Fazlallah Khunji Isfahani

Khwaja Afzal al-Din Fazl Allah b. Jamal al-Din Ruzbihan b. Fazl Allah b. Muhammad Khunji Isfahani (Persian: خواجه افضل‌الدین فضل‌الله بن جمال‌الدین روزبهان بن فضل‌الله بن محمد خنجی اصفهانی‎; 1455-1521), better known as Fazlallah Khunji Isfahani (فضل الله خنجی اصفهانی), was a Persian religious scholar, historian and political writer.[1] He was born in Shiraz. In 1487, he left Shiraz for the third time for a Hajj. He met Sultan Ya'qub of Aq Qoyunlu near the Sahand mountain and agreed to write the history of Aq Qoyunlu dynasty. When the Safavid shah Ismail I started the Shi'ification of Persia and the persecution of Sunni Muslims, he fled to Transoxiana and settled in the city of Kazan. He lived the rest of his life in Transoxiana under the patronage of Timurids and Shaybanids. Modern scholars praise him for his neutrality.



  1. ^ Donzel, E. J. van (1 January 1994). Islamic Desk Reference. BRILL. p. 210. ISBN 90-04-09738-4. Khunji, Fadl Allah b. Ruzbihan: Persian religious scholar and political writer; 1455-1521. He was a staunch Sunni who fiercely opposed the Shii* Safawid Shah Ismail*, left Persia and fled to Özbeg Transoxiana.



Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn ‘Abd al-Raḥmān al-Sakhāwi (Arabic: شمس الدين محمد بن عبدالرحمن السخاوي‎, 1428/831 AH – 1497/902 AH) was a reputable Shafi‘i Muslim hadith scholar and historian who was born in Cairo. Al-Sakhawi" refers to the village of Sakha in Egypt, where his relatives belonged. He was a prolific writer that excelled in the knowledge of hadith, tafsir, literature, and history. His work was also anthropological. For example, in Egypt he recorded the marital history of 500 women, the largest sample on marriage in the Middle Ages, and found that at least a third of all women in the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and the Bilad al-Sham married more than once, with many marrying three or more times. According to al-Sakhawi, as many as three out of ten marriages in 15th century Cairo ended in divorce. His proficiency in hadith has its influences trace back heavily on his Shaykh al-Hafiz, ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani. He died in Medina.

Al-Zubayr ibn Bakkar

Al-Zubayr ibn Bakkār (Arabic: أبو عبدالله الزبير بن بكار بن عبد الله بن مصعب بن ثابت بن عبد الله بن الزبير بن العوام‎, (788-870 CE / 172-256 AH), a descendant of Al-Zubayr ibn al-ʻAwwām, was a leading Arab Muslim historian and genealogist of the Arabs, particularly the Hijaz region. He composed a number of works on genealogy that made him a standing authority on the subject of the genealogies of the Quraysh tribe. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani regarded him as the most reliable authority for Quraysh genealogical matters.

Hilal al-Sabi'

Abū'l-Ḥusayn Hilāl b. Muḥassin b. Ibrahīm al-Ṣābi' (born : 358 A.H/969 A.D, died :447-448 A.H/1056 A.D) (aged 90 lunar) ابو حسين هلال بن محسن بن ابراهيم الصابئ) was a historian, bureaucrat, and writer of Arabic. Born into a family of Sabian bureaucrats, al-Ṣābi converted to Islam in 402-403 A.H/1012 AD. First working under the Buyid amir Ṣamṣām al-Dawla, he later became the Director of the Chancery under Baha' al-Daula's vizier Fakhr al-Mulk.

Hisham ibn al-Kalbi

Hisham ibn al-Kalbi (737 AD - 819 AD/204 AH), also known as Ibn al-Kalbi (Arabic: ابن الكلبي‎) was an Arab historian. His full name Abu al-Mundhir Hisham bin Muhammed bin al-Sa'ib bin Bishr al-Kalbi. Born in Kufa, he spent much of his life in Baghdad. Like his father, he collected information about the genealogies and history of the ancient Arabs. According to the Fihrist, he wrote 140 works. His account of the genealogies of the Arabs is continually quoted in the Kitab al-Aghani.

Hisham established a genealogical link between Ishmael and Mohammed and put forth the idea that all Arabs were descended from Ishmael. He relied heavily on the ancient oral traditions of the Arabs, but also quoted writers who had access to Biblical and Palmyran sources. In 1966, W. Caskel compiled a two volume study of Ibn al-Kalbi's Djamharat al Nasab ("The Abundance of Kinship") entitled Das genealogische Werk des Hisam Ibn Muhammad al Kalbi. It contains a prosopographic register of every individual mentioned in the genealogy in addition to more than three hundred genealogical tables based on the contents of the text.

Ibn Abd al-Hakam

Abu'l Qāsim ʿAbd ar-Raḥman bin ʿAbdullah bin ʿAbd al-Ḥakam bin Aʿyan al-Qurashī al-Mașrī (Egyptian Arabic: أبو القاسم عبد الرحمن بن عبد الله بن عبد الحكم بن اعين القرشي المصري‎), generally known simply as Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam (born : 187 A.H/ 803 A.D- died 257 A.H/ 871 A.D at al-Fustat near Cairo) was an Egyptian Muslim historian who wrote a work generally known as The Conquest of Egypt and North Africa and Spain (Arabic: فتح مصر و المغرب و الاندلس‎, Futūḥ mișr wa'l maghrab wa'l andalus). This work is considered one of the earliest Arabic Islamic histories to have survived to the present day.

Ibn Hayyan

Abū Marwān Ḥayyān ibn Khalaf ibn Ḥusayn ibn Ḥayyān al-Qurṭubī (987–1075), usually known as Ibn Hayyan, was a Muslim historian from Al-Andalus.

Born at Córdoba, he was an important official at the court of the Andalusian ruler al-Mansur and published several works on history which have only survived in part. His books constitute one of the most important sources for the study of the Andalusian history, especially the history of Córdoba and the kings of the taifas.

Like Ibn Hazm he defended the dynasty of the Umayyads and deplored its fall and the following dissolution of the Andalusian state and the coming of the taifas.

He died in Córdoba in 1075.

Ibn Hisham

Abu Muhammad 'Abd al-Malik bin Hisham ibn Ayyub al-Himyari al-Mu'afiri al-Baṣri (Arabic: أبو محمد عبدالملك بن هشام ابن أيوب الحميري المعافري البصري‎), or Ibn Hisham, edited the biography of Islamic prophet Muhammad written by Ibn Ishaq. He was said to have mastered Arabic philology in a way which only Sibawayh had.

Ibn Idhari

Abū al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Idhāri al-Marrākushi (Arabic: أبو العباس أحمد ابن عذاري المراكشي‎) who lived in the late 13th and the early 14th century, was the author of an important medieval text (Al-Bayan al-Mughrib) on the history of the Maghreb and Iberia written in 1312.Little is known about the life of this author, who was born in and lived in Marrakech. His history of the Maghreb and Iberia is widely regarded among modern researchers as containing valuable information not found elsewhere, including extracts from older works now lost.

Ibn `Asakir

Ibn Asakir (Arabic: ابن عساكر‎, romanized: Ibn ‘Asākir; 1106–1175) was a Sunni Islamic scholar, a historian and a disciple of the Sufi mystic Abu al-Najib Suhrawardi.

Ibn al-Adim

Kamal al-Din ʻUmar ibn Aḥmad Ibn al-Adim (1192–1262; Arabic: كمال الدين عمر بن أحمد ابن العديم) was an Arab biographer and historian from Aleppo.

Ibn al-Furat

Nāṣir al-Dīn Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥīm b. ʿAlī al-Miṣrī al-Ḥanafī (1334–1405), better known as Ibn al-Furāt, was an Egyptian historian, best known for his universal history, Taʾrīkh al-duwal wa ’l-mulūk ("History of the Dynasties and Kingdoms"). The work remained unfinished (only the volumes dealing with the years after 1106 were completed) and survives in fragments of the original autograph manuscript, mostly preserved in Vienna. It was not widely esteemed or disseminated among his contemporary and later Muslim historians, but Ibn al-Furat's work is of particular importance for modern scholars due to its high level of detail and the mostly verbatim use of a wide variety of sources, including Christian and Shia authors suspect to mainstream orthodox Sunni historiography. Some of these works survive only through Ibn al-Furat's reuse of them.

Ibn al-Imad al-Hanbali

Ibn al-ʿImād (Arabic: إبن العماد‎) (1623-1679), full name ʿAbd al-Ḥayy bin Aḥmad bin Muḥammad ibn al-ʿImād al-ʿAkarī al-Ḥanbalī Abū al-Falāḥ (Arabic: عبد الحي بن أحمد بن محمد ابن العماد العكري الحنبلي أبو الفلاح‎), was a Syrian Muslim historian and faqih of the Hanbali school.

Ibn al-Qalanisi

Hamza ibn Asad abu Ya'la ibn al-Qalanisi (Arabic: ابن القلانسي‎) (c. 1071 – March 18, 1160) was an Arab politician and chronicler in Damascus in the 12th century.

He descended from the Banu Tamim tribe, and was among the well-educated nobility of the city of Damascus. He studied literature, theology, and law, and served as firstly a secretary in, and later the head of, the chancery of Damascus (the Diwan al-Rasa'il). He served twice as ra'is of the city, an office equivalent to mayor.

His chronicle, the Dhail or Mudhayyal Ta'rikh Dimashq (Continuation of the Chronicle of Damascus) was an extension of the chronicle of Hilal bin al-Muhassin al-Sabi', covering the years 1056 to al-Qalanisi's death in 1160. This Chronicle is one of the few contemporary accounts of the First Crusade and its immediate aftermath from the Muslim perspective, making it not only a valuable source for modern historians, but also for later 12th-century chronicles, including Ibn al-Athir.

Ibn al-Tiqtaqa

‘Ibn al-Tiqtaqā’, or the son of a chatterbox, was an onomatopoeic nickname for the Iraqi historian Jalāl-ad-Dīn Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Tāji’d-Dīn Abi’l-Hasan ’Ali, the spokesman of the Shi'a community in the Shi’ī holy cities—Hillah, Najaf, and Karbala; in an Iraq that was to remain the stronghold of Shi'ism, until the forcible conversion of Iran by Shah Ismail I Safavi.

According to E.G. Browne's English version Of Mīrzā Muhammad b. ‛Abudi’l-Wahhāb-i—Qazwīni's edition of ‛Alā-ad-Dīn ‛Ata Malik-i-Juwaynī's Ta’rīhh-i-Jahān Gushā (London1912, Luzac), p.ix, Ibn al-Tiqtaqā's name was Safiyu’d-Din Muhammad ibn ‛Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Tabātabā.

Around 1302 AD he wrote a popular compendium of Islamic history called al-Fakhri.

Khalifah ibn Khayyat

Abū 'Amr Khalifa ibn Khayyat al Laythī al 'Usfurī (born : 160/161 AH/777 AD– died 239/240 AH/854 AD) was an Arab historian.

His family were natives of Basra in Iraq. His grandfather was a noted muhaddith or traditionalist, and Khalifa became renowned for this also. Among the great Islamic scholars who were his pupils were Bukhari and Ahmad ibn Hanbal.

He is known to have written at least four works, of which two have survived. These are the Tabaqat (biographies) and Tarikh (history). The latter is valuable as being one of three of the earliest Arabic histories, but the full text was not known until an 11th-century copy was found in 1966, in the Nassiriyya Zawiya in Tamegroute, where the local dry climate helped preserving it, and was published in 1967 after being scrutinized by Syrian historian Souhail Zakkar.

Muhammad ibn Iyas

Muhammad ibn Iyas (b. June 1448; d. after November 1522), is one of the most important Egyptian historians. He was an eyewitness to the historical event of the Ottoman invasion of Egypt.

Of circassian origin, He was one of the Memluks and was entitled Bada'I al-Zuhur fi Waqa'I al-Duhur.

His quotes have been used in many references like his say about Al-Nasir Muhammad: " His name was mentioned everywhere like no other king's name. All the kings wrote to him, sent gifts to him and feared him. The whole of Egypt was in his grasp ".

Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Kindi

Abu Umar Muhammad ibn Yusuf al-Kindi (Arabic: أبو عمر محمد بن يوسف الكندي‎) (January 18, 897 – October 16, 961) was an Egyptian historian.

Sibt ibn al-Jawzi

Shams al-din Abu al-Muzaffar Yusuf ibn Kizoghlu (c. 581AH/1185–654AH/1256), famously known as Sibṭ ibn al-Jawzi (Arabic: سبط بن الجوزي‎) was a notable preacher and historian.


Aḥmad ibn Abī Ya‘qūb ibn Ja'far ibn Wahb ibn Waḍīḥ al-Ya‘qūbī (died 897/8), known as Ahmad al-Ya'qubi, or Ya'qubi (Arabic: اليعقوبي‎), was a Muslim geographer and perhaps the first historian of world culture in the Abbasid Caliphate.


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