Feature film

A feature film or theatrical film is a film (also called a motion picture or movie) with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole film to fill a program. The term feature film originally referred to the main, full-length film in a cinema program that also included a short film and often a newsreel. The notion of how long a feature film should be has varied according to time and place. According to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the American Film Institute and the British Film Institute,[1] a feature film runs for at least 45 minutes (​34 of an hour), while the Screen Actors Guild asserts that a feature's running time is 75 minutes or longer.

Most feature films are between 75 and 210 minutes long. The first narrative feature film was the 60-minute The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906, Australia).[2] The first (proto)-feature-length adaptation was Les Misérables (1909, U.S.). Other early feature films include The Inferno (L'Inferno) (1911), Defence of Sevastopol (1911), Quo Vadis? (1913), Oliver Twist (1912), Richard III (1912), From the Manger to the Cross (1912) and Cleopatra (1912).

Description

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences,[3] the American Film Institute,[4] and the British Film Institute[5] all define a feature as a film with a running time of 2,700 seconds (i.e. 45 minutes) or longer. The Centre National de la Cinématographie in France defines it as a 35 mm film longer than 1,600 metres (5,200 ft), which is exactly 58 minutes and 29 seconds for sound films, and the Screen Actors Guild gives a minimum running time of at least 75 minutes.[6][7]

History

The Story of the Kelly Gang 1906
Actor playing the Australian bushranger Ned Kelly in The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906), the world's first dramatic feature-length film.

The term feature film came into use to refer to the main film presented in a cinema and the one which was promoted or advertised. The term was used to distinguish the longer film from the short films (referred to as shorts) typically presented before the main film, such as newsreels, serials, animated cartoons, live-action comedies, and documentaries. There was no sudden increase in the running times of films to the present-day definitions of feature-length; the "featured" film on a film program in the early 1910s gradually expanded from two to three to four reels. Early features had been produced in the United States and France, but were released in individual (short film) scenes. This left exhibitors the option of playing them alone, to view an incomplete combination of some films, or to run them all together as a short film series.

Early features were mostly documentary-style films of noteworthy events. Some of the earliest feature-length productions were films of boxing matches, such as The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight (1897),[8] Reproduction Of The Corbett-Jeffries Fight (1899), and The Jeffries-Sharkey Fight (1899). Some consider the 100-minute The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight to be the first documentary feature film, but it is more accurately characterized as a sports program as it included the full unedited boxing match. In 1900, the documentary film In the Army was made. It was over one hour in length and was about the training techniques of the British soldier. Inauguration of the Australian Commonwealth (1901) ran for 35 minutes, "six times longer than any previous Australian film",[9] and has been called "possibly the first feature-length documentary made in Australia".[10] The American company S. Lubin released a Passion Play titled Lubin's Passion Play in January 1903 in 31 parts, totaling about 60 minutes.[11] The French company Pathé Frères released a different Passion Play, The Life and Passion of Jesus Christ, in May 1903 in 32 parts running about 44 minutes.

Defined by length, the first dramatic feature film was the Australian 70-minute film The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906).[12] Similarly, the first European feature was the 90-minute film L'Enfant prodigue (France, 1907), although that was an unmodified record of a stage play; Europe's first feature adapted directly for the screen, Les Misérables, came from France in 1909.[12] The first Russian feature was Defence of Sevastopol in 1911.[13] Early Italian features were The Inferno (L'Inferno) (1911), Quo Vadis? (1913), The Last Days of Pompeii (1913), and Cabiria (1914). The first UK features were the documentary With Our King and Queen Through India (1912), filmed in Kinemacolor[14] and Oliver Twist (1912).[12] The first American features were adaptations of Oliver Twist (1912), From the Manger to the Cross (1912), Cleopatra (1912), and Richard III (1912). The latter starring actor Frederick Warde starred in some of these movie adaptations.[15] The first Asian feature was Japan's The Life Story of Tasuke Shiobara (1912),[16] the first Indian feature was Raja Harishchandra (1913),[17] the first South American feature was Brazil's O Crime dos Banhados (1913),[16] and the first African feature was South Africa's Die Voortrekkers (1916).[16] 1913 also saw China's first feature film, Zhang Shichuan's Nan Fu Nan Qi.

By 1915 over 600 feature films were produced annually in the United States.[18] It is often incorrectly cited that The Birth of a Nation (1915) was the first American feature film.[19] The most prolific year of U.S. feature production was 1921, with 682 releases; the lowest number of releases was in 1963, with 213.[18] Between 1922 and 1970, the U.S. and Japan alternated as leaders in the quantity of feature film production. Since 1971, the country with the highest feature output has been India,[20] which produces a thousand films in more than twelve Indian languages each year.[21]

Technological developments

The Jazz Singer 1927 Poster
A poster for The Jazz Singer (1927) the first feature film to use recorded sound.

In 1927, Warner Bros. released the first feature-length film with sound, The Jazz Singer, whose audio track was recorded with a proprietary technology called Vitaphone.[22] The film's success persuaded other studios to go to the considerable expense of adding microphones to their sets, and scramble to start producing their own "talkies".[23]

One of the next major advancements made in movie production was color film. Even before color was a possibility in movies, early film makers were interested in how color could enhance their stories.[24] Early techniques included hand tinting: painting each frame by hand.[24] Cheaper and more widely used was toning: dying the film in a signal color, used in a large number of films in the 1920s.[24] The film processing lab Technicolor developed the Three-Tone coloring technique that became the standard for color film. It was a complex, time consuming, and expensive process that many movie studios were not eager to try.[25] One of the early adopters of the three-strip process was Disney. Some of the most notable films Technicolor processed with three-strip were The Wizard of Oz and Gone with the Wind.[24]

Digital Video (or DV) has quickly changed how most films are made.[26] First used to create special effects and animated movies, digital cameras became more common on film sets in the late 1990s. In 2002, George Lucas' Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones became the first major feature-length film to be shot entirely on digital cameras.[26] The ability to instantly play back footage and quickly transfer footage to computers for editing helped to speed up post-production time.[26] Digital film making was given a big boost in 2005 when the Digital Cinema Initiative created a guide for manufacturers to create a universal standard, to make the technologies more compatible with each other and more user friendly.[26][27] Shooting movies on digital also led to new technologies for distributing films. Titan A.E., released in 2000, was the first feature film to be released for viewing over the internet.[27] Digital distribution changed the ways people received and watched media. It also gave viewers access to huge amounts of online content on demand.[28]

References

  1. ^ "FAQ". British Film Institute. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  2. ^ "The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906)". Australian Screen. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
  3. ^ "Rule 2 | 79th Academy Awards Rules | Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences". Archived from the original on September 6, 2008. Retrieved November 24, 2006.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  4. ^ The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures
  5. ^ Denis Gifford, The British Film Catalogue
  6. ^ "SCREEN ACTORS GUILD LETTER AGREEMENT FOR LOW-BUDGET THEATRICAL PICTURES" (PDF). Screen Actors Guild. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
  7. ^ "SCREEN ACTORS GUILD MODIFIED LOW BUDGET AGREEMENT" (PDF). Archived from the original on December 29, 2009. Retrieved December 10, 2008.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  8. ^ Charles Musser, The Emergence of Cinema: The American Screen to 1907, pp. 197–200.
  9. ^ "Inauguration of the Commonwealth (1901): Education notes". Australian Screen. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  10. ^ "Inauguration of the Commonwealth (1901)". Australian Screen. Retrieved 8 January 2019.
  11. ^ Passion Play" (1903), in: The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures [online database].
  12. ^ a b c Patrick Robertson, Film Facts, New York: Billboard Books, 2001, p. 9. ISBN 0-8230-7943-0.
  13. ^ Patrick Robertson, Film Facts, New York: Billboard Books, 2001, p. 13. ISBN 0-8230-7943-0.
  14. ^ Charles Urban, A Yank in Britain: The Lost Memoirs of Charles Urban, Film Pioneer, The Projection Box, 1999, p. 79. ISBN 978-0-9523941-2-9.
  15. ^ Patrick Robertson, Film Facts, New York: Billboard Books, 2001, p. 10. ISBN 0-8230-7943-0.
  16. ^ a b c Patrick Robertson, Film Facts, New York: Billboard Books, 2001, pp. 10–14. ISBN 0-8230-7943-0.
  17. ^ Patrick Robertson, Film Facts, New York: Billboard Books, 2001, p. 12. ISBN 0-8230-7943-0.
  18. ^ a b American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures [online database].
  19. ^ "'The Birth of a Nation' was the first feature and the first film shown at the White House." Movies Silently. Sept. 2015. 2 September. 2017. http://moviessilently.com/2015/09/07/silent-movie-myth-the-birth-of-a-nation-was-the-first-feature-and-the-first-film-shown-at-the-white-house/
  20. ^ Patrick Robertson, Film Facts, New York: Billboard Books, 2001, p. 15.
  21. ^ Nelmes, Jill (2003), "10", An introduction to film studies (3rd ed.), Routledge, p. 360, ISBN 0-415-26268-2
  22. ^ Carringer, Robert L (1979). The Jazz Singer. Wisconsin: Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0299076641.
  23. ^ Parkinson, David (18 April 2012). "100 Ideas That Changed Film: Sound". Credo Reference. Laurence King. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  24. ^ a b c d Parkinson, David (18 April 2012). ""Color" 100 Ideas That Changed Film". Credo Reference. Laurence King. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
  25. ^ Kroon, Richard W. (2010). ""Technicolor." A/v A to Z: An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Media, Entertainment and Other Audiovisual Terms". Credo Reference. McFarland. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  26. ^ a b c d Parkinson, David (2012). ""Digital Video." 100 Ideas That Changed Film". Credo Reference. Credo Reference. Retrieved 24 Nov 2016.
  27. ^ a b Kroon, Richard W. (2014). "Digital Cinema; A/v A to Z: An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Media, Entertainment and Other Audiovisual Terms". Credo Reference. McFarland. Retrieved 24 Nov 2016.
  28. ^ Curtin, Michael; Holt, Jennifer & Sanson, Kevin (2014). Distribution Revolution : Conversations about the Digital Future of Film and Television. Berkeley, US: University of California Press. p. 165. ISBN 9780520959088 – via SFC Library Online.

See also

11th National Film Awards

The 11th National Film Awards, then known as State Awards for Films, presented by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India to felicitate the best of Indian Cinema released in 1963. Ceremony took place at Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi on 25 April 1964 and awards were given by then President of India, Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.

Starting with 11th National Film Awards, new category of awards for Filmstrips, in the non-feature films section, was introduced. This category includes Prime Minister's Gold Medal and Certificate of Merit for second and third best educational film. Though gold medal for this category was not given. This award is discontinued over the years.

13th National Film Awards

The 13th National Film Awards, then known as State Awards for Films, presented by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India to felicitate the best of Indian Cinema released in 1965.Starting with 13th National Film Awards, a new award was introduced at All India level, Best Feature Film on National Unity and Emotional Integration whose winner received a cash prize.

19th National Film Awards

The 19th National Film Awards, presented by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India to felicitate the best of Indian Cinema released in the year 1971.

20th National Film Awards

The 20th National Film Awards, presented by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India to felicitate the best of Indian Cinema released in the year 1972.With this year, new award category is introduced for the feature films made in Meitei language. This newly introduced category includes President's Silver Medal for Best Feature Film in Manipuri.

22nd National Film Awards

The 22nd National Film Awards, presented by Directorate of Film Festivals, the organisation set up by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India to celebrate the best of Indian Cinema released in 1974.On the occasion of 25th Anniversary of India's Independence, two special awards were given for Best Feature Film and Best Short Film. Starting with 22nd National Film Awards, President's Gold and Silver Medal awards were renamed to Swarna Kamal (Golden Lotus) and Rajat Kamal (Silver Lotus) respectively.

57th National Film Awards

The 57th National Film Awards, presented by Directorate of Film Festivals, the organisation set up by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India to felicitate the best of Indian Cinema released in the year 2009.Three different committees were instituted in order to judge the various entries for feature film, non-feature film and best writing on cinema sections; headed by National award winner director, Ramesh Sippy, for feature films and Mike Pandey along with Samik Bandyopadhyay for non-feature films and best writing on cinema sections, respectively. Another committee of five members was also constituted for the Dadasaheb Phalke Award.

Each chairperson for feature film, non-feature film and best writing on cinema sections announced the award on 15 September 2010 for their respective sections and award ceremony took place at Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi with President of India, Pratibha Patil giving away the awards on 22 October 2010.Dadasaheb Phalke award for D. Ramanaidu was announced prior to the announcement of 57th National Film Awards on 9 September 2010.With 57th National Film Awards, for feature film section, National Film Award for Best Screenplay, Best Audiography and Best Music Direction have been split into multiple awards to felicitate different aspect of the techniques. Best Screenplay would now cover Original and Adapted Screenplay along with Dialogues. National Film Award for Best Audiography have been sub-categorized into Location sound recordist, Sound designer and Re-recordist of the final mixed track; whereas Best Music Direction will be given for Songs and Background score, separately. All the awardee will be awarded with Rajat Kamal (Silver Lotus).

65th National Film Awards

The 65th National Film Awards ceremony is an event during which the Directorate of Film Festivals presented its annual National Film Awards by The President of Republic Of India to honour the best films of 2017 in Indian cinema. The awards were announced on 13 April 2018. The awards ceremony was held on 3 May 2018.

Akkineni Nagarjuna

Akkineni Nagarjuna (born 29 August 1959) is an Indian film actor, film producer, and entrepreneur known for his work primarily in Telugu Cinema. He has received nine state Nandi Awards, three Filmfare Awards South and a National Film Award-Special Mention. In 1996, he produced Ninne Pelladata, which won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Telugu.

He is also known for his work in biographical films, he played 15th-century composer Annamacharya in the 1997 film Annamayya, Yavakri (the son of the ascetic Bharadwaja) in the 2002 film Agni Varsha, Major Padmapani Acharya, in the 2003 war film LOC Kargil, 17th-century composer Kancherla Gopanna in the 2006 film Sri Ramadasu, Suddala Hanmanthu in the 2011 film Rajanna, Sai Baba of Shirdi in the 2012 film Shirdi Sai, Chandala, in the 2013 film Jagadguru Adi Sankara, and Hathiram Bhavaji, and in the 2017 film Om Namo Venkatesaya.In 1989, he starred in the Mani Ratnam directed romantic drama film Geetanjali, which won the National Film Award for Best Popular Film Providing Wholesome Entertainment. The following year, he acted in Siva, an action drama blockbuster directed by Ram Gopal Varma, which premiered at the 13th International Film Festival of India. In 1990, he made his Bollywood debut with the Hindi remake of Shiva. In 1998, he received the National Film Award-Special Mention for his performance in the historical film Annamayya.

In 2013, he represented the cinema of South India at the Delhi Film Festival's 100 Years of Indian Cinema's celebration, alongside Ramesh Sippy and Vishal Bhardwaj from Bollywood. In 1995, he ventured into film production, with a production unit operating in Seychelles, and was a co-director of an Emmy Award-winning film animation company called Heart Animation. Nagarjuna is the co-owner of the production company Annapurna Studios. He is also the president of the non-profit film school Annapurna International School of Film and Media based in Hyderabad.

Anupam Kher

Anupam Kher (born 7 March 1955) is an Indian actor and the former Chairman of Film and Television Institute of India. He is the recipient of two National Film Awards and eight Filmfare Awards. He has appeared in over 500 films in several languages and many plays. He won the Filmfare Award for Best Actor for his performance in Saaransh (1984). He holds the record for winning the Filmfare Award for Best Comedian five times in total for: Ram Lakhan (1989), Lamhe (1991), Khel (1992), Darr (1993) and Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge (1995). He won the National Film Award for Special Mention twice for his performances in Daddy (1989) and Maine Gandhi Ko Nahin Mara (2005). For his performance in the film Vijay (1988), he won the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor.

Besides working in Hindi films, he has also appeared in many acclaimed international films such as the Golden Globe nominated Bend It Like Beckham (2002), Ang Lee's Golden Lion–winning Lust, Caution (2007), and David O. Russell's Oscar-winning Silver Linings Playbook (2013). He received a BAFTA nomination for his supporting role in the British television sitcom The Boy with the Topknot (2018).He has held the post of chairman of the Central Board of Film Certification and the National School of Drama in India. The Government of India honoured him with the Padma Shri in 2004 and the Padma Bhushan in 2016 for his contribution in the field of cinema and arts.

On 31 October 2018, he resigned as the chairman of the FTII, citing his work on the American television show New Amsterdam, which required him to spend more time in the United States.

List of Vietnamese films

A list of films (phim điện ảnh) produced in Vietnam.

Lists of animated feature films

This list of animated feature films compiles animated feature films from around the world and is organized alphabetically under the year of release (the year the completed film was first released to the public). Theatrical releases as well as made-for-TV (TV) and direct-to-video (V) movies of all types of animation are included. Currently the list doesn't recognize one release form from another.

In order to qualify for this list, films must be "over 40 minutes long and have animation in at least 75% of their running time, or have at least 40 minutes of animation in total." This list chooses to use the AFI, AMPAS and BFI definitions of a feature film. For animated films under 40 minutes, see List of animated short films. For marionette films like Team America: World Police, or films featuring non-animated puppets, see Films featuring puppetry. Also, primarily live-action films with heavy use of special effects are not included.

Lists of films

This is an index of lists of films.

Live action

Live action is a form of cinematography or videography that uses photography instead of animation. Some works combine live action with animation. Live-action is used to define film, video games or similar visual media. Photorealistic animation, particularly modern computer animation, is sometimes erroneously described as “live-action” as in the case of some media reports about Disney's 2019 remake of The Lion King. According to the Cambridge English Dictionary, live action "[involves] real people or animals, not models, or images that are drawn, or produced by computer".

Mrinal Sen

Mrinal Sen (also spelled Mrinal Shen; 14 May 1923 – 30 December 2018) was a Bengali filmmaker based in Kolkata. Along with his contemporaries Satyajit Ray and Ritwik Ghatak, he was often considered to be one of the greatest ambassadors of Bengali parallel cinema on the global stage. Like the works of Ray and Ghatak, his cinema was known for its artistic depiction of social reality. Although the three directors shared a healthy rivalry, they were ardent admirers of each other's work, and in so doing, they charted the independent trajectory of parallel cinema, as a counterpoint to the mainstream fare of Hindi cinema in India. Sen was an ardent follower of Marxist philosophy.

National Film Awards

The National Film Awards is the most prominent film award ceremonies in India. Established in 1954, it has been administered, along with the International Film Festival of India and the Indian Panorama, by the Indian government's Directorate of Film Festivals since 1973.Every year, a national panel appointed by the government selects the winning entry, and the award ceremony is held in New Delhi, where the President of India presents the awards. This is followed by the inauguration of the National Film Festival, where the award-winning films are screened for the public. Declared for films produced in the previous year across the country, they hold the distinction of awarding merit to the best of Indian cinema overall, as well as presenting awards for the best films in each region and language of the country. Due to the national scale of the National Film Awards, it is considered the Indian equivalent of the American Academy Awards.

Prakash Raj

Prakash Raj (born Prakash Rai; 26 March 1965) is an Indian multilingual film actor, film director, producer, thespian and television presenter who is known for his works in the South Indian film industry, and Hindi films. He acted in back-to-back stage shows for ₹300 a month in the initial stages of his career, when he joined Kalakshetra, Bengaluru, and he has 2,000 street theatre performances to his credit.After working in the Kannada television industry and the Kannada cinema for a few years, he made his debut in Tamil cinema through Duet (1994), by K. Balachander, and has since been a commercially successful film star in Tamil. In remembrance, he named his production company Duet Movies. Prakash has also worked in a number of Hindi films.

Apart from his mother tongue Kannada, Prakash Raj's fluency in Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Marathi, Hindi and English has placed him among the most sought after actors in Indian cinema.He has played a variety of roles, most notably as the antagonist and, of late, as a character actor. Prakash, as an actor has won a National Film Award for Best Supporting Actor in 1998 for Mani Ratnam's Iruvar, a National Film Award – Special Mention (feature film) for the Telugu film Antahpuram, directed by Krishna Vamsi in 1998 and a National Film Award for Best Actor in 2007 for his role in Kanchivaram, a Tamil film directed by Priyadarshan,As a producer, he has won a National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Kannada for Puttakkana Highway, directed by his long-time theatre friend B. Suresh in 2011. Prakash was also the host of Neengalum Vellalam Oru Kodi during the show's second season.

Soundtrack

A soundtrack, also written sound track, can be recorded music accompanying and synchronized to the images of a motion picture, book, television program, or video game; a commercially released soundtrack album of music as featured in the soundtrack of a film, video, or television presentation; or the physical area of a film that contains the synchronized recorded sound.

Sunny Deol

Ajay Singh Deol (born 19 October 1956), better known as Sunny Deol, is an Indian film actor, director and producer known for his work in Hindi cinema. In a film career spanning over thirty five years and over hundred films, Deol has won two National Film Awards and two Filmfare Awards.

Deol made his debut opposite fellow debutante Amrita Singh in Betaab (1982). He received a Filmfare Best Actor Award nomination for his performance. Subsequently he went on to star in numerous successful films in the 1980s and 1990s. He made his debut as a director and producer with Dillagi, in which he starred alongside his brother Bobby. His critically recognised work includes Manzil Manzil (1984), Saveray Wali Gaadi (1986), Sultanat (1986), Dacait (1987), Yateem (1988), Veerta (1993), Imtihaan (1994), Salaakhen (1998) and Farz (2001).

With his portrayal of an amateur boxer wrongly accused of his brother's murder in Rajkumar Santoshi's critically and commercially successful Ghayal in 1990, Deol gained wide recognition and praise. The film went on to win seven Filmfare Awards and his performance won him the Filmfare Award for Best Actor and the National Film Award – Special Jury Award / Special Mention (Feature Film). His portrayal of a lawyer in the film Damini – Lightning (1993) fetched him several accolades including the National Film Award for Best Supporting Actor and the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor. Anil Sharma's Gadar: Ek Prem Katha (2001), in which Deol portrayed a lorry driver who falls in love with a Muslim girl, was the highest grossing Bollywood film ever at the time of its release, and garnered him another Filmfare Best Actor Award nomination. Deol's successful films include The Hero: Love Story of a Spy (2003), Apne (2007), Yamla Pagla Deewana (2011) and Ghayal Once Again (2016). These accomplishments have established him as a leading actor of the Hindi film industry. He is married to Pooja Deol with whom he has two sons.

Tribeca Film Festival

The Tribeca Film Festival (TFF) is a prominent film festival held in the Tribeca neighborhood of Manhattan, showcasing a diverse selection of independent films. Since its inaugural year in 2002, it has become a recognized outlet for independent filmmakers in all genres to release their work to a broad audience.

In 2006 and 2007, the Festival received over 8,600 film submissions and held 1,500 screenings. The Festival's program line-up includes a variety of independent films including documentaries, narrative features and shorts, as well as a program of family-friendly films. The Festival also features panel discussions with personalities in the entertainment world and a music lounge produced with ASCAP to showcase artists. One of the more distinctive components of the Festival is its Artists Awards program in which emerging and renowned artists celebrate filmmakers by providing original works of art that are given to the filmmakers' competition winners. Past artists of the Artists Award Program have included Chuck Close, Alex Katz, and Julian Schnabel.

The festival now draws an estimated three million people—including often-elusive celebrities from the worlds of art, film, and music—and generates $600 million annually.

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