Fatsa

Fatsa is a town and a district of Ordu Province in the central Black Sea region of Turkey. Population from Fatsa is more than 115,000.

Fatsa
Town
A panoramic view of the town
A panoramic view of the town
Fatsa is located in Turkey
Fatsa
Fatsa
Location of Fatsa
Coordinates: 41°02′N 37°30′E / 41.033°N 37.500°ECoordinates: 41°02′N 37°30′E / 41.033°N 37.500°E
Country Turkey
RegionBlack Sea
ProvinceOrdu
Government
 • MayorMuharrem Aktepe (AKP)
Area
 • District300.00 km2 (115.83 sq mi)
Elevation
57- 550 m (−1,747 ft)
Population
 (2012)[2]
 • Urban
74,602
 • District
107,031
 • District density360/km2 (920/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
52
Area code(s)0452
Licence plate52
ClimateCfa
Websitehttp://www.fatsa.gov.tr

Name

The oldest recorded name of the town is Polemonion (Ancient Greek: Πολεμώνιον, Latinized as Polemonium), after Polemon I of Pontus. A derivative of Polemonion, i.e. Bolaman, is the modern name of the river passing through Fatsa (the river is the ancient Sidenus).[3] The present name, Fatsa, has been influenced by modern Greek Φάτσα or Φάτσα Πόντου (φἀτσα is derived from Italian faccia), which translates as "face or housefront on the sea", but has in fact mutated from Fanizan, the name of the daughter of King Pharnaces II of Pontus, through Fanise, Phadisana (Greek: Φαδισανή),[4] Phadsane[5] Phatisanê[6] Vadisani (Greek: Βαδισανή), Phabda,[7] Pytane, Facha, Fatsah[6][8] into today's Fatsa. Apart from Polemonion, another Greek name of the town was Side.[9]

History

Antiquity

Dioecesis Pontica 400 AD
The Diocese of Pontus and its provinces in c. 400 AD.
Ottoman Fatsa
Fatsa, the late Ottoman era.

The history of Fatsa goes back to antiquity, when the coast was settled by Cimmerians, and Pontic Greeks in the centuries BC. The ruins on Mount Çıngırt (the ancient rock tombs and vaults) are from this period.

Roman and Byzantine periods

Fatsa was first mentioned, in the era of the Kingdom of Pontus, as Polemonium, after King Polemon I, the Roman client king appointed by Mark Antony. Under Nero, the kingdom became a Roman province in AD 62. In about 295, Diocletian (r. 284–305) divided the province into three smaller provinces, one of which was Pontus Polemoniacus, called after Polemonium, which was its administrative capital.

As the Roman Empire developed into the Byzantine Empire, the city lost some of its regional importance. Neocaesarea became the capital of the province, and the Diocese of Polemonion was a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Neocaesarea.[10] Due to partition of the Byzantine Empire as a result of the Fourth Crusade, Fatsa became a part of the Empire of Trebizond in 1204.

In the 13th and 14th centuries Genoese traders established trading posts on the Black Sea coast.[11] Fatsa became one of the most important of these ports. There is a stone warehouse on the shore built in this period.

Ottoman Period

Following the conquest of the Empire of Trebizond by the Ottomans in 1461, Fatsa become a part of Rûm Eyalet and later a part of Trebizond Eyalet of the Ottoman Empire and remained within the Sanjak of Janik until the collapse of the Empire in 1921. Fatsa became a district of Ordu Province, following the formation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923.

Population Movement

Çürüksulu Ali Paşa (Tavdgiridze)
Ali Pasha of Çürüksu (front row, middle) and Ottoman Georgians during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78). At the end of the war, the re-settlement of Ottoman Georgians in Fatsa was supervised by Ali Pasha.[12]
From Φάτσα to Κατερίνη
Literary Publications, Testimonials and Narratives in Pieria, which includes chronicles of Fatsa's Pontic Greeks on their exodus from Fatsa to Katerini in 1923.[13]

Following the Turkish conquest of Anatolia by the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum and later by the Ottomans, Muslims settler arrived at Fatsa in the middle of the 14th Century.[14] The early Muslim Turkish settlers included Turkomens, whose descendents make up the majority of Fatsa’s current Alevi Muslim community.[15] In 1999, a religious worship complex that serves to both Alevis and Sunni Muslims was opened in Fatsa, which was unprecedented in Turkey.[16]

In the second half of the 19th century, Fatsa's Sunni population increased significantly, as some of Chveneburi (Sunni Muslim Georgians) from Batumi and Kobuleti (Turkish: Çürüksu), who fought in the Ottoman army against the Russian forces in Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) under Ali Pasha of Çürüksu[12] and some of the Abazins and Circassians,[17] who were forced to leave their ancestral land in North Caucasus after the end of the Caucasian War in 1864, were settled in Fatsa and in the surrounding villages. The Circassian immigrants had an immediate impact on the local economy by introducing silk production to the area. In 1868, 3 million piastres worth of silk was sold in Fatsa.[17]

During the Byzantine period, as early as the 9th century, an Orthodox diocese was located in Fatsa (Diocese of Polemonion).[10] Fatsa's Christian population during the Ottoman era was made up by Pontic Greeks and Armenians,[18] who thrived as craftsmen and bureaucrats. According to the last Ottoman census carried out in 1914, the Christians made up 12% of Fatsa's total population of 40,339.[19][20] After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Fatsa’s Christian population diminished. The last Pontic Greek community left Fatsa in 1923 as a part of the Population exchange between Greece and Turkey, when 770 Muslim families from Thessaloniki, Greece were settled in Fatsa and the indigenous Pontic Greek population of Fatsa were settled in Katerini and in the village of Trilofos Himachal, both in the Pieria, region of Greece. Two members of Fatsa's Pontic Greek community, after the population exchange in 1923, became politicians in Greece; Alexander Deligiannidis, born in Fatsa in 1914 served in the Greek Parliament as a member of National Radical Union Party (1956 - 1964) and Takis Terzopoulos, born in Fatsa in 1920 served as the mayor of Katerini (1964 - 1967).

The book titled Literary Publications, Testimonials and Narratives in Pieria (1918 - 2010) (Greek: Λογοτεχνικές εκδόσεις, μαρτυρίες και αφηγήσεις στην Πιερία) includes chronicles of some of Fatsa's Pontic Greeks on their exodus from Fatsa to Katerini, including an anecdotal account by Chalkidis Ef. Theophilus (Greek: Χαλκίδης Ευθ. Θεόφιλος) (b. Fatsa in 1900 - d. Katerini 1985).[13]

In 1919, in Fatsa, there were 8 churches (Greek Orthodox, Greek Evangelical and Armenian Apostolic) served by 9 priests.[21] After the departure of the last Christian community in 1923, the churches were closed and later demolished.[14] The last remaining church in Fatsa was in town’s Kurtuluş District and was demolished in the late 1980s.

Politics

Social Unrest in 1970s - 1980s

During the social unrest in Turkey in the 1970s, a major international incident in the area was the kidnapping of three NATO engineers (two British, one Canadian) from the Ünye radar station in 1972 by the members of People's Liberation Army of Turkey,[22] which had a support base in Fatsa.

In 1976, Nazmiye Komitoğlu was elected as the mayor of Fatsa, who was the first female mayor elected in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Following her death in office,[23] Fikri Sönmez, a local Chveneburi,[15] was elected as the mayor on 14 October 1979.[24] Sönmez and his Marxist–Leninist organisation People's Liberation Army - Revolutionary Path, which was made up by local committees under the slogan "The red sun will rise in Fatsa", controlled the municipality until 11 July 1980.[25]

After his election as the mayor, Sönmez divided Fatsa into eleven regions and created people's committees, which had power to recall government authorities.[23] Sönmez was blamed creating a new state inside the Turkish Republic by the prime minister of Turkey at the time, Süleyman Demirel.[26]

This era ended when, upon the initiative of the Nationalist Movement Party supporting the provincial governor, the Turkish military conducted an operation called OperationTarget (Turkish: Nokta Operasyonu) against the town.[27] On 8 July 1980, the Turkish Army surrounded Fatsa. On 9 July the General Staff of Turkish Armed Forces, General Kenan Evren arrived at Fatsa. On 11 July 1980, the army moved into the town, and Mayor Sönmez and 300 others were arrested by the army.[15] OperationTarget is believed to be the rehearsal for the 1980 Turkish coup d'état led by Gen. Kenan Evren.[28]

Throughout this turbulent period, Fatsa lost a significant number of its people as they migrated away to jobs in Turkey's larger cities or abroad. Immigrants from Fatsa constitute the largest proportion of the Turkish community in Japan.[29]

Current

The current mayor of Fatsa is Hüseyin Anlayan from the conservative AK Party.[30]

Geography and Climate

Hazelnuts
Fatsa is one of World's leading hazelnut cultivation regions.

Fatsa is located on a strip of coastline between the Black Sea and the Janik Mountains (Turkish: Canik) and watered by the rivers of Elekçi, Bolaman, Yapraklı and Belice. The current population of the town is 74602.

Fatsa has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa); hot and humid in summer, mild and damp in winter, with occasional - but heavy - snowfalls.

Economy

The local economy depends on agriculture and fishing. In the early 20th Century, the town thrived as a port and trading post, as there was no coastal road to in the region. There are fishing fleets harboured at the port in Fatsa and in the small districts of Yalıköy and Bolaman (Polemonium) and in the hamlet of Belice, which forms a natural harbour. The Black Sea Coastal Highway runs through Fatsa bringing passing trade.

Before the 20th century, maize and rice were the main grains grown in the hinterland. From the 1920s onwards, the coastal swamps were dried up by irrigation works, rice growing ceased and the town grew. During this time, hazelnuts were introduced to the area. About 80% of arable land is planted with hazelnuts. The higher mountain areas of the district are covered in forest.

Places of interest

Panoramic of Gaga Lake
Lake Gaga, Fatsa.

The countryside and coast of Fatsa are lush in spring and summer time. A number of places in and around the town attract visitors, including;

The annual Fatsa Çınar Festival was used to be held in July which included concerts, sports competitions, a beauty contest and various other activities. The last festival was held in 2008.

Notable Natives

  • Hekimoğlu İbrahim - Folk hero and outlaw who was involved in the skirmishes between the local Chveneburi (Muslim Georgian) and Turks in the early 20th Century[31] (b. Fatsa ? - d. Fatsa 1918)
  • Soytaroğlu İsmail - Folk hero and outlaw who was involved in the skirmishes between the local Chveneburi and Turks in the early 20th Century (b. Vona ? - d. Ordu 1923)[32]
  • Alexander Deligiannidis (Αλέξανδρος Δεληγιαννίδης) (b. Fatsa 1914 - Thessaloniki, Greece 1969) - Ethnic Pontic Greek from Fatsa. Served in the Greek Parliament as a member of the National Radical Union Party.
  • Takis Terzopoulos (Τάκης Τερζόπουλος) (b. Fatsa 1920 - d. Katerini, Greece 1989) - Ethnic Pontic Greek from Fatsa. Served as a mayor of Katerini in Greece.
  • Fikri Sönmez ("Fikri The Tailor") - Revolutionary, mayor of Fatsa. Ethnic Chveneburi (b. Fatsa 1938 - d. Amasya 1985)
  • Ali Poyrazoğlu - Actor and director, who spent his childhood in Fatsa[33] (b. 1943, Istanbul - )
  • Dursun Ali Akınet - Folk poet, ethnic Chveneburi[34] (b. Fatsa 1945 - )
  • Kadir İnanır - Actor and director (b. Fatsa 1949 - )
  • Erdoğan Arıca - Footbal player and coach (b. Fatsa 1954 - d. Istanbul 2012)
  • Mehmet Gümüş - Singer[35] (b. Fatsa ? -)
  • Eyüp Fatsa - Politician, member of the Turkish Parliament[36] (b. Fatsa 1961 - )
  • Levent İnanır - Actor (b. Fatsa 1962 - )[37]
  • İlhan Saygılı - Diplomat, served as the Consul General of Turkey in Frankfurt, Germany until 2011.[38] (b. Fatsa ? - )
  • Soner Arıca - Model and singer (b. Fatsa 1966 - )
  • Moody E. Prior - (1901-1996) - Ethnic Pontic Greek- Birth name Papadapolous- Northwestern University professor of the Humanities and English and an authority on Shakespeare - Dean of the Graduate School

References

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. ^  Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Sidenus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
  4. ^ Friedrich Heinrich Theodor Bischoff, Vergleichendes Wörterbuch der alten, mittleren und neuen Geographie, 1829
  5. ^ Richard J. A. Talbert, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World,
  6. ^ a b Louis Vivien de Saint-Martin, Description historique et géographique de l'Asie Mineure, comprenant les temps anciens, le moyen age et les temps modernes, avec un précis détaillé des voyages qui ont été faits dans la péninsule, depuis l'époque des croisades jusqu'aux temps les plus récents; précédé d'un tableau de l'hstoire géographique de l'Asie, depuis les plus anciens temps jusqu'à nos jours.
  7. ^ Anthony Bryer and David Winfield, The Byzantine Monuments and Topography of the Pontos (Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1985: ISBN 0-88402-122-X), p. 111.
  8. ^ http://www.maproom.org/00/03/present.php?m=0049
  9. ^ Putzgers, F.W., Historischer Schul-Atlas, Bielefeld, 1929
  10. ^ a b DIMITRI KOROBEINIKOV (2003): Orthodox Communities in Eastern Anatolia in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries.1 Part 1: The Two Patriarchates: Constantinople and Antioch, Al-Masaq: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean, 15:2, 197-214
  11. ^ Rakova Snezhana, "Genoese in the Black Sea", Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World, Black Sea
  12. ^ a b BERAT YILDIZ, EMIGRATIONS FROM THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE TO THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: AN ANALYSIS IN THE LIGHT OF THE NEW ARCHIVAL MATERIALS, BILKENT UNIVERSITY
  13. ^ a b Αντώνης Κάλφας, Λογοτεχνικές εκδόσεις, μαρτυρίες και αφηγήσεις στην Πιερία (1918 - 2010), Πολιτιστικός Οργανισμός Δήμου Κατερίνης, 2011, ISBN 978-960-99702-0-4
  14. ^ a b David Winfield et al., Some Byzantine Churches from the Pontus, Anatolian Studies, Vol. 12 (1962), pp. 131-161
  15. ^ a b c Morgül Kerem, A History of Social Struggles in Fatsa 1960-1980, Boğaziçi University, 2007.
  16. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-06-20. Retrieved 2013-06-18.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ a b Donald Presgrave Little et al., Islamic Studies Presented to Charles J. Adams, Brill Academic Pub; First Edition (April 1, 1991), ISBN 978-9004092211
  18. ^ Léon Maccas, L’Hellenisme de L’Asie – Mineure, Paris, 1919, s: 83.
  19. ^ Meir Zamir (1981): Population statistics of the Ottoman empire in 1914 and 1919, Middle Eastern Studies, 17:1, 85-106
  20. ^ Tableaux indiquant le nombre des divers elements de la population dans l'Empire Ottoman au 1 Mars 1330 (14 Mars 1914), Constantinople
  21. ^ Maccas, Léon, L'hellénisme de l'Asie-Mineure son histoire, sa puissance (1919)
  22. ^ San Mateo Times /Thursday, March 30, 1972 /Page-1
  23. ^ a b ENGİN BOZKURT, THE CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVE LOCAL GOVERNMENT EXPERIENCES IN TURKEY: THE CASE OF HOZAT MUNICIPALITY, MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, 2011
  24. ^ TÜRKMEN, HADE, RADICALISATION OF POLITICS AT THE LOCAL LEVEL: THE CASE OF FATSA DURING THE LATE 1970s, MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, 2006
  25. ^ SÜMERCAN BOZKURT, THE RESISTANCE COMMITTEES: DEVRIMCI YOL AND THE QUESTION OF REVOLUTIONARY ORGANIZATION IN TURKEY IN THE LATE 1970s, MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, 2008
  26. ^ http://www.uludagsozluk.com/k/fatsa-nokta-operasyonu/
  27. ^ "Milliyet - Ece Temelkuran - Teferruat!" (in Turkish). Retrieved 12 November 2008.
  28. ^ "Bir Yerel Yönetim Deneyi" by Pertev Aksakal (Simge Yayınevi) 1989
  29. ^ "Fatsalı'nın ikinci vatanı Japonya". Sabah (in Turkish). 2005-10-01. Retrieved 2009-02-24
  30. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-12-05. Retrieved 2013-06-16.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  31. ^ BOA DH. MTV 55/48.
  32. ^ http://www.ordukentgazetesi.com/news_print.php?id=810
  33. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-06-26. Retrieved 2013-06-16.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  34. ^ http://www.gdd.org.tr/koydetay.asp?id=282
  35. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-06-27. Retrieved 2013-06-16.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  36. ^ http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/develop/owa/milletvekillerimiz_sd.bilgi?p_donem=23&p_sicil=5917
  37. ^ http://www.biyografistan.com/2013/05/levent-inanir-kimdir-biyografisi.html
  38. ^ http://euturkhaber.com/t-c-frankfurt-baskonsolosu-ilhan-saygilidan/

External links

Bolaman

Bolaman is a town in Fatsa district of Ordu Province, Turkey. At 41°02′N 37°35′E it is a coastal town on Turkish state highway D.010 which runs along the Black Sea coast. The distance to Fatsa is 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) to Ordu is 47 kilometres (29 mi). The population of the Bolaman is 5583 as of 2011. The town (as well as the creek of the town) is named after Polemon, a governor of Ordu and vicinity during the Roman Empire era. But the town itself was founded in the 19th century. In 1966 it was declared a seat of township.

Bolaman Castle

The Bolaman Castle (Turkish: Bolaman Kalesi) is a historic castle located at Bolaman town of Fatsa in Ordu Province, Turkey.

Devrimci Yol

Devrimci Yol (Turkish for "Revolutionary Path", shortly DEV-YOL) was a Turkish political movement (as opposed to a tightly structured organization) with many supporters in trade unions and other professional institutions. Its ideology was based on Marxism-Leninism but rejected both the Soviet and the Chinese model in favor of a more native Turkish model, although it was influenced by the latter. Devrimci Yol entered the political scene in Turkey on 1 May 1977 with its manifesto called bildirge. Its roots can be seen in a movement that called itself Devrimci Gençlik ("Revolutionary Youth", short DEV-GENÇ), and it followed the thesis of Mahir Çayan.

Erdoğan Arıca

Erdoğan Arıca (24 July 1954 – 10 April 2012) was a Turkish football manager and coach. As a footballer, he played defender. He was also the brother of the singer Soner Arıca and the nephew of Kadir İnanır.

European route E70

European route E 70 is an A-Class West-East European route, extending from A Coruña in Spain in the west to the Georgian city of Poti in the east.

Fikri Sönmez

Fikri Sönmez (widely known as Terzi Fikri ("Fikri the Tailor")) (1938 - 4 May 1985) was a Turkish socialist politician, who served as the mayor of Fatsa district of Ordu Province between 1979 and 1980.

Hekimoğlu

Hekimoğlu İbrahim (died 26 April 1913), known by his epithet Hekimoğlu ("son of a physician" in Turkish), was an Ottoman outlaw and a folk hero. He was born in Fatsa, Ottoman Empire (today's Turkey).

Kadir İnanır

Kadir İnanır (born 15 April 1949, Fatsa, Ordu Province) is a popular Turkish film actor and director.

Kumru, Ordu

Kumru is a town and district of Ordu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. According to the 2000 census, population of the district is 44,307 of which 18,057 live in the town of Kumru.

List of football clubs in Turkey

For a complete list see Category:Football clubs in Turkey.

This is a list of football (soccer) clubs in Turkey. Clubs currently in the first three tiers of the Turkish football league system are listed alphabetically.

List of municipalities in Ordu Province

This is the List of municipalities in Ordu Province, Turkey as of October 2007.

List of populated places in Ordu Province

Below is the list of populated places in Ordu Province, Turkey by the districts. In the following lists first place in each list is the administrative center of the district

Ordu (electoral district)

Ordu is an electoral district of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. It elects six members of parliament (deputies) to represent the province of the same name for a four-year term by the D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system.

Ordu Province

Ordu Province (Turkish: Ordu ili) is a province of Turkey, located on the Black Sea coast. Its adjacent provinces are Samsun to the northwest, Tokat to the southwest, Sivas to the south, and Giresun to the east. Its license-plate code is 52. The capital of the province is the city of Ordu.

Seyit Ahmet Demirci

Seyit Ahmet Demirci is a Turkish serial killer, who is dubbed "Mobilyacı katiil" ("the Furniture dealers' Killer") in the media. He was convicted of killing three different furniture dealers.

Seyit Ahmet Demirci grew up in Fatsa, Samsun Province, northern Turkey.As a child he worked in a furniture shop. He claimed that at his age of 11 the elderly shop owner had sexually abused him in the basement of the shop. He also claimed to have witnessed the molestation of a co-worker by the same employer in the shop basement.He moved to Istanbul and developed hatred towards furniture dealers, particularly to those who said they have some other furniture in the basement. He committed his first murder shooting Ali Osman Beldek in the neck at the Turgut Reis neighborhood of Esenler, Istanbul on 5 May 1998. Then, he shot Mehmet Kayatuzu dead in Bağcılar, Istanbul on 4 June 1998, and two days later killed Celal Pınargöz also in Esenler. All three victims were selected randomly and unknown to him. His modus operandi was to shoot them with a single bullet in the neck in their shop's basement. He was dubbed by the media as "Mobilyacı katili" ("the Furniture dealers' Killer").He was arrested and prosecuted for serial murder. The judge focused on the possibility that mental illness was the cause of his criminality, despite the fact that three forensic medicine institutions attested that he has sound mind. The court wanted to sentence him with leniency, however, he was sentenced to the death penalty in three counts.Demirci stated that, had he not been caught, he would have continued until he had killed eleven victims. The significance of the number eleven for him was that was his age at the time of the alleged molestation.

Soner Arıca

Soner Arıca (born 5 February 1966) is a Turkish singer and record producer.

Turkish Regional Amateur League

The Turkish Regional Amateur League (known in Turkish as Bölgesel Amatör Lig) comprises a number of football leagues that make up the fifth tier of the Turkish football league system. The tier consists of thirteen groups across Turkey. Each season 9 teams are promoted to TFF Third League while the bottom two teams of each group are relegated to the Amatör Futbol Ligleri.

Yapraklı, Fatsa

Yapraklı is a village in the town of Fatsa, Turkey. It is located near downtown Fatsa and becoming an attraction for many city residents. Near the sea, there are many apartment complexes that are being built. The purpose of these complexes is for people to get away from the city environment to a quiet and green environment.

Çatalpınar

Çatalpınar is a town and district of Ordu Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey, 56 km from the city of Ordu and 20 km from the town of Fatsa. According to the 2000 census, population of the district is 23,192 of which 10,265 live in the town of Çatalpınar. The district covers an area of 47 km2 (18 sq mi), and the town lies at an elevation of 22 m (72 ft).

The local economy depends on agriculture, particularly growing hazelnuts and grazing animals. There is a mineral water spring in the village of Elmaköy.

Fatsa in Ordu Province of Turkey
Districts
Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia

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