Fauna of Finland

This is a list of the fauna of Finland. Finland borders Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, and Norway to the north, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland, allowing an ecological mix. Finland contains many species of mammals, birds, and fish, but only a few reptiles and amphibians. This article discusses all the vertebrate animals which can be found on Finland itself, not the oceans.

Mammals

There are over 90 species of mammals found in Finland and the surrounding oceans. Some were introduced from other countries in Europe, as well as other continents, such as Asia and North America. Rodents and shrews are most common in Finland.

Rodents

There are close to 30 species of rodents living throughout Finland. These include the widespread Muridae, such as the house mouse, brown rat and wood mouse which live throughout Europe, and the Norway lemming, which only lives in Scandinavia. Some were introduced there, and they include the muskrat and nutria among others.

Lagomorphs

There are 3 species of rabbits and hares found in Finland. The common rabbit spread there from central Europe. It is now found in practically all of Europe. The other two species are hares.

Insectivores

There are 10 species of insectivore living in Finland. Eight of the ten are shrews, from the common shrew to the Eurasian water shrew. Shrews are very common in the forests of Finland. A species of mole and one of hedgehog are the remaining insectivores.

Bats

About 13 kinds of bat live in Finland.

Carnivores

Around 15 species of carnivore are found in Finland. Many of the larger carnivores were or are still in danger of dying out. Other than Russia and some other eastern European countries, Finland is the last stronghold for gray wolves in Europe.

Pinnipeds

Pinnipeds includes all the seals, sea lions, and the walrus. Four pinnipeds are native to Finland year round (most living on the northern coast), but other species, such as the walrus, may migrate there during certain times of the year. The Saimaa ringed seal is a subspecies of ringed seal native exclusively to Finland and is a famous animal there, though it is also one of the most endangered seal subspecies in the world.

Artiodactyls

The order of Artiodactyl includes all even-hooved mammals. There are about 10 species that can be found in Finland. Many species have been either introduced or reintroduced there.

  • Wild boar Sus scrofa (common)
  • Roe deer Capreolus capreolus (common)
  • White-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus (common/introduced from North America)
  • Fallow deer Dama dama (uncommon/introduced from other parts of Europe)
  • Red deer Cervus elaphus (very rare/became extinct but recently spreading from Sweden)
  • Reindeer Rangifer tarandus (common)
  • Moose Alces alces (common)
  • Mouflon Ovis musimon (rare/introduced from central Europe)

Cetaceans

This order includes all the whales, toothed whales, and dolphins of the different waters. Finland does not have any large Cetacean species within its territories. Finland's only coast is on the baltic sea which is home to the Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) which is the smallest of the Dolphin Species in the world's Oceans. However, the Baltic Sea the population of Harbour Porpoise has dropped dramatically since the mid-1950s and is now at under 500. The top current threats for Baltic harbour porpoise are bycatch in fisheries, environmental toxins mostly from the Swedish Paper Industry and anthropogenic noise.

Birds

There are around 340 different kinds of birds all over Finland, from the cold north, to the temperate south. Most are native all year, but some species migrate to warmer areas during the winter. Like mammals, some of Finlands birds have been introduced.

Grebes and loons

Grebes and loons are two separate orders of birds. They are both semi-aquatic and appear similar to ducks.

Albatrosses and petrels

Albatrosses and petrels are two of the four families of marine diving birds that make up this order. Some of them look similar to sea gulls, but are found further out at sea. They live mostly off the coasts of Finland.

Pelicaniforms

This includes not only pelicans, but also gannets and cormorants. There are 6 families in this order but only a few species are found in Finland.

Herons and storks

Herons and storks are just two of the better known families in this order, which contains a total of six families. All are wading birds who generally have predatory characteristics.

Ducks

This order contains the ducks, geese, and swans. All are in a single family, which is very large and has species from all over the world. Finland has many species.

Grouse and pheasants

These include all the fowl of the world. Many species live in Finland and are a common food source.

Birds of Prey

These are the most predatory birds in the world. There are five families in all. Eagles, hawks, falcons, and osprey can all be found in Finland.

Gruiforms

There are 12 families in this order, which contains wading and ground birds. Cranes, rails, and bustards are the larger of the families, and contain members living in Finland.

Charadriforms

This is a large order which contains many kinds of semi-aquatic and coastal birds. Plovers, sandpipers, gulls, and puffins are some of the members of the order. They all occur in Finland.

Pigeons

These are small birds that are very familiar to city people because of feral rock pigeons, which occur worldwide.

Cuckoos

This family of birds is unique in that the mother bird may lay her eggs in another species nest, and have that female take care of her young. Only one species is found in Finland.

Owls

Owls are considered nocturnal birds of prey. They hunt and are mostly active during the night. Two families, the owls and barn owls, make up this order.

Nightjars

Only one species in this order is found all over Europe. Nightjars and their relatives are nocturnal and some show predatory behavior.

Swifts

Swifts are a family of quick flying birds related to hummingbirds.

Coraciforms

This order includes rollers, kingfishers, bee-eaters, and others. Most of these birds have very large beaks in proportion to their bodies.

Woodpeckers

The woodpeckers can make holes in trees with their strong beaks.

Reptiles

see List of reptiles of Finland

See also

References

  • Golden Encyclopedia of Mammals
  • Birds of Europe and Middle East
  • Nature in Finland
Aethes kyrkii

Aethes kyrkii is a species of moth of the family Tortricidae. It is found in northern Finland.

Asaphocrita obsoletella

Asaphocrita obsoletella is a moth in the Blastobasidae family which is endemic to Finland.

Common frog

The common frog (Rana temporaria), also known as the European common frog, European common brown frog, European grass frog, or simply a frog, is a semi-aquatic amphibian of the family Ranidae, found throughout much of Europe as far north as Scandinavia and as far east as the Urals, except for most of Iberia, southern Italy, and the southern Balkans. The farthest west it can be found is Ireland, where it has long been thought, erroneously, to be an entirely introduced species. They are also found in Asia, and eastward to Japan.

Common frogs metamorphose through three distinct developmental life stages — aquatic larva, terrestrial juvenile, and adult. They have corpulent bodies with a rounded snout, webbed feet and long hind legs adapted for swimming in water and hopping on land. Common frogs are often confused with the common toad Bufo bufo, but frogs can easily be distinguished as they have longer legs, hop, and have a moist skin, whereas toads crawl and have a dry 'warty' skin. The spawn of the two species also differs in that frogspawn is laid in clumps and toadspawn is laid in long strings.

Elachista imatrella

Elachista imatrella is a moth of the family Elachistidae which is endemic to Finland.

The length of the forewings is 3.2–3.7 millimetres (0.13–0.15 in) for males and 3.4 millimetres (0.13 in) for females. The forewing ground colour of the females is mottled greyish/brownish from the base to the fascia and blackish beyond. For males, the ground colour of the forewings is greyish brown, with whitish scales basally, resulting in a mottled appearance.The larvae possibly feed on Carex species, probably Carex vaginata. They mine the leaves of their host plant.

Elachista leifi

Elachista leifi is a moth of the family Elachistidae. It is found in northern Finland.

The larvae possibly feed on Carex and/or Eriophorum vaginatum. They mine the leaves of their host plant.

Elachista saarelai

Elachista saarelai is a moth of the family Elachistidae that is endemic to southern Finland.The wingspan is 6–8.5 millimetres (0.24–0.33 in) for males and 7.5–9 millimetres (0.30–0.35 in) for females.

The larvae feed on Carex digitata and possibly Carex pediformis. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine starts from the middle of the length of the leaf and is directed upwards. The larva hibernates within this mine and continues mining in the same leaf during spring. By the end of June, the mine occupies the whole width of the leaf, and is turned downwards after reaching the tip of the leaf. It mines until August or September and then hibernates within the mine for the second time. Pupation takes place outside of the mine on a leaf of the host plant.

Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica

Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica is a scientific book series of entomological identification manuals for insects (and other terrestrial arthropods) in North-West Europe, mainly Fennoscandia and Denmark. The series is used by a number of groups, such as ecologists, biologists, and insect collectors. The books are in English, and published by the Dutch academic publishing house Brill.

List of birds of Finland

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Finland. The avifauna of Finland include a total of 476 confirmed species as of March 2018, according to Birdlife Suomi. Of them, 182 are rare or accidental, five have been introduced by humans, and six have not been reported in Finland since 1950.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight some categories of occurrence:

(R) Rare or accidental – a species which is rare in Finland, requiring submission to the Finnish Rarities Committee (Rariteettikomitea) for acceptance

(I) Introduced – a species introduced to Finland as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Historical – a species that has not occurred in Finland since 1950

List of butterflies of Finland

The butterflies of Finland include all species of butterflies (Papilionoidea) (including skippers, which were formerly considered a separate superfamily Hesperioidea but nowadays are included in Papilionoidea) which have been recorded in Finland. The local butterfly fauna includes 121 species of butterflies, 10 of which are skippers. However, some species have been reported only once.

As of 2010, the butterfly fauna of Finland included two species classified as critically endangered (CR), 12 species as endangered (EN) and 10 species as vulnerable (VU). Out of all 26 lepidopteran species which are protected by law under the Nature Conservation Decree, 18 species appear on this list.

List of reptiles of Finland

This is a list of reptiles of Finland. There are five species and all but one (Vipera berus) are protected by law. Currently Coronella austriaca is classified as vulnerable.

Macroplea pubipennis

Macroplea pubipennis is a species of leaf beetle of the subfamily Donaciinae that is endemic to Finland.

Outline of Finland

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Finland.

Finland – sovereign Nordic country located in Northern Europe. Finland has borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, and Norway to the north, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland. The capital city is Helsinki.

Around 5.4 million people reside in Finland, with the majority concentrated in the southern part of country. It is the eighth largest country in Europe in terms of area and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. The native language for most of the population is Finnish, a member of the Uralic language family most closely related to Estonian and one of the four EU languages not of Indo-European origin. The second official language, Swedish, is spoken by a 5.5 percent minority. Finland is a democratic, parliamentary republic with a central government and local governments in 415 municipalities. Greater Helsinki (including Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen) totals a million residents and a third of the GDP. Other major cities include Tampere, Turku, and Oulu.

Finland was historically part of Sweden and from 1809 an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire. Finland's declaration of independence in 1917 from Russia was followed by a civil war, wars against the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, and a period of official neutrality during the Cold War. Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and the European Union in 1995 and participates in the Eurozone. Finland has been ranked the second most stable country in the world, in a survey based on social, economic, political, and military indicators.Finland has seen excellent results in many international comparisons of national performance such as the share of high-technology manufacturing, the rate of gross domestic product growth, and the protection of civil liberties.

Saimaa ringed seal

The Saimaa ringed seal (Pusa hispida saimensis, Finnish: Saimaannorppa) is a subspecies of ringed seal (Pusa hispida). They are among the most endangered seals in the world, having a total population of only about 390 individuals. The only existing population of these seals is found in Lake Saimaa, Finland (hence the name). They have lived in complete isolation from other ringed seal species for around 9,500 years and have diverged into a morphologically and ecologically different subspecies of ringed seal. The population is descended from ringed seals that were separated from the rest when the land rose after the last ice age. This seal, along with the Ladoga seal and the Baikal seal, is one of the few living freshwater seals.

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