Russia". Despite tense relations, North Korea agreed to participate in the Games, enter with South Korea during the opening ceremony as a unified Korea, and field a unified team in women's ice hockey.

Norway led the total medal tally with 39, followed by Germany's 31 and Canada's 29. Germany and Norway were tied for the most gold medals won; both won fourteen golds. Host nation South Korea won seventeen medals, their highest medal haul at a Winter Olympics, five of which were gold.

2019

2019 (MMXIX)

is the current year, and is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

2019 has been assigned as International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements by the United Nations General Assembly given that it coincides with the 150th anniversary of its creation by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869.

2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis

A crisis concerning who is the legitimate President of Venezuela has been underway since 10 January 2019, when the opposition-majority National Assembly declared that incumbent Nicolás Maduro's 2018 reelection was invalid and the body declared its president, Juan Guaidó, to be acting president of the nation.

The process and results of the May 2018 Venezuelan presidential election were widely disputed.

The National Assembly declared Maduro illegitimate on the day of his second inauguration, citing the 1999 Constitution of Venezuela enacted under Hugo Chávez, Maduro's predecessor; in response, the pro-Maduro Supreme Tribunal of Justice said the National Assembly's declaration was unconstitutional.Minutes after Maduro took the oath as president of Venezuela, the Organization of American States (OAS) approved a resolution in a special session of its Permanent Council declaring Maduro's presidency illegitimate and urging new elections. Special meetings of the OAS on 24 January and in the United Nations Security Council on 26 January were held but no consensus was reached. Secretary-General of the United Nations António Guterres called for dialogue.Maduro's government states that the crisis is a "coup d'état led by the United States to topple him and control the country's oil reserves." Guaidó denies the coup allegations, saying peaceful volunteers back his movement. As of March 2019, Guaidó has been recognized as the interim president of Venezuela by 54 countries, "including the US and most Latin American and European countries". AP News reported that "familiar geopolitical sides" had formed with allies Russia, China, Iran, Syria, and Cuba supporting Maduro, and the US, Canada, and most of Western Europe supporting Guaidó as interim president.

21 Savage

Shéyaa Bin Abraham-Joseph (born October 22, 1992), known by his stage name 21 Savage, is a rapper, songwriter, and record producer based in Atlanta, Georgia. He became known in Atlanta for the 2015 mixtape The Slaughter Tape before attaining nationwide attention following an extended play collaboration Savage Mode (2016) with the producer Metro Boomin and its popular singles "X" and "No Heart", as well as a guest feature on the 2016 Drake single "Sneakin'".21 Savage released his debut studio album, Issa Album, on July 7, 2017. It debuted at number two on the Billboard 200 and gave him his first Billboard Hot 100 top 20 song, "Bank Account". His first number one single came at the end of 2017 with his feature on Post Malone's "Rockstar", which was nominated in two categories at the 61st Grammy Awards. On October 31, 2017, he released the Offset and Metro Boomin collaboration Without Warning. In December 2018, he released his second album, I Am > I Was, which debuted at number one on the Billboard 200 and stayed at number one for two consecutive weeks.On February 3, 2019, 21 Savage was arrested by the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), officials of which stated that he is a citizen of the United Kingdom who entered the U.S. in July 2005 and then unlawfully overstayed his visa when it expired in July 2006. He was granted bond on February 12 and released the next day, pending the outcome of an expedited deportation hearing. The hearing was initially scheduled for April 9, but was later postponed indefinitely.

91st Academy Awards

The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, created by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 2018, and took place at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles, California. The ceremony was held on February 24, 2019. During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards (commonly referred to as Oscars) in 24 categories. The ceremony was televised in the United States by the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), produced by Donna Gigliotti and Glenn Weiss, with Weiss also serving as director. It was the first ceremony in three decades, since the 61st Academy Awards in 1989, to be conducted with no host.

In related events, the Academy held its 10th Annual Governors Awards ceremony at the Grand Ballroom of the Hollywood and Highland Center on November 18, 2018. The Academy Scientific and Technical Awards were presented by host actor David Oyelowo on February 9, 2019, in a ceremony at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills.Green Book won three awards, including Best Picture and Best Supporting Actor for Mahershala Ali's portrayal of Don Shirley, and Bohemian Rhapsody led the ceremony with four awards, including Best Actor for Rami Malek's portrayal of Freddie Mercury. Roma and Black Panther also received three awards apiece, with the former winning Best Director for Alfonso Cuarón and becoming the first Mexican submission to win Best Foreign Language Film. Olivia Colman was awarded Best Actress for portraying Anne, Queen of Great Britain in The Favourite. With a U.S. viewership of 29.6 million, it marked a 12% increase over the 2018 ceremony.

Albert Finney

Albert Finney (9 May 1936 – 7 February 2019) was an English actor who worked in film, television and theatre. He attended the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art and worked in the theatre before attaining prominence on screen in the early 1960s, debuting with The Entertainer (1960), directed by Tony Richardson, who had previously directed him in the theatre. He maintained a successful career in theatre, film and television.

He is known for his roles in Saturday Night and Sunday Morning (also 1960), Tom Jones (1963), Two for the Road (1967), Scrooge (1970), Annie (1982), The Dresser (1983), Miller's Crossing (1990), A Man of No Importance (1994), Erin Brockovich (2000), Big Fish (2003), The Bourne Ultimatum (2007), Before the Devil Knows You're Dead (2007), The Bourne Legacy (2012), and the James Bond film Skyfall (2012).

A recipient of BAFTA , Golden Globe, Emmy and Screen Actors Guild awards, Finney was nominated for an Academy Award five times, as Best Actor four times, for Tom Jones (1963), Murder on the Orient Express (1974), The Dresser (1983), and Under the Volcano (1984), and as Best Supporting Actor for Erin Brockovich (2000). He received several awards for his performance as Winston Churchill in the 2002 BBC–HBO television biographical film The Gathering Storm.

Anna Nicole Smith

Anna Nicole Smith (born Vickie Lynn Hogan; November 28, 1967 – February 8, 2007) was an American model, actress and television personality. Smith first gained popularity in Playboy magazine when she won the title of 1993 Playmate of the Year. She modeled for fashion companies, including Guess, H&M, Heatherette and Lane Bryant.

Smith dropped out of high school at age 14 in 1982 and married in 1985. Her highly publicized second marriage to 89-year old J. Howard Marshall, a billionaire as a result of his 16% ownership stake in Koch Industries, resulted in speculation that she married the octogenarian for his money, which she denied. Following Marshall's death, Smith began a lengthy legal battle over a share of his estate. Her cases reached the Supreme Court of the United States: Marshall v. Marshall on a question of federal jurisdiction and Stern v. Marshall on a question of bankruptcy court authority.

During the final six months of her life, Smith was the focus of renewed press coverage surrounding the death of her son, Daniel, and the paternity and custody battle over her newborn daughter, Dannielynn Birkhead.

Smith died in 2007 in a Hollywood, Florida, hotel room as a result of an overdose of prescription drugs.

Brexit Party

The Brexit Party is a pro-Brexit Eurosceptic political party in the United Kingdom, formed in 2019. The party has fourteen Members of the European Parliament (MEPs), all of whom were originally elected as UK Independence Party (UKIP) candidates. The party is led by one of these MEPs, former UKIP leader Nigel Farage, who announced he would stand as a candidate for the party in any future European Parliament elections, in the event the UK had not left the European Union.

Change UK - The Independent Group

Change UK – The Independent Group (TIG) is a British pro-EU political party founded in February 2019 and registered in April that year.

The group's seven founding members were Members of Parliament (MPs) who resigned from the Labour Party, citing their dissatisfaction with the Labour leadership's approach to Brexit and its handling of antisemitism within the party, to sit as a group of independent MPs under the name The Independent Group. In the days following their announcement they were joined by another MP resigning from Labour, citing similar reasons, and by three MPs who resigned from the Conservative Party, citing their opposition to that party's Brexit policies, a lack of concern within the party for the "most vulnerable in society", and what they saw as a right-wing takeover of the Conservatives. All members of the group support a second EU referendum. The group is considered to be centrist.

In March 2019, the group announced that it had applied to the Electoral Commission to become a political party, with Heidi Allen as interim leader, in order to be able to stand candidates in the upcoming May 2019 European elections. The registration, as 'Change UK – The Independent Group', was confirmed on 15 April 2019.

Two Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) elected in 2014 as Conservatives have affiliated to the group. The party does not have officially recognised members in UK local government, though in England several local councillors have left Labour and declared support for the group.

Eddie Guerrero

Eduardo Gory Guerrero Llanes (October 9, 1967 – November 13, 2005) was an American professional wrestler and a prominent member of the Guerrero wrestling family.

Guerrero performed in Mexico and Japan for several major professional wrestling promotions, and in the United States performed for Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW), World Championship Wrestling (WCW), and most notably World Wrestling Federation/Entertainment (WWF/WWE). Guerrero's gimmick was that of "Latino Heat", a crafty, resourceful wrestler who would do anything to win a match. His catchphrase became "I Lie! I Cheat! I Steal!" and was used in one of his entrance themes; he partly used this phrase in the title of his 2005 autobiography, Cheating Death, Stealing Life. Despite being a heel for most of his career, he was popular in and out of the ring and was at the peak of his career as a face during 2003–2005, becoming the top wrestler on the SmackDown brand in 2004. He experienced various substance abuse problems, including alcoholism and an addiction to painkillers; these real-life issues were sometimes incorporated into his storylines.

Guerrero spent his early career wrestling in Mexican promotions and forming a popular tag team with Art Barr. After the death of Barr, Guerrero received his first mainstream exposure in the United States in 1995 by joining ECW and winning the ECW World Television Championship. Later that year, Guerrero moved to WCW, where he became WCW United States Champion, WCW Crusierweight Champion and led the Latino World Order. He left WCW in 2000 after the company failed to elevate him to a main event spot.

He moved to WWF with his WCW colleagues Chris Benoit, Dean Malenko and Perry Saturn, who formed a group called The Radicalz. Guerrero went on to win the WWF European Championship and WWF Intercontinental Championship before he was released in 2001 due to addiction issues. After being rehired in 2002, he formed Los Guerreros with his nephew Chavo, winning the WWE Tag Team Championship, and established himself on the SmackDown brand. He climbed to main event status and won the WWE Championship, his sole world championship at No Way Out 2004. He lost the title later that year but remained a popular main eventer until his untimely death on November 13, 2005. Guerrero left an impact and legacy on the professional wrestling industry as one of the most beloved performers of his generation and an inspiration to many future professional wrestlers. He was posthumously inducted into the WWE, AAA, Wrestling Observer Newsletter and Hardcore halls of fame.

Fifty Shades of Grey (film)

Fifty Shades of Grey is a 2015 American erotic romantic drama film directed by Sam Taylor-Johnson, with a screenplay by Kelly Marcel. The film is based on E. L. James’ 2011 novel of the same name and stars Dakota Johnson as Anastasia Steele, a college graduate who begins a sadomasochistic relationship with young business magnate Christian Grey, played by Jamie Dornan.

The film premiered at the 65th Berlin International Film Festival on February 11, 2015 and was released on February 13, 2015, by Universal Pictures and Focus Features. Despite receiving generally negative reviews, it was an immediate box office success, breaking numerous box office records and earning over US$571 million worldwide.

The film was the most awarded at the 36th Golden Raspberry Awards, winning five of six nominations, including Worst Picture (tied with Fantastic Four) and both leading roles. In contrast, Ellie Goulding's single "Love Me like You Do" was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song, while The Weeknd's single "Earned It" was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Song.

It is the first film in the Fifty Shades film series and was followed by two sequels, Fifty Shades Darker and Fifty Shades Freed, released in 2017 and 2018 respectively.

Google Play

Google Play (previously Android Market) is a digital distribution service operated and developed by Google LLC. It serves as the official app store for the Android operating system, allowing users to browse and download applications developed with the Android software development kit (SDK) and published through Google. Google Play also serves as a digital media store, offering music, books, movies, and television programs. It previously offered Google hardware devices for purchase until the introduction of a separate online hardware retailer, Google Store, on March 11, 2015, and it also offered news publications and magazines before the revamp of Google News in May 15, 2018.

Applications are available through Google Play either free of charge or at a cost. They can be downloaded directly on an Android device through the Play Store mobile app or by deploying the application to a device from the Google Play website. Applications exploiting hardware capabilities of a device can be targeted to users of devices with specific hardware components, such as a motion sensor (for motion-dependent games) or a front-facing camera (for online video calling). The Google Play store had over 82 billion app downloads in 2016 and has reached over 3.5 million apps published in 2017. It has been the subject of multiple issues concerning security, in which malicious software has been approved and uploaded to the store and downloaded by users, with varying degrees of severity.

Google Play was launched on March 6, 2012, bringing together the Android Market, Google Music, and the Google eBookstore under one brand, marking a shift in Google's digital distribution strategy. The services included in the Google Play are Google Play Books, Google Play Games, Google Play Movies & TV, Google Play Music. Following their re-branding, Google has gradually expanded the geographical support for each of the services.

Indian Premier League

The Indian Premier League (IPL) is a professional Twenty20 cricket league in India contested during March or April and May of every year by eight teams representing eight different cities in India. The league was founded by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) in 2008, and is regarded as the brainchild of Lalit Modi, the founder and former commissioner of the league. IPL has an exclusive window in ICC Future Tours Programme.The IPL is the most-attended cricket league in the world and in 2014 ranked sixth by average attendance among all sports leagues. In 2010, the IPL became the first sporting event in the world to be broadcast live on YouTube. The brand value of IPL in 2018 was US$6.3 billion, according to Duff & Phelps. According to BCCI, the 2015 IPL season contributed ₹12,543.5 billion to the GDP of the Indian economy.There have been eleven seasons of the IPL tournament. The current IPL title holders are the Chennai Super Kings, who won the 2018 season.

Jason Momoa

Joseph Jason Namakaeha Momoa (born August 1, 1979) is an American actor. He is known for portraying Aquaman in the DC Extended Universe, beginning with the 2016 superhero film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice, and in the 2017 ensemble Justice League and his 2018 solo film Aquaman. In Baywatch Hawaii, he portrayed Lifeguard Jason Ioane. He is also known for his television roles as Ronon Dex on the military science fiction television series Stargate Atlantis (2004–2009), Khal Drogo in the HBO fantasy television series Game of Thrones (2011–2012), and as Declan Harp in the CBC series Frontier (2016–present).

Momoa portrayed the title character in the sword and sorcery film Conan the Barbarian (2011). Road to Paloma was Momoa's first film as director, writer, and producer. He also starred in the lead role in the film, released on July 11, 2014.

List of religious populations

This is a list of religious populations by number of adherents and countries.

Mardi Gras

Mardi Gras (), or Fat Tuesday, refers to events of the Carnival celebration, beginning on or after the Christian feasts of the Epiphany (Three Kings Day) and culminating on the day before Ash Wednesday (known as Shrove Tuesday). Mardi Gras is French for "Fat Tuesday", reflecting the practice of the last night of eating rich, fatty foods before the ritual fasting of the Lenten season.

Related popular practices are associated with Shrovetide celebrations before the fasting and religious obligations associated with the penitential season of Lent. In countries such as the United Kingdom, Mardi Gras is also known as Shrove Tuesday, which is derived from the word shrive, meaning "to administer the sacrament of confession to; to absolve".

Philip Seymour Hoffman

Philip Seymour Hoffman (July 23, 1967 – February 2, 2014) was an American actor, director, and producer. Best known for his distinctive supporting and character roles – typically lowlifes, eccentrics, bullies, and misfits – Hoffman acted in many films from the early 1990s until his death in 2014.

Drawn to theater as a teenager, Hoffman studied acting at New York University's Tisch School of the Arts. He began his screen career in a 1991 episode of Law & Order and started to appear in films in 1992. He gained recognition for his supporting work, notably in Scent of a Woman (1992), Boogie Nights (1997), Happiness (1998), Patch Adams (1998), The Big Lebowski (1998), Magnolia (1999), The Talented Mr. Ripley (1999), Almost Famous (2000), Punch-Drunk Love (2002), and Along Came Polly (2004). He began to occasionally play leading roles, and for his portrayal of the author Truman Capote in Capote (2005), won multiple accolades, including the Academy Award for Best Actor. Hoffman's profile continued to grow, and he received three more Oscar nominations for his supporting work as a brutally frank CIA officer in Charlie Wilson's War (2007), a priest accused of pedophilia in Doubt (2008), and the charismatic leader of a Scientology-type movement in The Master (2012).

While he mainly worked in independent films, including The Savages (2007) and Synecdoche, New York (2008), Hoffman also appeared in Flawless (1999), and Hollywood blockbusters such as Twister (1996) and Mission: Impossible III (2006), and in one of his final roles, as Plutarch Heavensbee in the Hunger Games series (2013–15). The feature Jack Goes Boating (2010) marked his debut as a filmmaker. Hoffman was also an accomplished theater actor and director. He joined the off-Broadway LAByrinth Theater Company in 1995, where he directed, produced, and appeared in numerous stage productions. His performances in three Broadway plays – True West in 2000, Long Day's Journey into Night in 2003, and Death of a Salesman in 2012 – all led to Tony Award nominations.

Hoffman struggled with drug addiction as a young adult and relapsed in 2013 after many years of abstinence. In February 2014, he died of combined drug intoxication. Remembered for his fearlessness in playing reprehensible characters, and for bringing depth and humanity to such roles, Hoffman was described in his New York Times obituary as "perhaps the most ambitious and widely admired American actor of his generation".

Sridevi

Sridevi (born Shree Amma Yanger Ayyapan; 13 August 1963 – 24 February 2018) was an Indian actress and producer, who worked in Tamil, Hindi, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada films. Regarded as the "first female superstar" of Indian cinema, she was the recipient of various accolades, including the National Film Award, the Nandi Award, the Tamil Nadu State Film Award, the Kerala State Film Award, three Filmfare Awards, the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award, and three Filmfare Awards South. In a career that spanned five decades, she was known for her portrayals of women in challenging situations, and she has appeared in a range of genres, from slapstick comedy to epic dramas. Sridevi ranked as the highest-paid woman in the Indian entertainment industry in the 1980s and 1990s and is widely regarded as one of the greatest and most influential actresses in the history of Indian cinema.Sridevi made her debut as child artiste with the 1967 Tamil film Kandhan Karunai at the age of 4, and started her acting career in lead role as a child with M. A. Thirumugam’s 1969 mythological Tamil film Thunaivan. She continued to act as a child artist in Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada films and made her Hindi film debut at age 9 with Rani Mera Naam (1972). Her first adult role came at age 13 with the Tamil film Moondru Mudichu (1976) and she established herself as one of the leading actresses of South Indian Cinema, with roles in 16 Vayathinile (1977), Thulavarsham (1976), Angeekaram (1977), Sigappu Rojakkal (1978), Padaharella Vayasu (1978), Vetagadu (1979), Varumayin Niram Sivappu (1980), Meendum Kokila (1981), Premabhishekam (1981), Moondram Pirai (1982), Aakhari Poratam (1988), Jagadeka Veerudu Atiloka Sundari (1990) and Kshana Kshanam (1991).

Following a notable appearance in romantic drama Julie (1975), Sridevi's first starring role in Hindi cinema came with the 1979 drama film Solva Sawan, and she received wider recognition with the 1983 film Himmatwala. She quickly established herself as the leading actress of the industry after starring in a string of successful films, including Mawaali (1983), Tohfa (1984), Naya Kadam (1984), Maqsad (1984), Masterji (1985), Karma (1986), Nazrana (1987), Mr. India (1987), Waqt Ki Awaz (1988) and Chandni (1989). She received praise for films such as Sadma (1983), Nagina (1986), ChaalBaaz (1989), Lamhe (1991), Khuda Gawah (1992), Gumrah (1993), Laadla (1994) and Judaai (1997). Following the role of the titular protagonist in the television sitcom Malini Iyer (2004–2005), Sridevi returned to film acting in 2012 with the successful comedy-drama English Vinglish. She then starred in her 300th film role in the 2017 thriller Mom. She earned critical acclaim for her performances in both films, and for the latter was posthumously awarded the National Film Award for Best Actress.

In 2013, the Government of India awarded Sridevi the Padma Shri, the country's fourth highest civilian accolade for her contributions to the entertainment industry. Honorary awards were also conferred on her by the state governments of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala. Sridevi was voted 'India's Greatest Actress in 100 Years' in a CNN-IBN national poll conducted in 2013 on the occasion of the centenary of Indian cinema. On February 24, 2018, Sridevi was found dead in her guest room at the Jumeirah Emirates Towers Hotel, in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The official coroner's report showed that she had accidentally drowned in the bathtub, with unconsciousness cited as a contributing factor. News of her death featured prominently in Indian and international media. She was married to the film producer Boney Kapoor, with whom she had two children.

Stoneman Douglas High School shooting

On February 14, 2018, a gunman opened fire at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida, killing seventeen students and staff members and injuring seventeen others. Witnesses identified Nikolas Cruz, a nineteen-year-old who had been expelled as a student, as the assailant. Cruz fled the scene on foot by blending with other students. He was arrested about an hour later in nearby Coral Springs. He confessed to being the perpetrator, and he was charged with 17 counts of premeditated murder and 17 counts of attempted murder. Police and prosecutors have not offered a motive and are investigating "a pattern of disciplinary issues and unnerving behavior", but Cruz offered several motives for the crime.Cruz's killing spree is the deadliest high school shooting in United States history, surpassing the Columbine High School massacre that killed 13 in Colorado on April 20, 1999. The shooting came at a period of heightened public support for gun control following mass shootings in Las Vegas, Nevada and Sutherland Springs, Texas, in October and November 2017.

In 2016 and 2017, the sheriff's office received a number of tips about Cruz's threats to carry out a school shooting. The FBI learned that a YouTube user with the username "nikolas cruz" posted a message in September 2017 about becoming a school shooter, but the agency could not identify the user. In January 2018, someone contacted the FBI tip line with a direct complaint that Cruz had made a death threat, but the complaint was not forwarded to the local FBI office.

Following the massacre, the anger and frustration of Parkland student survivors intensified towards the perceived inaction of the Republican-dominated legislature on the wider issue of mass shootings and gun violence. The students founded Never Again MSD, an advocacy group that lobbies for legislative action on gun violence. On March 9, Governor Rick Scott signed a bill that raised the minimum age for buying rifles in Florida from 18 to 21. The legislation also established waiting periods and background checks for gun buyers. The law allowed for the arming of teachers who were properly trained and the hiring of school police. So-called "bump stocks" would now be banned and some potentially violent or mentally unstable persons would be prohibited from possessing guns. The National Rifle Association (NRA) immediately filed a lawsuit that challenged the federal constitutionality of the age requirement clause.After the shooting, the Broward County Sheriff's Office received national criticism for its handling of the police response, with much of the criticism being directed at Sheriff Scott Israel for not addressing loopholes that allowed Cruz to purchase a firearm despite his lengthy record of threatening behavior. Israel's deputies were also criticized for staying outside the school and not attempting to confront Cruz while the shooting was in progress. Several police officers who responded to the scene later resigned, and Israel was suspended by new Governor Ron DeSantis in January 2019 for his conduct in regards to the shooting. A commission appointed by then-Governor Scott to investigate the attack condemned the police inaction in the wake of the attack and urged school districts across the state to adopt greater measures of security, including the possibility of allowing educators and staff members to carry their own firearms on school property, in order to prevent further attacks.In March 2019, after the first anniversary of the shooting, two Parkland survivors committed suicide: a former student who graduated the year before, and a student who was enrolled in the school year. Officials renewed their efforts to provide mental health support to the school community and families, and noted the long-term effects of such trauma.

Valentine's Day

Valentine's Day, also called Saint Valentine's Day or the Feast of Saint Valentine, is celebrated annually on February 14. It originated as a Western Christian feast day honoring one or two early saints named Valentinus. Valentine's Day is recognized as a significant cultural, religious, and commercial celebration of romance and romantic love in many regions around the world, although it is not a public holiday in any country.

There are numerous martyrdom stories associated with various Valentines connected to February 14, including a written account of Saint Valentine of Rome's imprisonment for performing weddings for soldiers who were forbidden to marry and for ministering to Christians persecuted under the Roman Empire. According to legend, Saint Valentine restored sight to the blind daughter of his judge, and he wrote her a letter signed "Your Valentine" as a farewell before his execution.The Feast of Saint Valentine was established by Pope Gelasius I in AD 496 to be celebrated on February 14 in honour of the Christian martyr, Saint Valentine of Rome, who died on that date in AD 269. The day first became associated with romantic love within the circle of Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century, when the tradition of courtly love flourished. In 18th-century England, it grew into an occasion in which couples expressed their love for each other by presenting flowers, offering confectionery, and sending greeting cards (known as "valentines"). Valentine's Day symbols that are used today include the heart-shaped outline, doves, and the figure of the winged Cupid. Since the 19th century, handwritten valentines have given way to mass-produced greeting cards. In Europe, Saint Valentine's Keys are given to lovers "as a romantic symbol and an invitation to unlock the giver's heart", as well as to children to ward off epilepsy (called Saint Valentine's Malady).Saint Valentine's Day is an official feast day in the Anglican Communion and the Lutheran Church. Many parts of the Eastern Orthodox Church also celebrate Saint Valentine's Day on July 6 and July 30, the former date in honor of Roman presbyter Saint Valentine, and the latter date in honor of Hieromartyr Valentine, the Bishop of Interamna (modern Terni).

Months and days of the year
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