Faunus

In ancient Roman religion and myth, Faunus [fau̯nʊs] was the horned god of the forest, plains and fields; when he made cattle fertile he was called Inuus. He came to be equated in literature with the Greek god Pan.

Faunus was one of the oldest Roman deities, known as the di indigetes. According to the epic poet Virgil, he was a legendary king of the Latins. His shade was consulted as a goddess of prophecy under the name of Fatuus, with oracles[1] in the sacred grove of Tibur, around the well Albunea, and on the Aventine Hill in ancient Rome itself.[2]

Marcus Terentius Varro asserted that the oracular responses were given in Saturnian verse.[3] Faunus revealed the future in dreams and voices that were communicated to those who came to sleep in his precincts, lying on the fleeces of sacrificed lambs. W. Warde Fowler suggested that Faunus is identical with Favonius,[4] one of the Roman wind gods (compare the Anemoi). Faunus is very probably of Indo-European origin, which he shares with the Vedic god Rudra.[5]

6329 - Naples - Pan and Daphne
Faunus and Daphnis practising the Pan flute (Roman copy of Greek original).

Etymology

There are a number of theories on the origin of the name Faunus. Most scholars of historical linguistics connect Faunus with the notion of divine favour (Latin 'favere' - to be favourable, inclined).[6] Faunus thus means favourable or propitious. Another theory claims that Faunus is the Latin outcome of a PIE *dhau-no- meaning "the strangler" and denotes the wolf. According to D. Briquel ("Le problème des Dauniens" in MEFRA 1974) it is likely that the Luceres, one of the three tribes of Rome, were Daunians from Ardea, as well as the characters of the Aeneis Mezentius, Messapus and Metabus, who show a Daunian origin. A. Pasqualini agrees on the presence of a Daunian connection in the towns of Latium claiming a Diomedean descent. Moreover, it would seem that there is a sizable presence of Daunians in Latium and Campania (Liternum, Nola). Festus 106 L records a king Lucerus who helped Romulus against Titus Tatius. Moreover, Oscan epithet Leucesius (present also in the Carmen Saliare) and Lucetius (Servius Aen. IX 570 "a luce") should be interpreted as related to the Luceres. He also lists the Leucaria mother of Romos (Dionysius of Halicarnassus I 72), Jupiter Lucetius, toponyms Leucasia /Leucaria (Pliny III 8 (13) 85; Dion. Hal. I 53) near Paestum, the ethnonym Lucani. Though Briquel is apparently unaware that the etymology of both "Luceres", Lucera, Leucaria, Lucani and Dauni is from a word meaning wolf and therefore different from that of Leucesius/Lucetius, i.e. from IE from *luq (wolf), not from *leuk light: compare also Hirpini and Dauni. Daunos according to Walde Hoffmann [7] is from IE root *dhau to strangle, meaning the strangler, epithet of the wolf: cfr. Greek thaunos, thērion Hes., Phrygian dáos, lykos Hes., Latin F(f)aunus. According to Alessio Latins and Umbrians both did not name the wolf because of a religious taboo, thence their use of loanwords such as lupus in Latin (which is Sabine, instead of the expected *luquos) and the Umbrians hirpos (cfr. Hirpini) originally male goat instead of expected *lupos, whence also herpex for hirpex tool in the shape of wolf teeth.

Consorts and family

Pan goat MAN Napoli Inv27709 n01
Faunus copulating with a goat (found in Herculaneum, Italy.)

In fable Faunus appears as an old king of Latium, grandson of Saturnus, son of Picus, and father of Latinus by the nymph Marica (who was also sometimes Faunus' mother). After his death he is raised to the position of a tutelary deity of the land, for his many services to agriculture and cattle-breeding.

A goddess of like attributes, called Fauna and Fatua, was associated in his worship. She was regarded as his daughter, wife, or sister.[8] The female deity Bona Dea was often equated with Fauna.

As Pan was accompanied by the Paniskoi, or little Pans, so the existence of many Fauni was assumed besides the chief Faunus.[8] Fauns are place-spirits (genii) of untamed woodland. Educated, Hellenizing Romans connected their fauns with the Greek satyrs, who were wild and orgiastic drunken followers of Dionysus, with a distinct origin.

Equivalence with Pan

With the increasing Hellenization of literate upper-class Roman culture in the 3rd and 2nd–centuries BC, the Romans tried to equate their own deities with Greek ones, applying in reverse the Greeks' own interpretatio graeca. Faunus was naturally equated with the god Pan, who was a pastoral god of shepherds who was said to reside in Arcadia. Pan had always been depicted with horns and as such many depictions of Faunus also began to display this trait. However, the two deities were also considered separate by many, for instance, the epic poet Virgil, in his Aeneid, made mention of both Faunus and Pan independently.

Festivals

In Justin's epitome, Faunus is identified with Lupercus ("he who wards off the wolf"), otherwise a priest of Faunus. Livy named Inuus as the god originally worshiped at the Lupercalia, February 15, when his priests (Luperci) wore goat-skins and hit passers-by with goatskin whips.

Two festivals, called Faunalia, were celebrated in his honour—one on February 13, in the temple of Faunus on the island in the Tiber, the other on 5 December, when the peasants brought him rustic offerings and amused themselves with dancing.[2]

A euhemeristic account made Faunus a Latin king, son of Picus and Canens. He was then revered as the god Fatuus after his death, worshipped in a sacred forest outside what is now Tivoli, but had been known since Etruscan times as Tibur, the seat of the Tiburtine Sibyl. His numinous presence was recognized by wolf skins, with wreaths and goblets.

In Nonnos' Dionysiaca, Faunus/Phaunos accompanied Dionysus when the god campaigned in India.

Later worship

Faunus was worshipped across the Roman Empire for many centuries. An example of this was a set of thirty-two 4th-century spoons found near Thetford in England in 1979. They had been engraved with the name "Faunus", and each had a different epithet after the god's name. The spoons also bore Christian symbols, and it has been suggested that these were initially Christian but later taken and devoted to Faunus by pagans. The 4th century was a time of large scale Christianisation, and the discovery provides evidence that even during the decline of traditional Roman religion, the god Faunus was still worshipped.[9][10]

In Gaul, Faunus was identified with the Celtic Dusios.[11]

Notes

  1. ^ For oracular Faunus, see Virgil, Aeneid vii.81; Ovid, Fasti iv.649; Cicero, De Natura Deorum ii.6, iii.15 and De Divinatione i.101; Dionysius of Halicarnassus v.16; Plutarch, Numa Pompilius xv.3; Lactantius Institutiones i.22.9; Servius on the Aeneid viii.314.
  2. ^ a b Peck 1898
  3. ^ Varro, De lingua latina vii. 36.
  4. ^ W. Warde Fowler (1899). The Roman Festivals of the Period of the Republic: An Introduction to the Study of the Religion of the Romans. London: Macmillan and Co. p. 259. Retrieved 2007-06-07.
  5. ^ Nečas Hraste, Daniel; Vuković, Krešimir. "Rudra-Shiva and Silvanus-Faunus: Savage and Propitious". The Journal of Indo-European Studies. 39 (1/2): 100-15. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  6. ^ Nečas Hraste, Daniel; Vuković, Krešimir. "Rudra-Shiva and Silvanus-Faunus: Savage and Propitious". Journal of Indo-European Studies. 39 (1–2): 102. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  7. ^ LEW third ed. I p. 468, as cited by G. Alessio "Genti e Favelle dell'antica Apulia" In Archivio Storico Pugliese 1949 p. 11.
  8. ^ a b Peck 1898.
  9. ^ Hutton, Ronald. The Pagan Religions of the Ancient British Isles. (1991) Blackwell ISBN 0-631-17288-2. Page 260-261
  10. ^ Ronald Hutton (1988) Antiquaries Journal
  11. ^ Papias, Elementarium: Dusios nominant quos romani Faunos ficarios vocant, as quoted by Du Cange in his 1678 Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis (Niort: Favre, 1883–1887), vol. 3, online; Katherine Nell MacFarlane, "Isidore of Seville on the Pagan Gods (Origines VIII. 11)," Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 70 (1980), pp. 36–37.

References

  • Peck, Harry Thurston, 1898. Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities (On-line)
  • Hammond, N.G.L. and Scullard, H.H. (Eds.) 1970. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Oxford: Oxford University Press) ISBN 0-19-869117-3.

Nečas Hraste, D. and Vuković, K. 2011. "Rudra-Shiva and Silvanus-Faunus: Savage and Propitious". The Journal of Indo-European Studies 39.1&2: 100-15

Bona Dea

Bona Dea ([bɔ.na ˈde.a] 'Good Goddess') was a divinity in ancient Roman religion. She was associated with chastity and fertility in Roman women, healing, and the protection of the state and people of Rome. According to Roman literary sources, she was brought from Magna Graecia at some time during the early or middle Republic, and was given her own state cult on the Aventine Hill.

Her rites allowed women the use of strong wine and blood-sacrifice, things otherwise forbidden them by Roman tradition. Men were barred from her mysteries and the possession of her true name. Given that male authors had limited knowledge of her rites and attributes, ancient speculations about her identity abound, among them that she was an aspect of Terra, Ops, Cybele, or Ceres, or a Latin form of the Greek goddess "Damia" (Demeter). Most often, she was identified as the wife, sister, or daughter of the god Faunus, thus an equivalent or aspect of the nature-goddess Fauna, who could prophesy the fates of women.

The goddess had two annual festivals. One was held at her Aventine temple; the other was hosted by the wife of Rome's senior Annual Magistrate for an invited group of elite matrons and female attendants. The latter festival came to scandalous prominence in 62 BC, when the politician Publius Clodius Pulcher was tried for his intrusion on the rites, allegedly bent on the seduction of Julius Caesar's wife, whom Caesar later divorced because "Caesar's wife must be above suspicion". The rites remained a subject of male curiosity and speculation, both religious and prurient.

Bona Dea's cults in the city of Rome were led by the Vestal Virgins, and her provincial cults by virgin or matron priestesses. Surviving statuary shows her as a sedate Roman matron with a cornucopia and a snake. Personal dedications to her are attested among all classes, especially plebeians, freedmen and women, and slaves. Approximately one third of her dedications are from men, some of whom may have been lawfully involved in her cult.

Diana monkey

The Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana) is an Old World monkey found in West Africa, from Sierra Leone to Côte d'Ivoire.

The Diana monkey ranges from 40 to 55 cm in length, excluding its tail, which is of a uniform 3–4 cm diameter and 50–75 cm long. Adults weigh between 4–7 kg. Individual Diana monkeys may live for up to 20 years.

They are generally black or dark grey, but have a white throat, crescent-shaped browband, ruff and beard; the browband gave the species its common name, since it was held to resemble the crescent on the brow of the goddess Diana. The monkeys' underarms are also white, and they have a white stripe down their thighs, while the backs of their thighs, and their lower backs, are a chestnut colour. Apart from the browband, ruff and beard, and some fringes on their limbs, their fur is short and sleek in appearance.

Like most primates, Diana monkeys can always carry diseases that can be communicated to humans, like yellow fever and tuberculosis, but they are not important carriers of these. The species is regarded as vulnerable by the IUCN as well as by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the chief dangers to them being habitat destruction (they are now virtually confined to coastal areas) and hunting for bushmeat.

Two taxa formerly considered subspecies of the Diana monkey have recently been elevated to full species status: the roloway monkey (C. roloway) is found in Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, and the Dryas monkey (C. dryas) found in the DR Congo.

Faun

The faun (Latin: faunus, Ancient Greek: φαῦνος, phaunos, pronounced [pʰaunos]) is a mythological half human–half goat creature appearing in Ancient Rome.

The goat man, more commonly affiliated with the Satyrs of Greek mythology or Fauns of Roman, is a bipedal creature with the legs and tail of a goat and the head, arms and torso of a man and is often depicted with goat's horns and pointed ears. These creatures in turn borrowed their appearance from the god Pan of the Greek pantheon. They were a symbol of fertility, and their chieftain was Silenus, a minor deity of Greek mythology.

Fauna (deity)

In ancient Roman religion, Fauna [fau̯na] is a goddess said in differing ancient sources to be the wife, sister, or daughter of Faunus (the Roman counterpart of Pan). Varro regarded her as the female counterpart of Faunus, and said that the fauni all had prophetic powers. She is also called Fatua or Fenta Fauna.

Faunus, Michigan

Faunus is an unincorporated community in Menominee County, in the U.S. state of Michigan.

Faunus ater

Faunus ater is a species of brackish water snail with an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Pachychilidae.Faunus ater is the only species within the genus Faunus.

Inuus

In ancient Roman religion, Inuus was a god, or aspect of a god, who embodied sexual intercourse. The evidence for him as a distinct entity is scant. Maurus Servius Honoratus wrote that Inuus is an epithet of Faunus (Greek Pan), named from his habit of intercourse with animals, based on the etymology of ineundum, "a going in, penetration," from inire, "to enter" in the sexual sense. Other names for the god were Fatuus and Fatulcus.

Walter Friedrich Otto disputed the traditional etymology and derived Inuus instead from in-avos, "friendly, beneficial" (cf. aveo, "to be eager for, desire"), for the god's fructifying power.

Large skipper

The large skipper (Ochlodes sylvanus) is a butterfly of the family Hesperiidae.

Latinus

Latinus (Latin: Latinus; Ancient Greek: Λατῖνος) was a figure in both Greek and Roman mythology. He is often associated with the heroes of the Trojan War, namely Odysseus and Aeneas. Although his appearance in the Aeneid is irreconcilable with his appearance in Greek mythology, the two pictures are not so different that he cannot be seen as one character.

Lavinia

In Roman mythology, Lavinia (; Latin: Lāuīnĭa [laːˈwiːnia]) is the daughter of Latinus and Amata and the last wife of Aeneas.

Lavinia, the only child of the king and "ripe for marriage", had been courted by many men who hoped to become the king of Latium. Turnus, ruler of the Rutuli, was the most likely of the suitors, having the favor of Queen Amata. King Latinus is later warned by his father Faunus in a dream oracle that his daughter is not to marry a Latin.

"Propose no Latin alliance for your daughter,Son of mine; distrust the bridal chamber

Now prepared. Men from abroad will come

And be your sons by marriage. Blood so mingled

Lifts our name starward. Children of that stock

Will see all earth turned Latin at their feet,

Governed by them, as far as on his rounds

The Sun looks down on Ocean, East or West."

Lavinia has what is perhaps her most, or only, memorable moment in Book 7 of the Aeneid, lines 69–83: during sacrifice at the altars of the gods, Lavinia's hair catches fire, an omen promising glorious days to come for Lavinia and war for all Latins.

Aeneas and Lavinia had one son, Silvius. Aeneas named the city Lavinium for her. According to an account by Livy, Ascanius was the son of Aeneas and Lavinia; and she ruled the Latins as a power behind the throne, for Ascanius was too young to rule.

List of RWBY characters

This is a list of characters who appear in RWBY, an original anime-style CG-animated web-series created by Rooster Teeth Productions.

According to series creator Monty Oum, every character's name is tied to a specific color. There will be other teams with their name combining to form acronyms that are also tied to a color.

List of RWBY episodes

RWBY is an ongoing American Anime web series created by Rooster Teeth Productions. It premiered on July 18, 2013 on the Rooster Teeth website, and episodes were later uploaded to YouTube and streaming websites such as Crunchyroll. Six seasons, referred to as "Volumes", have been released. As of January 2019, 79 episodes, which are referred to as "Chapters", have been released.

A side series called World of Remnant was introduced during the release of Volume 2. The short videos (2-7 minutes each) reveal more information about Remnant, the world RWBY takes place in. As of October 2017, 16 World of Remnant episodes have been released. Volume 2 and 3 each include four episodes, Volume 4 includes eight episodes. The episode "Aura" (Volume 2) was released as a DVD/Blu-Ray exclusive, and the latter four of the episodes alongside Volume 4 were released exclusively to Rooster Teeth's website.

Lupercal

The Lupercal (from Latin lupa "female wolf") was a cave at the southwest foot of the Palatine Hill in Rome, located somewhere between the temple of Magna Mater and the Sant'Anastasia al Palatino. In the legend of the founding of Rome, Romulus and Remus were found there by the she-wolf who suckled them until they were rescued by the shepherd Faustulus. Luperci, the priests of Faunus, celebrated certain ceremonies of the Lupercalia at the cave, from the earliest days of the City until at least 494 AD.

Madoryx oiclus

Madoryx oiclus is a moth of the family Sphingidae. It is known from Suriname, French Guiana and from Venezuela to Costa Rica. It has also been recorded in Paraguay, Argentina and Bolivia.

Oxylides faunus

Oxylides faunus, the common false head, is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae. It is found in Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria and Cameroon. The habitat consists of primary forests.

Both sexes are attracted to flowers.

Pachychilidae

Megrubbieswet, common name pachychilids, is a taxonomic family of freshwater snails, gastropod molluscs in the clade Sorbeoconcha.

Polygonia

Polygonia (from Greek πολύς - polys, "many" and γωνία - gōnia, "angle") is a genus of butterflies with a conspicuous white mark on the underside of each hindwing, hence the common name comma. They also have conspicuous angular notches on the outer edges of their forewings, hence the other common name anglewing butterflies. The related genus Nymphalis also includes some anglewing species; Polygonia is sometimes classified as a subgenus of Nymphalis.Many members of Polygonia hibernate as adults.

Species include:

Polygonia c-album (Linnaeus, 1758) – comma

Polygonia c-aureum (Linnaeus, 1758) – Asian comma

Polygonia comma (Harris, 1842) – eastern comma

Polygonia egea (Cramer, 1775) – southern comma

Polygonia faunus (Edwards, 1862) – Faunus anglewing, Faunus comma, green comma

Polygonia g-argenteum Doubleday & Hewitson, 1846 – Mexican anglewing

Polygonia gigantea (Leech, 1883) – giant comma

Polygonia gracilis (Grote & Robinson, 1867) – hoary comma

Polygonia haroldii Dewitz, 1877 – spotless anglewing

Polygonia interposita (Staudinger, 1881)

Polygonia interrogationis (Fabricius, 1798) – question mark

Polygonia oreas (Edwards, 1869) – oreas anglewing, oreas comma, sylvan anglewing

Polygonia progne (Cramer, 1775) – grey comma, gray comma

Polygonia satyrus (Edwards, 1869) – satyr anglewing, satyr comma

Polygonia undina (Grum-Grshimailo, 1890)

Polygonia zephyrus (Edwards, 1870) – zephyr comma

Polygonia faunus

Polygonia faunus, the green comma or Faunus anglewing is a butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It is found in North America.

The wingspan is 45–64 mm. The butterfly flies from May to September depending on the location.

The larvae feed on upland willow (Salix humilis), Betula lenta, alder, Rhododendron occidentale, and Ribes species.

Taygetis mermeria

Taygetis mermeria, the mermeria wood nymph, is a species of butterfly of the family Nymphalidae. It is found throughout the Neotropical realm from Mexico to Bolivia. The habitat consists of rainforests and cloudforests.

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