Fear of flying

Fear of flying is a fear of being on an aeroplane, or other flying vehicle, such as a helicopter, while in flight. It is also referred to as flying anxiety, flying phobia, flight phobia, aviophobia or aerophobia (although the last also means a fear of drafts or of fresh air).[1]

Acute anxiety caused by flying can be treated with anti-anxiety medication. The condition can be treated with exposure therapy, which works better when combined with cognitive behavioral therapy.[2][3]

Video explaining what fear of flying means and which simple tricks you can use to be able to better control the physical symptoms at least.


Fear of flying is a specific phobia classified as such in the DSM-5.[4]


People with fear of flying experience intense, persistent fear or anxiety when they consider flying, as well as during flying. They will avoid flying if they can, and the fear, anxiety, and avoidance cause significant distress and impair their ability to function.[4] Take-off, bad weather, and turbulence appear to be the most anxiety provoking aspects of flying.[4]

The most extreme manifestations can include panic attacks or vomiting at the mere sight or mention of an aircraft or air travel.[2]

Around 60% of people with fear of flying report having some other anxiety disorder.[4]


The causes of flight phobia and the mechanisms by which it is maintained were not well understood as of 2016.[4][5] It is not clear if it is really one condition; it appears to be heterogenous. It appears that people get aerophobia from being or having claustrophobia to the small spaces inside the fuselage of the plane or helicopter. [6]


The diagnosis is clinical. It is often difficult to determine if the specific phobia of fear of flight should be the primary diagnosis, or if fear of flying is a symptom of a generalized anxiety disorder or another anxiety disorder such as agoraphobia or claustrophobia.[6]


Acute anxiety caused by flying can be treated with anti-anxiety medication. The condition can be treated with exposure therapy, including use of virtual reality equipment, which works better when combined with cognitive behavioral therapy. Relaxation techniques and education about aviation safety can also be helpful in combination with other approaches.[2][3]


Studies of interventions like CBT have reported rates of reduction in anxiety of around 80%, however there is little evidence that any treatment can completely eliminate fear of flying.[3]


Estimates for prevalence have ranged between 2.5% and 40%; estimates on the lower end are probably generated through studies where the condition is diagnosed by a professional, and the higher end probably includes people who have diagnosed themselves.[4]


Fear of flying was first discussed in the biomedical literature by a doctor in the UK at the end of World War I, who called it "aero-neurosis" and was describing pilots and crew who were or became anxious about flying. It was not much discussed until the 1950s and rise of commercial air travel and the vogue in psychoanalysis. Starting in the 1970s fear of flying was addressed through behavioral and cognitive approaches.[6]

Society and culture

Immediately after the September 11 attacks, Americans chose to travel more by car instead of flying; because of the extra traffic, around 350 more people died in traffic accidents than would have normally occurred.[7]

Research directions

As of 2016 the causes of fear of flying as well as the psychological mechanisms through which it were persists had not been well researched. A few studies had looked at whether mechanisms like illusory correlation and expectancy bias were present in all or most people with fear of flying as well as other specific phobias; these studies have not led to clear outcomes.[4][5]

Research into the most effective ways to treat or manage fear of flying is difficult (as it is with other counselling or behavioral interventions) due to the inability to include a placebo or other control arm in such studies.[3]

See also


  1. ^ "aerophobia". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved July 20, 2014.
  2. ^ a b c Mulcahy, RA; Blue, RS; Vardiman, JL; Castleberry, TL; Vanderploeg, JM (2016). "Screening and Mitigation of Layperson Anxiety in Aerospace Environments". Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance. 87 (10): 882–889. doi:10.3357/AMHP.4536.2016. PMID 27662351.
  3. ^ a b c d Oakes, M; Bor, R (November 2010). "The psychology of fear of flying (part II): a critical evaluation of current perspectives on approaches to treatment". Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 8 (6): 339–63. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2010.10.002. PMID 21071281.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Clark, GI; Rock, AJ (2016). "Processes Contributing to the Maintenance of Flying Phobia: A Narrative Review". Frontiers in Psychology. 7: 754. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00754. PMC 4887486. PMID 27313550.
  5. ^ a b Wiemer, J; Pauli, P (August 2016). "Fear-relevant illusory correlations in different fears and anxiety disorders: A review of the literature". Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 42: 113–28. doi:10.1016/j.janxdis.2016.07.003. PMID 27454587.
  6. ^ a b c Oakes, M; Bor, R (November 2010). "The psychology of fear of flying (part I): a critical evaluation of current perspectives on the nature, prevalence and etiology of fear of flying". Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 8 (6): 327–38. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2010.10.001. PMID 21050826.
  7. ^ "Afraid to Fly After 9/11, Some Took a Bigger Risk - In Cars". Wall Street Journal. March 23, 2004. Retrieved October 11, 2013.
Erica Jong

Erica Jong (née Mann; born March 26, 1942) is an American novelist, satirist, and poet, known particularly for her 1973 novel Fear of Flying. The book became famously controversial for its attitudes towards female sexuality and figured prominently in the development of second-wave feminism. According to Washington Post, it has sold more than 20 million copies worldwide.

Extreme Machines

Extreme Machines is an American-British documentary television series aired on TLC.

Fear of Flying (The Simpsons)

"Fear of Flying" is the eleventh episode of The Simpsons' sixth season. It was first broadcast on the Fox network in the United States on December 18, 1994. In the episode, the family attempts to go on a vacation but soon discover that Marge is afraid of flying.

The episode was directed by Mark Kirkland, and written by David Sacks. It features numerous guest stars, including Anne Bancroft as Dr. Zweig. Additionally, Ted Danson, Woody Harrelson, Rhea Perlman, John Ratzenberger, and George Wendt appear as their characters from Cheers.

It received a positive reception from television critics, and acquired a Nielsen rating of 9.6.

The authors of the book I Can't Believe It's a Bigger and Better Updated Unofficial Simpsons Guide commented positively on the episode, as did reviews from DVD Verdict and DVD Movie Guide.

Fear of Flying (album)

Fear of Flying is the second studio album by American singer Mýa. It was released on April 25, 2000, by University Music Entertainment and Interscope Records. Assembled by her label, recording sessions began as early as September 1999 and concluded in March 2000. For this album, Mýa made the conscious decision to get involved more creatively as well as collaborate with a wider range of producers and songwriters on the album. She consulted and collaborated with Rodney Jerkins, Swizz Beatz, Wyclef Jean, Knobody, Robin Thicke, Tricky Stewart, and Jimmy Jam & Terry Lewis. Mýa described Fear of Flying as a metaphor for the ups and downs of life. A reoccurring theme throughout the album includes handling things like an adult and knowing you must have faith to make anything happen. She also noted that Fear of Flying was "a reflection of being in love for the very first time, experiencing success and the fears of fame."Upon its release, Fear of Flying received mixed to average reviews from music critics citing the album's "tepid material". Commercially, the album debuted at number 15 on the Billboard 200 with 72,000 copies sold in its first week, and has been certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and gold by both the Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA) and the Canadian Recording Industry Association (CRIA). The album's lead single, "The Best of Me" (featuring Jadakiss), peaked at number 50 on the Billboard Hot 100. The second single, "Case of the Ex", reached number two on the Billboard Hot 100, while charting within the Top 20 in multiple countries. The album's third and final single, "Free", reached number 42 on Billboard Hot 100 and saw moderate success internationally, peaking within the top 40 in a few countries. Nearly seven months after its original release, Fear of Flying was re-released with two new additional songs on November 7, 2000.

Fear of Flying (novel)

Fear of Flying is a 1973 novel by Erica Jong which became famously controversial for its portrayal of female sexuality and figured in the development of second-wave feminism.

The novel is written in the first person: narrated by its protagonist, Isadora Zelda White Stollerman Wing, a 29-year-old poet who has published two books of poetry. On a trip to Vienna with her second husband, Isadora decides to indulge her sexual fantasies with another man. Its tone may be considered conversational or informal. The story's American narrator is struggling to find her place in the world of academia, feminist scholarship, and in the literary world as a whole. The narrator is a female author of erotic poetry, which she publishes without fully realizing how much attention she will attract from both critics and writers of alarming fan letters.

The book resonated with women who felt stuck in unfulfilled marriages, and it has sold more than 20 million copies worldwide.

Fear of Flying Tour

The Fear of Flying Tour was the debut concert tour by American recording artist Mýa. It was Harrison's first headlining tour and launched in support of her second studio album, Fear of Flying (2000). Harrison embarked on a ten-day nationwide concert tour. The tour began March 2001 and played 9 shows in the United States.

Free (Mýa song)

"Free" is a song by American singer Mýa. It served as the third and final single from her second studio album Fear of Flying (2000). Originally featured on the soundtrack to the 2000 film Bait, the song was one of the two tracks added to the re-release edition of Fear of Flying on November 7, 2000. It was written and composed by Jimmy Jam, Harrison, Terry Lewis, Alexander Richbourg, and Tony Tolbert. Lyrically, "Free" addresses on independence.

The song received generally mixed reviews from contemporary music critics, musically comparing it to Janet Jackson’s third studio album Control (1986). "Free" underperformed on Billboard's US Hot 100; peaking and spending two non-consecutive weeks at number forty-two. It was the second single by Harrison that failed to reach the coveted Top 40. It performed even worse on Billboard's component Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks chart peaking at a moderately low number fifty-two. Internationally, the single reached the Top Five in Australia and Top 20 in the UK. The song's accompanying music video was filmed by director Dave Meyers. Harrison incorporates various dance routines throughout the video, choreographed by Brian "Footwork" Green, which won him an ACA (American Choreographer's Award) in 2001.

Jackie Jensen

Jack Eugene Jensen (March 9, 1927 – July 14, 1982) was an American right fielder in Major League Baseball who played for three American League (AL) teams from 1950 to 1961, most notably the Boston Red Sox. He was named the AL's Most Valuable Player (MVP) in 1958 after hitting 35 home runs and leading the league with 122 runs batted in (RBIs); he also led the league in RBIs two other years, and in triples and stolen bases once each. Respected for his throwing arm, he won a Gold Glove Award and led the AL in assists and double plays twice each. He retired in his early thirties as major-league baseball expanded westward, due to an intense fear of flying. After being a two-sport star in college, Jensen was the first man to play in the Rose Bowl, the World Series, and the MLB All-Star Game.

Jérôme Haehnel

Jérôme Haehnel (born 14 July 1980) is a retired French tennis player who is best known for defeating Andre Agassi in the first round of the French Open in 2004. Haehnel's career-high singles ranking is World No. 78, which he reached in February 2005. Jerome was coached by his wife and has a fear of flying.

List of songs recorded by Mýa

American recording artist Mýa Harrison has recorded material for her six studio albums and collaborated with other artists for duets and featured songs on their respective albums and charity singles. After signing a record contract with Interscope Records at the age of 16, Harrison began to work with producer Darryl "Day" Pearson, who co-wrote and co-produced seven out of the 13 songs on her eponymous debut album (1998). Additional contribution came from Nokio the N-Tity and Daryl Simmons, the latter of which produced the album's third single "My First Night with You", a cover version of Deborah Cox's 1995 recording, written by Award-winning musicians Babyface and Diane Warren. Previous singles "Movin' On" and "It's All About Me", both produced by Pearson, featured co-writing by Dru Hill singer Sisqó.Harrison worked with a wider range of producers on her second album Fear of Flying (2000), including Rodney Jerkins, Wyclef Jean, Robin Thicke, and Jimmy Jam & Terry Lewis to embrace a more mature sound. Lead single "The Best of Me" was co-penned by Teron Beal, Swizz Beatz, and Jadakiss along with singers Jimmy Cozier and Mashonda, while second single "Case of the Ex" marked the singer's first collaboration with producer Tricky Stewart, who would become a frequent collaborator on future projects. As with Fear of Flying, Harrison consulted an array of producers to work on her third album Moodring (2003), including Ron Fair, Timbaland, Rockwilder, Damon Elliott, Knobody. Rapper Missy Elliott composed two tracks for the album — "My Love Is Like...Wo" and "Step". "Lady Marmelade" collaborator Pink co-wrote "Take a Picture.Harrison's fourth studio album Liberation (2007) was developed by songwriters and producers with whom she had previously collaborated as well as different artists. Scott Storch, Stewart, and Carvin & Ivan each co-wrote and co-produced two songs out of 13, with different writers and producers, including Kwamé, J.R. Rotem, and Bryan Michael Cox also significantly contributing to the album. Sugar & Spice, Harrison's Japan-wide fifth studio album, presented a new creative direction for the singer. Production was primary handled by a variety of low—profile producers such as Arkatech Beatz, Riddim Fingaz, The Smith Bros, and Duke Williams. Harrison, took full creative control co-writing the entire album with producer Christopher Moore and served as executive producer.

Live in Japan (The Country Gentlemen album)

Live In Japan is a live album by the progressive bluegrass band Country Gentlemen, recorded in 1970 during their concert in Japan.

Just before the group was scheduled for their tour in Japan, John Duffey decided to leave, citing his fear of flying. He was replaced by Jimmy Gaudreau, but on this album the mandolin is played by Doyle Lawson, who would replace Gaudreau two years later.


Mýa Marie Harrison (born October 10, 1979) is an American singer, songwriter, producer, and actress. Born into a musical family, before entering the music industry she appeared on BET's Teen Summit. Signed in 1996 with Interscope Records, she released her eponymous debut album in April 1998. A critical and commercial success, the album produced her first top ten single "It's All About Me."

Subsequent singles, "Ghetto Supastar (That Is What You Are)" and "Take Me There" continue to raise her profile and attained chart success worldwide, with the former garnering her first Grammy nomination. Fear of Flying, her sophomore album, was released in April 2000 and became a worldwide success, boosted by the success of its singles "Case of the Ex" and "Free." Harrison continue her rise to prominence in 2002, when she won her first Grammy Award in the category for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals for her rendition of Labelle's 1975 hit "Lady Marmalade" alongside with Pink, Christina Aguilera and Lil' Kim.Taking a more active role in the production of her music, Harrison released her third studio album, the eccentric Moodring, in July 2003. The album produced the single "My Love Is Like...Wo" and was certified gold by the RIAA. Following a label change and a delay in her fourth studio album, Harrison went independent and recorded two exclusive albums for the Japanese music market, Sugar & Spice (2008) and K.I.S.S. (Keep It Sexy & Simple) (2011). In between recording those two albums, she launched her own independent record label Planet 9 and competed in Dancing with the Stars – season nine; finishing in second place.Now fully independent, Harrison continues to regularly release music. Beginning in 2014, she released a trio of R&B-rooted EPs, With Love (2014), Sweet XVI (2014), and Love Elevation Suite (2015). In 2016, Harrison released her seventh album, the Grammy nominated Smoove Jones. The follow-up, TKO (The Knock Out) arrived in April 2018 to commemorate the twentieth anniversary of her debut album.

Aside from a music career, Harrison branched out into acting; making her feature-film debut in 1999's thriller In Too Deep starring LL Cool J and Omar Epps. She continued to score supporting roles in films such as Chicago (2002), Dirty Dancing: Havana Nights (2004), Shall We Dance? (2004), and Cursed (2005).

She has endorsed several brands such as Coca-Cola, Gap, Iceberg, Tommy Hilfiger, and Motorola. Harrison's contribution to music has earned her many accolades in the fields of pop and R&B music categories. In 2009, Billboard listed Mýa as one of their Hot 100 Artists of the 2000s; placing her in the 97th position.

As of October 2009, she has sold over 3.2 million albums in the U.S. and 7 million albums worldwide.

Tallulah (Feeder album)

Tallulah is the tenth studio album by Welsh rock band Feeder, released on 9 August 2019 through Believe Music. It was supported by 4 singles: "Fear of Flying", "Youth", "Daily Habit" and "Blue Sky Blue".

The Best of Me (Mýa song)

"The Best of Me" is a song by American singer Mýa. It served as Harrison's first single from her second studio album Fear of Flying (2000) and featured Yonkers rapper Jadakiss. The song was written and composed by the latter and Harrison along with Teron Beal, Jimmy Cozier, Swizz Beatz and Mashonda Tifrere. Lyrically, "The Best of Me," a street savvy anthem addresses a woman holding off being intimate or physical with a guy.

The song received generally positive reviews from contemporary music critics. However, "The Best of Me" underperformed on Billboard's US Hot 100; peaking and spending two non-consecutive weeks at number fifty. It fared better on the component Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks chart peaking within the top 20 at number fourteen. Internationally, the song peaked within the top 40 in Germany, peaking at number twenty-six. The song's accompanying music video was filmed by Chris Robinson and serviced to video outlets on March 6, 2000. Her love interest was portrayed by Sisqó's cousin.

The Great Plane Robbery (1940 film)

The Great Plane Robbery (aka The Great Plane Robber) is a 1940 crime-adventure B film directed by Lewis D. Collins. Collins was more often associated with directing serials for Universal and Columbia Pictures. It stars Jack Holt, Stanley Fields and Noel Madison. Though typical of the melodramas that Holt made after transitioning from silent screen epics, western and adventure films were his forte. Reviewer Hal Erickson found it ironic that Holt, who in real life had a fear of flying, starred in so many aviation-oriented films. It was written by Albert DeMond from a story by Harold Greene.

Urs Zimmermann

Urs Zimmermann (born 29 November 1959 in Mühledorf) is a Swiss former professional road racing cyclist. He stood on the podium in two of the three Grand Tour events after finishing third in 1986 Tour de France and 1988 Giro d'Italia. He also won several stage races such as the Tour de Suisse, Dauphiné Libéré and Critérium International.

After the eleventh stage of the 1991 Tour de France, there was a rest day, on which the cyclists were transferred from Nantes to Pau, by airplane. Zimmermann had a fear of flying, so he refused to use the airplane. The jury then disqualified him, but after the other cyclists protested, he was allowed to use other means of transportation.He was the Swiss National Road Race champion in 1986.

Vitamin C (album)

Vitamin C is the self-titled debut studio album by pop singer Vitamin C, released in 1999. The album was a runaway success. Initially failing to chart, it later climbed the Billboard 200 to number 29 and was certified as Gold and later certified Platinum by the RIAA. The Japanese edition featured the song "The Only One" as a bonus track.

The album spawned two hits, the Gold-selling top 20 hit "Smile" and the Top 40 hit "Graduation (Friends Forever)". The album features guest appearances by Lady Saw, Count Bass D, and Waymon Boone. On the track "Fear of Flying" Vitamin C samples The Clash's "The Magnificent Seven".

White Lies (band)

White Lies are an English post-punk band from Ealing, London. Formerly known as Fear of Flying, the core band members are Harry McVeigh (lead vocals, guitar), Charles Cave (bass guitar and backing vocals), and Jack Lawrence-Brown (drums). The band performs live as a five-piece, when sidemen Tommy Bowen and Rob Lee join the

line up. White Lies' musical style has been described as dark yet uplifting by the media, drawing comparisons to Editors, Interpol, Joy Division, and The Killers.

White Lies formed in October 2007, after writing songs that they felt didn't suit their original band. After delaying their first performance for five months to build up media hype, they earned a recording contract with Fiction Records days after their debut. The release of singles "Unfinished Business" and "Death" led to tours and festival appearances in the United Kingdom and North America, including a headline performance at BBC Radio 1's Big Weekend and a place on the 2009 NME Awards Tour. At the beginning of 2009, White Lies featured in multiple "ones to watch" polls for the coming year, including the BBC's Sound of 2009 poll and the BRITs Critics' Choice Award.

White Lies' debut album To Lose My Life..., released in January 2009, hit number one on the UK Albums Chart. Their second album Ritual was recorded in 2010, and released on 17 January 2011. Big TV, their third studio album, was released on 12 August 2013, whilst their fourth, titled Friends, was released 7 October 2016. Their latest album Five was released on 1 February 2019.


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