Fauna of Ghana

The wildlife of Ghana is composed of its biodiversity of flora and fauna.

Biodiversity

Fungi

Ghana is home to a significant number of fungi species including: Aspergillus flavus; Athelia rolfsii; Auricularia auricula-judae; Curvularia; Fusarium oxysporum; Fusarium solani f.sp. pisi; Gibberella intricans; Gibberella stilboides; and Macrophomina phaseolina.[1] The true total number of fungal species occurring in Ghana is in the thousands and given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7 percent of all fungi worldwide have so far been discovered and that the amount of available information is still very small.[1]

Panorama and landscape view of Lake Volta in the Volta Basin; the largest lake and reservoir by surface area in the world. Lake Volta contains an array of fungi species and flows into the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. Lake Volta has three main tributaries: the Black Volta; the White Volta and the Red Volta.
Panorama and landscape view of Lake Volta in the Volta Basin; the largest lake and reservoir by surface area in the world. Lake Volta contains an array of fungi species and flows into the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. Lake Volta has three main tributaries: the Black Volta; the White Volta and the Red Volta.

Flora

The flora of Ghana is diverse with both indigenous and introduced floral species considered in Ghana's floral diversity.[2] A total of some 3,600 species of the major regional centres of endemism represent the three major taxonomic groups.[2] Floral diversity is more pronounced among the angiosperms represented with well over 2,974 indigenous and 253 introduced species in Ghana.[3] Among the various vegetation types of the tropical rain forest, it is the wet evergreen forest type in the southwestern Ashanti-Kwahu Plain that exhibits the highest level of endemism and species richness in Ghana.[3]

Flora species diversity and endemism in the savanna biomes in Ghana is very sparse and biological diversity of species in the Ghanaian savanna woodlands and gallery forests of the savannas show greater species richness than the dry savannas.[3] Within Ghana, there are areas of high biological diversity, referred to as prime biological locations; such as the Ankasa and Nini-Suhien Conservation Area in the southwestern Ashanti-Kwahu erea terrestrial plain of Ghana, in where the climatic diversity is greater.[3] There are also Encephalartos barteri, and gymnosperm indigenous to Ghana; others growing in various Ghanaian ecological zones are introduced species for purposes including aesthetics and economic.[3] The third taxonomic group; pteridophytes, is well represented in Ghana with 124 known species.[3]

Fauna

Ghana has a vast array of fauna and they are of great significance, as some of Ghana's fauna have attained conservation status because of the current rate of decline in their number and distribution.[4] The fauna of the Ghanaian terrestrial ecosystem, comprise a diverse array of species including several of conservation concern.[4] Ghanaian records show that there is as many as 221 species of amphibians and reptiles, 724 species of birds, 225 mammalian species inhabiting Ghana; with 93 recorded to be inhabiting the Ghanaian savanna ecological zone.[4] As with floral diversity, prime locations for faunal diversity is located in the Ghanaian high forest uplands; accounting for 83% of the total number of butterfly species recorded in Ghana, where canopy stratification and micro-climatic differentiation have provided habitats and niches for specific faunal organisms.[4]

Endemism among Ghanaian terrestrial fauna has been observed in three species of frogs; Hyperolius baumanni; Hyperolius fusciventris; and Hyperolius sylvaticus; and the lizards; and Agama sylvanus found in the Ghanaian Bia Forest Reserve and the Atwema Range Forest Reserve.[4] Ghana has a high degree of butterfly endemism where more than 20 species are classified endemic or near-endemic.[4] Ghana is home to 84 known amphibian species: 78 frogs, 5 toads and caecilians.[4] Threatened species recorded in Ghana include four species of marine turtles and three species of crocodiles.[4] Bird species of conservation concern include seven threatened species, including four species endemic to the Upper Guinea forest block and seven near-threatened species.[4]

Keystone species such as hornbills, parrots and birds of prey (eagles) are well represented in Ghana.[4] Of the 728 birds species confirmed to be occurring in Ghana; 408 are non-passerines and 320 passerines, of which 498 are known or thought to be resident and 176 are regular seasonal bird migrants, including 100 from the Palaearctic ecozone.[4] Of the total number of species occurring; 180 restricted to the Guinea-Congo forests biome and 37 restricted to the Sudan-Guinea savanna biome have been recorded in Ghana.[4] Eleven of the 15 endemic bird species within the Upper Guinea forest occur in Ghana.[5] Six of the total species are considered threatened and 12 are near-threatened.[5]

Ghana is an important country for dozens of vulnerable, threatened, endangered, critically endangered or near-extinct mammalian species including primates such as the Pan troglodytes and Procolobus kirkii; big cats such as the Panthera leo and Panthera pardus; elephants such as the Loxodonta africana; and water-birds; being located on the boundary of the east Atlantic Ocean Flyway and Mediterranean Flyway. There are also several rare terrestrial birds, such as the Yellow-Necked Picarthes.[6]

Red Colobus 7

Mammals

Birds

Reptiles

Amphibians

Gallery

Rightwhales

Whales in Ghana

Gazelles in Ghana

Gazelles in Ghana

References and notes

  1. ^ a b S.K Ackuaku, P.K Baidoo. "Pathogenicity of Five Fungal Species Isolated From Eldana Saccharina (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)". ajol.info. African Journal of Library, Archives and Information Science (African Journals OnLine). Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  2. ^ a b "Ghana overview – Convention on Biological Diversity". cbd.int. Convention on Biological Diversity. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Guide to Standard Floras of the World: An Annotated, Geographically Arranged. University of Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Ntiamoa-Baidu et al, 2001; Ntiamoa-Baidu et al, 2000 a & b. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  5. ^ a b BirdLife International, 2000. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  6. ^ Smit and Peirsma, 1989; Ntiamoa-Baidu et al, 2001. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
Afrotyphlops lineolatus

Afrotyphlops lineolatus, also known as the common lined worm snake or lineolate blind snake, is a species of snake in the family Typhlopidae. It is widely distributed in Sub-Saharan Africa, from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia in the east and Zambia in the south.

Anthene krokosua

Anthene krokosua, the Krokosua ciliate blue, is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae. It is found in Ghana.

Arthroleptis poecilonotus

Arthroleptis poecilonotus (common names: West African screeching frog, mottled squeaker) is a species of frog in the family Arthroleptidae. This adaptable species has a wide range within the Sub-Saharan Africa and is not considered threatened.

Arthroleptis zimmeri

Arthroleptis zimmeri, Zimmer's screeching frog, is a species of frog in the family Arthroleptidae. It is endemic to Ghana, and is known only from its type locality in Accra.

Caenorhabditis afra

Caenorhabditis afra is a species of nematodes in the genus Caenorhabditis. This gonochoristic (male-female) species was isolated by Matthias Herrmann in Begoro, Ghana, Africa in 2007. Its genome is being sequenced at Genome Institute, Washington University.

C. afra groups in phylogenetic trees with C. elegans in the 'Elegans' supergroup. This species groups more closely with C. imperialis in the 'Japonica' group, the sister clade to the 'Elegans' group.

Chrysocatharylla gozmanyi

Chrysocatharylla gozmanyi is a moth in the family Crambidae. It was described by Graziano Bassi in 1999. It is found in Ghana.

Cynisca williamsi

Cynisca williamsi is a worm lizard species in the family Amphisbaenidae. It is endemic to Ghana.

Euphaedra ignota

Euphaedra ignota, the Ghana Ceres forester, is a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. It is found in Ghana. The habitat consists of dense forests.

Euriphene larseni

Euriphene larseni, or Larsen's nymph, is a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. It is found in Ghana. The habitat consists of forests.

Gabon beaked snake

The Gabon beaked snake (Letheobia caeca) is a species of blind snake in the family Typhlopidae. It is endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa. It is known from Gabon (its type locality), Cameroon, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Ghana. However, the identity of different populations is not fully clear.

Ghana mole-rat

The Ghana mole-rat or Togo mole-rat (Fukomys zechi) is a species of rodent in the family Bathyergidae.

It is endemic to Ghana.

Its natural habitats are moist savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland, caves, and arable land.

It commonly breeds during rainy months such as March-August. In a colony reproduction is limited to one male and one female so a monogamist behavior.

Heteropsis decira

Heteropsis decira is a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. It is found in Ghana.

Hyperolius bobirensis

Hyperolius bobirensis is a species of frog in the family Hyperoliidae.

It is endemic to Ghana.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and intermittent freshwater marshes.

It is threatened by habitat loss.

Iolaus likpe

Iolaus likpe, the Likpe sapphire, is a butterfly in the family Lycaenidae. It is found in Ghana.

Junonia hadrope

Junonia hadrope, the Volta pansy, is a butterfly in the family Nymphalidae. It is found in Ghana (the Volta Region).

Letheobia coecatus

Letheobia coecatus is a species of snake in the family Typhlopidae. It is endemic to West Africa and is known from Ghana, Ivory Ceast, and Guinea.

Mylothris atewa

Mylothris atewa, the Atewa dotted border, is a butterfly in the family Pieridae. It is endemic to the Atewa Range near Kibi, between Accra and Kumasi in Ghana. The habitat consists of upland evergreen forest.

Phrynobatrachus calcaratus

Phrynobatrachus calcaratus, the Boutry river frog or Peters' puddle frog, is a species of frog in the family Phrynobatrachidae. It is widely distributed in West Africa (Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Benin, and Nigeria, and possibly adjacent countries) and Middle Africa (Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Bioko (Equatorial Guinea), possibly wider). However, this nominal species is a species complex consisting of several species.

Phrynobatrachus vogti

Phrynobatrachus vogti is a species of frog in the family Petropedetidae. It is endemic to Ghana and only known from its type locality, "Boutry". The specific name vogti honours Theodor Vogt (1881–1932), a German naturalist. Common name Vogt's river frog has been coined for it. Its taxonomic validity is uncertain and there is very little information on this species. Its ecological requirements are unknown, but presumably it breeds in water, like the other members of the genus.

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