Fatherland (novel)

Fatherland is a 1992 alternate history detective novel by English writer and journalist Robert Harris. Set in a universe where Nazi Germany won World War II, the story's lead protagonist is an officer in Kripo, the criminal police, investigating the murder of a Nazi government official who was one of the participants at the Wannsee Conference. In so doing, he discovers a plot to eliminate all attendees of the conference in order to help Germany establish better political relations with the United States.

The book's plot inverts some of the conventions of the detective novel. It begins with a murder and diligent police detective investigating and eventually solving it. But since the murderer is highly placed in a tyrannical regime, solving the mystery does not result in the detective pursuing and arresting the murderer, but in the contrary - the murderer pursuing and arresting the detective.

The novel was an immediate best-seller in the UK. It has sold over three million copies and has been translated into 25 languages.[1]

Fatherland
RobertHarris Fatherland
Cover of the first UK edition
AuthorRobert Harris
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
GenreThriller, alternate history
PublisherHutchinson
Publication date
7 May 1992
Media typePrint (hardback & paperback)
Pages372 (first edition, hardback)
ISBN0-09-174827-5 (first edition, hardback)
OCLC26548520

Plot

It is April 1964 in Nazi Germany, specifically the week leading up to Adolf Hitler's[note 1] 75th birthday. Detective Xavier March is an investigator working for the Kriminalpolizei (Kripo), as he investigates the suspicious death of a high-ranking Nazi, Josef Bühler,[note 2] in the Havel on the outskirts of Berlin. As March uncovers more details, he realises that he is caught up in a political scandal involving senior Nazi Party officials, who are apparently being systematically murdered under staged circumstances. As soon as the body is identified, the Gestapo claims jurisdiction and orders the Kripo to close its investigation.

In the story, March meets with Charlotte 'Charlie' Maguire, a female American journalist also determined to investigate the case. They both travel to Zürich to investigate the private Swiss bank account of one of the murdered officials. Ultimately, the two uncover the truth behind the staged murders: Reinhard Heydrich,[note 3] the head of the SS, has ordered the Gestapo to eliminate the remaining officials who planned the Final Solution (of which few Germans are aware) at the Wannsee Conference in January 1942. The elimination is being hurried to safeguard an upcoming meeting of Hitler and United States President Joseph P. Kennedy by ensuring that the fate of the missing Jews can never be revealed. Maguire heads for neutral Switzerland, hoping to expose the evidence of the extermination to the world. March, however, is denounced by his ten-year-old son and apprehended by the Gestapo.

In the cellars of Gestapo headquarters at Prinz-Albrecht-Straße, March is tortured but does not reveal the location of Maguire. Globocnik boasts that Auschwitz and the other camps have been totally razed, and March will never know the truth for certain. Kripo Chief Arthur Nebe stages a rescue, intending to track March as he meets with Maguire at their rendezvous in Waldshut-Tiengen on the Swiss/German border. March realises what is happening and heads for Auschwitz, leading the authorities in the wrong direction.

The Gestapo catches up with March at the unmarked site of Auschwitz. Knowing that Maguire has had the time to cross the border into Switzerland, March searches for some sign that the camp existed. As Gestapo agents close in on him in a helicopter, March uncovers bricks in the undergrowth. Satisfied, he pulls out his gun and leaves the readers to draw their own conclusions.

Characters

Fictional

  • Xavier March. A detective in the Kriminalpolizei with the concurrent honorary rank of Sturmbannführer (Major) in the SS, March (nicknamed "Zavi" by his friends) is a 42-year-old divorcé living in Berlin. He has one son, Pili (Paul), who lives with March's ex-wife, Klara. March's father died in 1929 from wounds sustained while serving in the Imperial German Navy during the Great War and his mother was killed in a Royal Air Force bombing raid in 1942. March commanded a U-Boat in World War II and was decorated for bravery and promoted. He married his nurse after the war, but the marriage steadily deteriorated afterward. His military service helped him rise through the police ranks to detective. By 1964, however, he is secretly under Gestapo surveillance for what they correctly perceive to be an intense dislike of the Nazi regime. For example, March refuses to donate to the 'winter-relief', showed "insufficient enthusiasm" for his son's involvement in the Jungvolk, has rebuffed all incentives to join the Nazi Party, tells "jokes about the Party", and worst of all - has shown some curiosity about what happened to a Jewish family who used to live in his present apartment.
  • Charlotte "Charlie" Maguire. A 25-year-old American journalist, Maguire has been assigned to Berlin by the fictional news service World European Features. Midway through the novel, she and March fall in love and begin a relationship. Maguire comes from a prominent Irish-American political family but is something of a renegade. The daughter of a U.S. State Department official and German actress who left with him before the war, Maguire speaks fluent German without an accent.[3]
  • Hermann Jost. A 19-year-old cadet in an SS military academy, Jost was out running when he discovered the corpse which triggered March's investigation. March is certain that Jost witnessed more than he is willing to disclose and at first believes him to be covering up a homosexual relationship with a fellow cadet—a death penalty offense. But ultimately, March persuades Jost to admit the truth—he witnessed the dumping of the body and recognised SS General Odilo Globocnik at the scene. Midway through the novel, Globocnik smugly tells March, "It's over. You have no witness". March learns that Jost has been sent to a punishment battalion in occupied Russia, likely resulting in his death.
  • Paul "Pili" March. March's ten-year-old son, Pili lives with his mother and her partner in a bungalow in the suburbs of Berlin. Pili is a fully indoctrinated member of the Jungvolk — the junior section of the Hitler Youth for boys between the ages of 10 and 14. Later in the novel, Pili denounces his father to the Gestapo, all the while unaware of what they will really do to him.
  • Max Jaeger. March's friend and Kripo partner, Jaeger is 50, lives with his wife Hannelore and four daughters in Berlin, and is disinclined to question 'the system'. At the end of the novel Jaeger drives the getaway car that rescues March, but it is revealed that he was the one who has been informing against March since before the novel began, and that March's "rescue" was arranged by the Gestapo as a ruse to find Charlotte Maguire.
  • Walther Fiebes. Fiebes is a detective working in VB3, the Kripo's sexual crimes division, along the corridor from March's office. A man with a deeply prurient nature, Fiebes relishes his work investigating sexual crimes cases including rape, adultery, and interracial relationships between "Aryan" women and their Slavic servants.
  • Rudolf "Rudi" Halder. March's friend and a crewman on his U-boat, Rudi is now an historian working at the immense Reich Central Archives, helping to compile an official history of the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS on the Eastern Front.
  • Karl Krebs. Krebs is an officer in the Gestapo, and is an example of the younger, university-trained SS-men whom Globocnik hates.

Based on historical figures

Harris, in the book's Author's notes, explains that many characters in the novel are based on the real people with the same names and, indeed, the biographical details are correct up to 1942. After that, the narrative is fictional.[2] The following descriptions follow what is in the novel.

  • Odilo Globocnik. An aging Obergruppenführer in the Gestapo and right-hand man of Reichsführer-SS Reinhard Heydrich, nicknamed "Globus". Globus is a principal antagonist of the book, personally responsible for the assassinations of the Wannsee officials. After March's apprehension by the Gestapo, Globus takes over March's interrogation, administering several brutal beatings.
  • Arthur Nebe. The chief of the Kripo, Nebe by 1964 is an old man with a sumptuous office in Berlin.[4] Initially appearing to support March's investigation for political reasons despite the Gestapo's involvement, Nebe eventually ascertains the threat posed to the Reich's international standing by March's investigations and weaves a ruse to March so that he reveals the whereabouts of the evidence.
  • Josef Bühler. A secretary and deputy governor to the Nazi-controlled General Government in Kraków.
  • Wilhelm Stuckart. A Nazi Party lawyer, official and a state secretary in the German Interior Ministry.
  • Martin Luther. An advisor to Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop,
  • Reinhard Heydrich. Heydrich is the current head of the SS and is considered a likely successor to Hitler. He is a principal antagonist of the book, although he never features personally. He ordered the assassinations of the Wannsee officials personally to eradicate all first-hand evidence of the Final Solution. In the real world he was assassinated on 4 June 1942 in Prague, but not in the story.

Others mentioned

In each case, the description following the name describes how they appear in the novel, again following reality up to 1942.[2]

  • Adolf Hitler. Elderly and increasingly reclusive Führer of the Greater German Reich. Since the end of the war he has toned down his image, wearing civilian clothing and holding speeches at a calm, rather than furious, rate.
  • Heinrich Himmler. Himmler died in a plane crash in 1962. Upon his death, he was succeeded as Reichsführer-SS by Reinhard Heydrich.[5]
  • Hermann Göring. Göring died in 1951, years before the book storyline of an undisclosed illness.[5] Berlin's International Airport is named after him.
  • Joseph Goebbels. Goebbels is still alive as of 1964 and remains in charge of the Propaganda Ministry. His children have become high-ranking Nazi officials.
  • Winston Churchill. Former British Prime Minister, Churchill fled the country upon Britain's peace agreement with the Reich and now lives in Canada.[6]
  • King George VI. The former king of Great Britain. Fled to exile in Canada and lived there until his death in 1952.
  • Princess Elizabeth. Princess Elizabeth also fled Great Britain and now resides in Canada. Since the death of her father in 1952, she has been a pretender to the British throne; Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United States recognize her as the rightful queen.
  • Edward VIII. Originally served as the King of the United Kingdom from January to December, 1936. Following the surrender of Britain, Edward VIII was restored to the throne. He and his spouse Wallis Simpson reign as Emperor and Empress of the British Empire.[7]
  • Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.. Current President of the United States.
  • Charles Lindbergh. The US Ambassador to Germany.
  • Francisco Franco. The caudillo of Spain, he maintains close friendships with many Nazis such as Luther.[8]

Also referenced though not by name are the Beatles, their recent appearances in Hamburg and their great popularity with young Germans, which has been condemned in the German press.[7]

The people the book names as attendees of the Wannsee Conference all did so in reality. Some are central to plot of the novel, but the others are already dead at the time of the novel's events.[2]

The fictitious backstory to the novel

Alternate World War II history

Fatherland
The world in 1964 in the novel Fatherland where the Germans won World War II.

Throughout the novel, Harris gradually explains in a fictional backstory the developments that allowed Germany to prevail in World War II. The author explains in the Author's notes that, except for the backstories of the fictitious characters, the narrative describes reality up to 1942 and is subsequently fictional.[2] A significant early point of divergence is that Reinhard Heydrich survived the assassination attempt by Czech fighters in May 1942 – which in reality killed him – and later became head of the SS. (Another divergence is the political career of Joseph Kennedy, who was disgraced in 1940 during the Battle of Britain. In this timeline, for an unexplained reason his political fortunes do not suffer - or possibly, recovered after the German victory - and he becomes president.) The Nazi offensives on the Eastern Front ultimately pushed back the Soviet forces, with the Case Blue operation succeeding in capturing the Caucasus and cutting the Red Army off from its petroleum reserves by 1943.[6] The Nazis also found that the Enigma machine code had been broken. A massive U-Boat campaign against Britain thereafter succeeded in starving the British into surrender by 1944.[6]

In the novel, King George VI, the British Royal Family and Prime Minister Winston Churchill flee into exile in Canada.[6] Edward VIII regained the British throne soon afterwards, with Wallis Simpson as his queen.[9][7][6] The US defeated Japan in 1945 using nuclear weapons.[6] Germany tested its first atomic bomb in 1946 and fired a non-nuclear "V-3" missile above New York City to demonstrate an ability to attack the continental United States with long-range missiles.[6] Thus, after a peace treaty in 1946, the US and Germany are the two superpower opponents in the Cold War of this world.[note 4][6] There is a reference to a brutal regime having power in China, but no reference to its ideology and whether it is headed by Mao or somebody else.

Alternate post-war history

The fictional backstory describes how, having achieved victory in Europe, Germany reorganises Europe east of Poland into Reichskommissariats. Following the signing of the Treaty of Rome, Western Europe and Scandinavia are corralled into a pro-German trading bloc, the European Community. By 1964, the United States and the Greater German Reich are involved in a Cold War.[6] The only exception is Switzerland, which retains its neutral status.

The German invasion of the Soviet Union has died down into an endless guerrilla war in the Ural Mountains and Siberia.[10] Mounting casualties (at least 100,000 since 1960, according to the novel[10]) have sapped the German military, despite Hitler's statement (quoted in the novel) about a perpetual war to keep the German people on their toes. Dead German soldiers are returned to Germany in the middle of the night.[10]

The action of the novel takes place from 14–20 April 1964, as Germany prepares for Hitler's 75th birthday celebrations on the 20th. A visit by the President of the United States, Joseph P. Kennedy, is planned as part of a gradual détente between the United States and the Greater German Reich. The novel suggests that the Nazi hierarchy is eager for peace because its efforts to settle the conquered Eastern lands are failing due to continued resistance from Polish and Soviet partisan movements. Moreover, the Nazis failed to instill their ideology in the younger generation, and many young Germans turn away from it – though active opposition to the regime is limited.[11]

The Holocaust has been explained away officially as merely the relocation of the Jewish population into areas of Eastern Europe where communications and transport networks are still very poor. Despite this, many Germans suspect the government has eliminated the Jews, but generally do not care or are too afraid of the Nazi authorities to say or do anything with this knowledge. Some surviving Jews escaped to Soviet territory, where they have provided testimony of the extermination efforts - while Nazi authorities decry this as Bolshevik propaganda, the outside world is aware of the Holocaust. The American president, however, remains neutral so as not to further damage relations, and refers only to vague "human rights violations" he wishes to investigate while visiting Berlin.

The end suggests that the plans of both Kennedy and Hitler might be seriously derailed by the documents which the book's protagonists obtained and which Charlie successfully smuggled out of Germany. Their publication, giving concrete hard evidence on the systematic murder of the Jews, might cause the cancellation of the Hitler-Kennedy summit and sabotage the plans for a German-American Détente, on which the Nazis were counting for economic recovery. It might also cause Kennedy to fail in his bid for re-election in November 1964. The book does not mention who the opposing candidate is and what policies does that candidate support, though it might be more of an anti-Nazi Cold Warrior.

Greater German Reich and international politics

Fatherland's 1964 Europe
Fatherland's 1964 Europe

The first few pages of Fatherland feature two maps: one of the city centre of Berlin and another showing the extent of the massively expanded Greater German Reich, which now stretches from Alsace-Lorraine (Westmark) in the west to the Ural Mountains and lower Caucasus in the east.[12]

The Reich has retained Austria (now known as the "Ostmark"), Slovenia, the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, and Luxembourg (now named "Moselland"). In the East, Poland is still ruled as a colony by the General Government while Soviet territory west of the Urals has been divided into five Reichkommissariats: Ostland (Belarus and the Baltic states), Ukraine, Muscovy (from Moscow to the Urals), and Caucasus, along with Generalkommissariat Taurida (Southern Ukraine and the Crimea). There is also mention of a German naval base in Trondheim, Norway where the Reich's nuclear submarines are based.[7]

Berlin has been remodelled as Hitler's "capital of capitals", designed according to the wishes of Hitler and his top architect, Albert Speer,[note 5] and is the world's largest city, with a population of ten million. The virtually powerless "European Parliament" is based there.[13]

In the novel, the rest of Western and Northern Europe, excluding Switzerland, has been corralled by Germany into a European Community (made up of Portugal, Spain, France, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland). Eastern European countries dominated by the Germany of Fatherland include Croatia, Greece, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Albania, and Serbia. The nations of Fatherland's EC, despite being nominally free under their own governments and leaders, are presumably only just sufficient to police their own territory. European nations are under constant surveillance by Berlin and are subordinate to Germany in all but name – the German flag flying over the Union's headquarters being twice as big as those of the other nations.[13]

By the time the Reich had turned its eyes to Switzerland, seeking to absorb its German-speaking cantons, the stalemate of the Cold War had settled in and Switzerland had become a convenient neutral spot for diplomacy, and for American and German intelligence agents to spy on each other. Consequently, Switzerland is the last state in Europe with a foreign policy independent of Berlin.

In the backstory, the United States is locked in a Cold War with the Greater German Reich. Since the end of the war in 1946, both the US and Germany have developed nuclear and space technologies. Japan was defeated by the US after the United States detonated one atomic bomb on Japanese territory. The United States is said to have not participated in the Olympic Games since 1936, but is expected to in 1964.[note 6]

A passing remark hints at China being ruled by a harsh government, but its precise nature is not mentioned. A greatly reduced Soviet rump state consisting of Siberia, the Russian Far East and Central Asia still exists with its capital in Omsk, while the United States supplies weapons and funds which are used by the Russians to tie down German forces in the Urals. Although German propaganda plays down the war in the east, the war on the Eastern Front is taking its toll.[10])[note 7]

Canada, Australia and New Zealand are now allied with the United States. Princess Elizabeth resides in Canada and is recognised by Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United States as the rightful queen of the United Kingdom. Winston Churchill also lives in Canada.

The novel describes that since the end of the war, a stalemate has developed between Germany and the United States, which seems to overshadow international relations. New German buildings are constructed with mandatory bomb shelters; the Reichsarchiv (German National Archive) claims to have been built to withstand a direct missile hit.[14][15]

Nazi society

In the novel, Germany concentrates on the containment of the USSR. Hitler has taken some steps to soften his image over the years, and now wears civilian clothes most of the time instead of Party uniform. Nonetheless, no substantive changes have taken place in the Nazi regime's basic character. The Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933, the legal bases for Hitler's dictatorship, remain in effect. The press, radio and television are tightly controlled. Dissenters are still sent to concentration camps. Conditions in the camps are reputed to be as harsh as they were in the 1930s and 1940s, though the International Red Cross is occasionally given staged inspections.[16]

In the novel, the bedrock of Nazi ideology is still the policy of blaming subversive and minority groups for Germany's economic and social problems. Jews, Communists, homosexuals, and interracial relationships (particularly between "Aryans" and Slavs) continue being scapegoats for the Nazi Party.[17] Nazi propaganda has previously depicted America as a land of corruption, degeneracy and poverty. However, as the diplomatic meeting between Hitler and Kennedy nears, German propaganda is forced to change its image of America to a more positive view.

Despite its ideological and moral decline, Germany has a high standard of living, with its citizens living off the produce of their European satellite states and freed from physical labour by thousands of Polish, Czech and Ukrainian workers. The European nations export high quality consumer goods to Germany (noted imports are domestic electronics from Great Britain) while also providing services, such as an SS academy at Oxford University and imported domestic staff. Hitler's personal tastes in art and music remain the norm for German society.

Military service is still compulsory.[18] Eastern Europe has been colonised by German settlers (although local partisan resistance movements are still active) and the German population has soared as a result of Nazi emphasis on childbirth. As the original generation of Nazi leaders that founded the party and came to power alongside Hitler are now beginning to die off, increasing numbers of Nazi officials are well-educated technocrats in the mould of Albert Speer. The police force is integrated with the SS, with police officers having honorary SS ranks.[note 8]

According to the main characters, however, German society in the early 1960s is becoming more and more rebellious. The young generation have no memory of the instability that paved the way for Hitler's rise to power. Student protests, particularly against the war in the Urals, American and British cultural influence, and growing pacifism are all found in Nazi society. Jazz music is still popular and the German government claims to have come up with a version which is free from "Negroid influence". In spite of the general repressiveness, the Beatles' real-life Hamburg engagements have happened here as well (and have already been denounced in the state-run press).[7] Germany is under constant attack by terrorist groups, with officials assassinated and civilian airliners bombed in-flight. Christianity is suppressed, and Nazi youth organisations are compulsory for all children. Universities are centres of student dissent, and the White Rose movement is once again active.[11]

The Nazis continue with their policies for women, encouraging them to remain in the home and bring up many children (still emphasising the first two elements of Kinder, Küche, Kirche), although women are clearly present in the Nazi bureaucracy. Nazi organisations such as Kraft durch Freude still exist and fulfill their original roles such as providing holidays to resort areas under German control. German citizens are still encouraged to contribute to the Winterhilfswerk. A sprawling transport network covers the entire Reich, including vast autobahnen and railways in the manner of the actually proposed Breitspurbahn system, carrying immense trains.

Technology

The level of technology in Fatherland is much the same as in the actual 1960s. The German military uses jet aircraft, nuclear submarines,[7] and aircraft carriers, while civilian technology has also advanced considerably. Jet airliners,[19] televisions,[20] hair-dryers, coffee machines, and photocopiers[21] are used in Germany.

The United States and Germany appear to have sophisticated space technology. Germany's space program is based at the old rocket-testing facility at Peenemünde on the Baltic coast. The extent of space exploration is not specified, but a conversation between March and Maguire suggests that German boasts about being ahead of the Americans in the Space Race are justified.[10]

Critical evaluations

British scholar Nancy Browne noted the similarities between the ending of "Fatherland" and that of Ernest Hemingway's "For Whom the Bell Tolls": "Both novels end with the protagonist about to embark on a single-handed armed confrontation with a large number of Fascists or Nazis, of whose outcome there can be no doubt - but the reader does not witness the moment of his presumed death.(...) Like Hemingway's Robert Jordan, Xavier March is facing this last moment with an exhilaration born of having no further doubts and dilemmas, no more crucial decisions which need to be made, nothing but going through on his chosen course and dying in a just cause. And like Jordan, in sacrificing himself March is ensuring the safe escape of the woman he loves.[22]

In other media

Film

A TV film of the book was made in 1994 by HBO, starring Rutger Hauer as March and Miranda Richardson as Maguire for which she received a Golden Globe Award in 1995 for Best Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role in a Series, Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for TV. Rutger Hauer's performance was also nominated, as well as the film itself. The film also received an Emmy nomination in 1995 for Special Visual Effects.[23]

Radio

The novel was serialised on BBC radio, starring Anton Lesser as March and Angeline Ball as Charlie Maguire. It was dramatised, produced and directed by John Dryden and first broadcast on 9 July 1997. The ending is changed slightly to allow for the limitations of the medium: the entire Auschwitz camp is discovered in an abandoned state, and Charlie Maguire's passage into Switzerland is confirmed to have occurred.

Audiobook

The unabridged audiobook version of the novel was released by Random House Audio in 1993, read by Werner Klemperer, best remembered for his two-time Emmy Award-winning role of bumbling Colonel Klink on the 1960s TV series Hogan's Heroes.

Release details

  • 1992, UK, Hutchinson (ISBN 0-09-174827-5), Pub date 7 May 1992, hardback (First edition)
  • 1993, UK, Arrow (ISBN 0-09-926381-5), Pub date 12 May 1993, paperback
  • 2012, 20th Anniversary edition, UK, Arrow (ISBN 978-0099571575), Pub date 26 April 2012, paperback

The novel is in seven parts, each of several chapters. The first six parts describe the fictitious events of Tuesday, 14 April to Sunday, 19 April 1964 and are named after the individual days. Part seven, Führertag is set on Hitler's 75th birthday, 20 April 1964.[24]

Notes

  1. ^ Hitler (as with the other "real" characters in the novel) is described factually up to 1942 after which the treatment is fictional.[2]
  2. ^ As with the other "real" characters in the novel, the biographical details up to 1942 are based on fact, after which the treatment is fictional.[2]
  3. ^ In reality Heydrich was killed in 1942
  4. ^ It is not explicitly stated whether Germany and the United States are the only nuclear powers in the world of Fatherland.
  5. ^ Harris states the architectural description follows Speer's actual plans[2]
  6. ^ The novel does not make references to the League of Nations or a possible existence of the United Nations.
  7. ^ Africa and Latin America are not referred to in the novel.
  8. ^ The integration occurred historically in 1936

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ Rosenfeld, Gavriel David (2005), The world Hitler never made, Cambridge University Press, p. 87, ISBN 0-521-84706-0.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Harris (2000), pp. 385–386; Author's Note
  3. ^ Harris (2000), pp. 206–207; Part 3, chapter 7
  4. ^ Harris (2000), p. 138; Part 3, chapter 2
  5. ^ a b Harris (2000), p. 86; Part 2, chapter 5
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Harris (2000), p. 85; Part 2, chapter 5
  7. ^ a b c d e f Harris (2000), p. 40; Part 1, chapter 4
  8. ^ Harris (2000), p. 137; Part 3, chapter 3
  9. ^ Harris (2000), p. 5; Part 1, chapter 1
  10. ^ a b c d e Harris (2000), p. 209; Part 3, chapter 7
  11. ^ a b Harris (2000), p. 155; Part 3, chapter 3
  12. ^ Harris (2000), Introduction.
  13. ^ a b Harris (2000), p. 188; Part 2, chapter 7
  14. ^ Harris (2000), p. 112; Part 2, chapter 7
  15. ^ Harris (2000), p. 244; Part 4, chapter 3
  16. ^ Harris (2000), p. 324; Part 5, chapter 6
  17. ^ Harris (2000), p. 17; Part 1, chapter 2
  18. ^ Harris (2000), p. ?; Part 3, chapter 3
  19. ^ Harris (2000), p. 26; Part 1, chapter 3
  20. ^ Harris (2000), p. 168; Part 3, chapter 3
  21. ^ Harris (2000), pp. 251–252; Part 4, chapter 4
  22. ^ "Dr. Nancy Browne, "In the perspective of a half a century after the event: Anti-Fascist and Anti-Nazi Resistance in English-language Popular Culture" in Tamara Baxter (ed.) "Multi-Disciplinary Round Table on the Lasting Heritage of the Twentieth Century"
  23. ^ "47th Emmy Awards Nominees and Winners: outstanding individual achievement in special visual effects - 1995". Emmys. Television Academy. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
  24. ^ Harris (2000), pp. 1–386.

Works cited

  • Harris, Robert (2000). Archangel; Fatherland. Cresset Editions. ISBN 0-09187-209-X. Although this cited edition is an omnibus volume of two novels, the page numbering is apparently the same as in the earlier single editions. The 2012 edition is numbered differently.

External links

Fatherland (disambiguation)

Fatherland is the nation of one's "fathers", "forefathers" or "patriarchs".

Fatherland may also refer to:

Fatherland (novel), an alternative history novel by Robert Harris

Fatherland (1994 film), a TV movie inspired by Harris's novel

Fatherland (1986 film), a 1986 film directed by Ken Loach

"Fatherland", a single released in 1993 by German metal band Die Krupps

"Fatherland", a song that appears on Metropolis, an album released in 2000 by Czech gothic rock band XIII Stoleti

Fatherland (Kele album), a 2017 album by Kele Okereke

Goran Vojnović

Goran Vojnović (born 11 June 1980) is a Slovenian writer, poet, screenwriter and film director. He is best known for his 2008 novel Southern Scum Go Home (Slovene: Čefurji raus!) which won him numerous awards as well as a lawsuit filed by the Slovenian Police that was withdrawn a day later after media attention and public outrage at police filing charges for a work of fiction brought embarrassment to the Slovenian Ministry of Interior.Vojnović was born in Ljubljana. He studied at the Academy for Theatre, Radio, Film and Television. He published his first collection of poetry Lep je ta svet in 1998. His novel Čefurji raus! started out as an unfinished film script. It describes life of immigrant youth in the Fužine estate in Ljubljana, their everyday problems and cultural differences between locals and immigrants from the former Yugoslavia. For it he won the Prešeren Foundation Award and the Kresnik Award in 2009. It has been translated and published in Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian and Czech. and excerpts translated into German and English.His novel Jugoslavija, moja dežela (Yugoslavia, My Fatherland) was published in 2011 by Beletrina. The English translation was published in 2015 by Istros Books in the UK.

Gorky Park (novel)

Gorky Park is a 1981 crime novel written by American author Martin Cruz Smith.Set in the Soviet Union during the Cold War, Gorky Park is the first book in a series featuring the character Arkady Renko, a Moscow homicide investigator. Two subsequent books, Polar Star and Red Square, are also set during the Soviet era. Five further books take place after the fall of the Soviet Union. These are Havana Bay, set in communist Cuba; Wolves Eat Dogs, which follows Renko in the disaster of Chernobyl; Stalin's Ghost in which Arkady returns to a Russia led by Vladimir Putin, Three Stations and Tatiana.Gorky Park was a major best-seller, vaulting Smith to fame after a decade as a moderately successful professional author. The novel was adapted into a successful 1983 film of the same name.

Index of World War II articles (F)

F-34 tank gun

F Kikan

F. Burke Jones

F. F. E. Yeo-Thomas

F. F. Worthington

F. H. Maynard

F. Lorée

F. Rogues

F. Ross Holland, Jr.

F. S. Bell

F. W. Winterbotham

Föhrenwald

Förbundet Arbetarfront

F1 grenade (Russia)

Fab Morvan

Fabian Bourzat

Fabian von Schlabrendorff

Fabien Barthez

Fabien Galthié

Fabrice Abriel

Fabrice Fiorèse

Fabrice Moreau

Fabrice Pancrate

Fabrice Poullain

Fabrikaktion

Faces of War

FAI armoured car

Faidherbe - Chaligny (Paris Métro)

Fairbairn-Sykes Fighting Knife

Fairchild K-20

Fairchild PT-19

Fairey Firefly

Fairey Fulmar

Fairfax Airport

Fairmont Army Airfield

Fairplex

Faisal of Saudi Arabia

Faithful Service Medal

Faja de Oro

Falaise pocket

Fall Grün (Czechoslovakia)

Fall of Berlin - 1945

Fall Weiss (1939)

Fallschirm-Panzer Division 1 Hermann Göring

Fallschirmjäger-Regiment Hübner

Fallschirmjäger

Falstad concentration camp

Faneva Imà Andriantsima

Fang Zhenwu

Fannrem concentration camp

Fantasy in the Sky

Fantasyland

Far East Air Force (United States)

Far East Prisoners of War

Far Eastern Commission

Far Eastern Front (Soviet Union)

Far Eastern Liaison Office

Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje

Farewell of Slavianka

Farewell to Manzanar

Farhud

Farley Mowat

Farouk of Egypt

Fascism and Big Business

Fascism as an international phenomenon

Fast Attack Craft War Badge

Fast Carrier Task Force

Fat Man and Little Boy

Fat Man

Fateless (film)

Fatema Mernissi

Father (film)

Father Goose (film)

Father Jean Bernard

Father Raskin

Fatherland (novel)

Fathom Five (novel)

Fats Everett

Faurisson affair

Faux Soir

Favorite (Q195)

Fay B. Begor

Fazal Din

FBI Silvermaster File

FC Grenoble

FC Nantes

FCM 36

FCM F1

Featherston prisoner of war camp

February strike

FECOMZ

Federal Expellee Law

Federal State of Croatia

Federation of Expellees

Fedor Dragojlov

Fedor Tokarev

Fedor von Bock

Feldafing displaced persons camp

Feldjägerkorps

Feldmann case

Feldzug in Polen

Felice Schragenheim

Felicity Peake

Feliks Konarski

Felix Alfarth

Felix Bloch

Felix Fechenbach

Felix Kersten

Felix L. Sparks

Felix Landau

Felix Nussbaum

Felix of Bourbon-Parma

Felix Pollaczek

Felix Steiner

Felix Stump

Felix Z. Longoria, Jr.

Fellowship of the Bellows

Felsennest

Female guards in Nazi concentration camps

Female roles in the world wars

Femaru 37M

Feng-Shan Ho

Feng Baiju

Feng Chian

Feng Qinzai

Feng Yuxiang

Feng Zhanhai

Feng Zhi'an

Fenris (comics)

Ferdinand Ďurčanský

Ferdinand André Fouqué

Ferdinand Brunetière

Ferdinand de Lesseps

Ferdinand Foch

Ferdinand Heim

Ferdinand J. Chesarek

Ferdinand James von Rothschild

Ferdinand Lot

Ferdinand Marcos

Ferdinand Maurice Felix West

Ferdinand Oliver Porsche

Ferdinand Schörner

Ferdinand von Bredow

Ferdinand von Lüninck

Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg

Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy

Ferdynand Antoni Ossendowski

Ferenc Hirzer

Ferenc Keserű

Ferenc Muller

Ferenc Szálasi

Fernand Bonnier de La Chapelle

Fernand Braudel

Fernand Canelle

Fernand Cormon

Fernand de Brinon

Fernand Delarge

Fernand Feyaerts

Fernand Gambiez

Fernand Holweck

Fernand Sanz

Fernande Bochatay

Fernando Henrique Cardoso

Fernando Mezzasoma

Ferruccio Parri

Festung Norwegen

Festung Warschau

FG 42

FH Phantom

Fiat-Revelli Modello 1935

Fiat BR.20

Fiat CR.32

Fiat CR.42

Fiat G.12

Fiat G.50

Fiat G.55

Fiat L6/40

Fiat M11/39

Fiat M13/40

Fiat M14/41

Fiction based on World War II

Fidel LaBarba

Fidél Pálffy

Field Army Bernolák

Field Artillery Tractor

Fieseler Fi 156

Fieseler Fi 167

Fieseler Fi 98

Fifinella

Fifteenth Air Force

Fifteenth Army (Japan)

Fifteenth United States Army

Fifth Air Force

Fifth Army (United Kingdom)

Fifth Encirclement Campaign

Fifth Encirclement Campaign

Fifth United States Army

Fiftieth Army (Japan)

Fifty-Eighth Army (Japan)

Fifty-Fifth Army (Japan)

Fifty-First Army (Japan)

Fifty-Fourth Army (Japan)

Fifty-Ninth Army (Japan)

Fifty-Second Army (Japan)

Fifty-Seventh Army (Japan)

Fifty-Sixth Army (Japan)

Fifty-Third Army (Japan)

Fighter Ace

Fighter Pilots Conspiracy

Fighter Squadron: The Screamin' Demons Over Europe

Fighter Squadron

Fighter: The True Story of the Battle of Britain

Fighting for Freedom

Fighting Norway

Fighting Steel

Filimon Sârbu

Filip Müller

Filipe Teixeira

Filipp Oktyabrskiy

Filles du Calvaire (Paris Métro)

Filthy Thirteen

Final Impact

Final Round - WWII miniatures wargame

Final Solution

Finisterre Range campaign

Finito Benito

Finnish 3rd Division (Continuation War)

Finnish 4th Division (Winter War)

Finnish 6th Division (Continuation War)

Finnish 6th Division (Winter War)

Finnish Armoured Division

Finnish Army (1939)

Finnish coastal defence ship Ilmarinen

Finnish coastal defence ship Väinämöinen

Finnish conquest of East Karelia (1941)

Finnish Democratic Republic

Finnish frigate Hämeenmaa

Finnish frigate Matti Kurki

Finnish frigate Uusimaa

Finnish gunboat Hämeenmaa

Finnish gunboat Karjala

Finnish gunboat Klas Horn

Finnish gunboat Matti Kurki

Finnish gunboat Turunmaa

Finnish gunboat Uusimaa

Finnish I Corps (Winter War)

Finnish II Corps (Winter War)

Finnish III Corps (Continuation War)

Finnish III Corps (Winter War)

Finnish Infantry Regiment 200

Finnish IV Corps (Winter War)

Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union

Finnish reconquest of Ladoga Karelia (1941)

Finnish reconquest of the Karelian Isthmus (1941)

Finnish Volunteer Battalion of the Waffen-SS

Finnish war children

Fire and Ice: The Winter War of Finland and Russia

Fire balloon

Fire Control Towers

Fire on the Mountain (1996 film)

Firepower (video game)

Fires on the Plain (film)

Fires on the Plain

Fires Were Started

Firmin Didot

First Air Force

First air raid on Singapore

First Allied Airborne Army

First American shots fired in World War II

First anti-Partisan offensive

First Army (Australia)

First Army (Bulgaria)

First Army (Hungary)

First Army (Italy)

First Army (United Kingdom)

First Army (Yugoslavia)

First Battalion

First Battle of El Alamein

First Battle of Sirte

First Canadian Army

First Encirclement Campaign against Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet

First Encirclement Campaign against Hubei-Henan-Shaanxi Soviet

First Encirclement Campaign against Honghu Soviet

First Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet

First Encirclement Campaign against Shaanxi-Gansu Soviet

First Indian National Army

First period of World War II

First Sisak Partisan Detachment

First Taiwan Strait Crisis

First they came...

First United Front

First United States Army Group

First United States Army

First Vienna Award

Fischia il vento

Fission Product Pilot Plant

Fitzroy Maclean

Five for Hell

Five Graves to Cairo

Flag Group

Flag of Manchukuo

Flags of Our Fathers (film)

Flags of Our Fathers

Flak Bait

Flak tower

Flakpanzer 38(t)

Flame of Liberty

Flamethrower, Portable, No 2

Flammenwerfer 35

Fleet Faction

Flemming Muus

Flensburg government

Flensburg radar detector

Fletcher Thompson

Flettner Fl 184

Flettner Fl 282

Flettner

Flick Trial

Fliegerfaust/Luftfaust

Fliegerführer Afrika

Flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland during and after World War II

Flight and expulsion of Germans from Romania during and after World War II

Flight from Ashiya

Flight Lieutenant (film)

Flight of the Norwegian National Treasury

Florence American Cemetery and Memorial

Florence Delay

Florence Jaffray Harriman

Florence Kirsch Du Brul

Florence Picaut

Florent Carton Dancourt

Florentine Rost van Tonningen

Florentius Volusenus

Florian Marciniak

Florian Maurice

Florida Holocaust Museum

Florida World War II Army Airfields

Florin Bratu

Flossenbürg concentration camp

Flower-class corvette

Floyd Hicks

Floyd K. Lindstrom

Floyd Matthews

Fluctuat nec mergitur

Flugmotorenwerke Ostmark

Flugzeugträger B

Flyboys: A True Story of Courage

Flying Leathernecks

Flying Regiment 19, Finnish Air Force

Flying Regiment 4, Finnish Air Force

Flying submarine

Flying Tigers (film)

Flying Tigers

FM 24/29 light machine gun

FN BAR

Führer Begleit Brigade

Führer Grenadier Brigade

Führer Headquarters

Führer

Führerbunker

Führerprinzip

Fürstengrube subcamp

Fürth

Focke-Wulf Fw 187

Focke-Wulf Fw 189

Focke-Wulf Fw 190

Focke-Wulf Fw 191

Focke-Wulf Fw 200

Focke-Wulf Fw 300

Focke-Wulf Fw 42

Focke-Wulf Fw 44

Focke-Wulf Fw 56

Focke-Wulf Fw 57

Focke-Wulf Fw 58

Focke-Wulf Fw 61

Focke-Wulf Project I

Focke-Wulf Project II

Focke-Wulf Project III

Focke-Wulf Project VII

Focke-Wulf Project VIII

Focke-Wulf Ta 152

Focke-Wulf Ta 153

Focke-Wulf Ta 154

Focke-Wulf Ta 183

Focke-Wulf Ta 283

Focke-Wulf Ta 400

Focke-Wulfe Fw 57

Focke Achgelis Fa 223

Focke Achgelis Fa 330

Fodil Hadjadj

Fog Investigation and Dispersal Operation (FIDO)

Foibe massacres

Fokker A.I

Fokker B.I (1915)

Fokker B.II (1916)

Fokker C.I

Fokker D.I

Fokker D.II

Fokker D.III

Fokker D.IV

Fokker D.V

Fokker D.VI

Fokker D.VII

Fokker D.VIII

Fokker Dr.I

Fokker E.I

Fokker E.II

Fokker E.III

Fokker E.IV

Fokker F.I (1917)

Fokker K.I

Fokker M.16

Fokker M.5

Fokker M.7

Fokker V.1

Fokker V.17

Fokker V.2

Fokker V.27

Fokker V.4

Fokker V.6

Fokker V.7

Fokker V.9

Folies Bergère

Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques

Fondation pour la Mémoire de la Shoah

Fontaine-Michalon (Paris RER)

Foo fighter

Food for Fighters

Forbes Howie

Forbidden (1984 film)

Forbidden Games

Force 10 from Navarone (film)

Force 10 From Navarone (novel)

Force 136

Force Acts

Force K

Forced labor in Germany during World War II

Forced labor of Germans in the Soviet Union

Forced labor of Hungarians in the Soviet Union

Forced Landing

Forced prostitution in German armed forces

Ford Fordor

Ford GPA

Ford Island

Foreign Economic Administration

Foreign forced labor in the Soviet Union

Foreign relations of Vichy France

Foreign U-Boats

Forest Brothers

Forest of the Gods

Forest of the Martyrs

Forest swastika

Forgiving Dr. Mengele

Forgotten Voices of the Second World War

Formations of the United States Army during World War II

Former Indian National Army Monument

Forrest B. Royal

Forrest E. Everhart

Forrest E. Peden

Forrest L. Vosler

Forrest Pogue

Forrest S. Petersen

Fort Banks

Fort Bell Army Airfield

Fort Breendonk

Fort d'Aubervilliers (Paris Métro)

Fort Devens, Massachusetts

Fort Hommet 10.5 cm Coastal Defence Gun Casement Bunker

Fort Lincoln Internment Camp

Fort Missoula Internment Camp

Fort Stockton-Pecos County Airport

Fortieth Army (Japan)

Fortunes of War (tv series)

Forty-First Army (Japan)

Forty-Fourth Army (Japan)

Forty-Third Army (Japan)

Foster Furcolo

Fotis Kafatos

Fouad Bouguerra

Four-Power Authorities

Four Chaplains

Four Freedoms (Norman Rockwell)

Four Freedoms Monument

Four Freedoms

Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (film)

Four Policemen

Four Year Plan

Fourteenth Air Force

Fourteenth Army (United Kingdom)

Fourteenth United States Army

Fourth Air Force

Fourth Army (National Revolutionary Army)

Fourth Army (United Kingdom)

Fourth Encirclement Campaign against Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet

Fourth Encirclement Campaign against Jiangxi Soviet

Fourth strategic offensive

Fourth United States Army

Fousseni Diawara

Fox Armoured Car

Fox on the Rhine

Foxer

Foxhall P. Keene

Foy Draper

Foyle's War

FP-45 Liberator

FR Suffren

Frøslev Prison Camp

Fragmentation grenade wz.1933

Fran Albreht

Franc Frakelj

Franc Rozman

France Antelme

France Bloch-Serazin

France Falls

France Gall

France in the twentieth century

Frane Katalinić

Francesco De Martini

Francesco Domenico Chiarello

Francesco Mimbelli

Francine Neago

Francis (1950 film)

Francis Anthony Blair Fasson

Francis Arthur Jefferson

Francis B. Wai

Francis Balle

Francis Biddle

Francis Burchell

Francis C. Flaherty

Francis Cammaerts

Francis Cherry

Francis Clark Howell

Francis Crick

Francis Curzon, 5th Earl Howe

Francis E. Walter

Francis Festing

Francis G. Slack

Francis George Miles

Francis Grevemberg

Francis H. McAdams

Francis Hassett

Francis Hunter

Francis J. Clark

Francis Junior Pierce

Francis Llacer

Francis P. Matthews

Francis Piasecki

Francis Poulenc

Francis Pym

Francis Pélissier

Francis Rodd, 2nd Baron Rennell

Francis S. Currey

Francis Simon

Francis Smerecki

Francis Steinmetz

Francis Stuart

Francis Suttill

Francis Tuker

Francis W. Nye

Francis Wilson (rugby union footballer)

Francis X. McGraw

Francisc Panet

Francisco Boix

Francisco Franco

Francisco Mercado, Jr.

Franciszek Błażej

Franciszek Gajowniczek

Franciszek Gruszka

Franciszek Kleeberg

Franciszek Pokorny

Franciszek Szymczyk

Franck Dja Djedje

Franck Gava

Franck Report

Franck Signorino

Franco-Polish Military Alliance

Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance

Franco Bordoni

Franco Nones

Francs-tireurs

Franja Partisan Hospital

Franjo Džal

Franjo Šimić

Franjo Kluz

Franjo Tuđman

Frank A. Armstrong

Frank Barlow (Coronation Street)

Frank Beaurepaire

Frank Bell (educator)

Frank Bleichman

Frank Bonilla

Frank Buckles

Frank Burke (Medal of Honor recipient)

Frank Byers

Frank Capra

Frank Church

Frank Crowther Roberts

Frank D. Peregory

Frank Durbin

Frank E. Rodgers

Frank F. Everest

Frank Foley

Frank G. Clement

Frank Gerald Blaker

Frank Goettge

Frank H. Ono

Frank Herbert

Frank Horton Berryman

Frank Hughes (sport shooter)

Frank Hussey

Frank J. Jirka, Jr.

Frank J. Petrarca

Frank Jack Fletcher

Frank Jarvis

Frank John Partridge

Frank Kelly Freas

Frank Kendall Everest, Jr.

Frank Knox

Frank Kowalski

Frank Kriz

Frank Kurtz

Frank Lautenberg

Frank Lilley

Frank M. Clark

Frank M. Coffin

Frank MacKey

Frank Mancuso

Frank Margerin

Frank Maxwell Andrews

Frank Merrill

Frank Messer

Frank Messervy

Frank Minis Johnson

Frank Murphy

Frank N. Ikard

Frank N. Mitchell

Frank Newhook

Frank O'Hara

Frank O. Slater

Frank Oppenheimer

Frank P. Witek

Frank Pace

Frank Pantridge

Frank Pickersgill

Frank Press

Frank Pullen

Frank R. Walker

Frank Reginald Carey

Frank Renouf

Frank Rosenfelt

Frank Ryan (Irish republican)

Frank S. Besson, Jr.

Frank Sheeran

Frank Spedding

Frank Steer

Frank Sutton

Frank Tripucka

Frank W. Mayborn

Frank W. Milburn

Frank Walus

Frank William Foster

Frank Wisner

Frank Woodrow O’Flaherty

Frankfurt Auschwitz Trials

Frankie Albert

Frankie Yankovic

Franklin A. Hart

Franklin Charles Gimson

Franklin D. Roosevelt (Paris Métro)

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Jr.

Franklin E. Sigler

Franklin Littell

Franklin Sousley

Franklin Van Valkenburgh

Frankolovo crime

Franky Vercauteren

František Fajtl

František Janda-Suk

František Moravec

František Peřina

Frantz Reichel

Franz-Josef Beerenbrock

Franz Aigner (weightlifter)

Franz Alt (mathematician)

Franz Altheim

Franz Anton Basch

Franz Augsberger

Franz Böckli

Franz Böhme

Franz Bürkl

Franz Buchner

Franz Burri

Franz Bäke

Franz Dörr

Franz Duhne

Franz Eisenach

Franz Gürtner

Franz Griesbach

Franz Halder

Franz Hayler

Franz Hofer

Franz Joseph II, Prince of Liechtenstein

Franz Jägerstätter

Franz Kaufmann

Franz Kemper

Franz Künstler

Franz Kröwerath

Franz Kraus

Franz Krienbühl

Franz Krumm

Franz Kutschera

Franz Leopold Neumann

Franz Liebkind

Franz Machon

Franz Mesmer

Franz Pfeffer von Salomon

Franz Rademacher

Franz Reizenstein

Franz Ritter von Epp

Franz Ruff

Franz Schall

Franz Schiess

Franz Schlegelberger

Franz Schwede

Franz Seldte

Franz Six

Franz Stangl

Franz Stock

Franz von Papen

Franz von Werra

Franz Walter Stahlecker

Franz Xaver Schwarz

Franz Ziereis

Franz, Duke of Bavaria

François-Auguste Parseval-Grandmaison

François-Eudes de Mézeray

François-Henri de Montmorency, duc de Luxembourg

François-Joachim de Pierre de Bernis

François-Joseph-Philippe de Riquet

François-Joseph Talma

François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois

François-René de Chateaubriand

François-Timoléon de Choisy

François-Urbain Domergue

François-Xavier-Joseph Droz

François Andrieux

François Arago

François Barois

François Boucher

François Brandt

François Brisson

François Charpentier

François Cheng

François Christophe de Kellermann

François Connan

François Coppée

François Coty

François Couperin

François Darlan

François Dauverné

François de Beauvilliers, 1st duc de Saint-Aignan

François de Callières

François de Clermont-Tonnerre

François de Harlay de Champvallon

François de La Mothe Le Vayer

François de La Rocque

François de Neufchâteau

François Debeauvais

François Ducaud-Bourget

François Duprat

François Furet

François Félix

François Fénelon

François Gangloff

François Guizot

François Jacob

François Joseph Lefebvre

François Juste Marie Raynouard

François Le Leve

François le Métel de Boisrobert

François Lemasson

François M'Pelé

François Magendie

François Maspero

François Mauriac

François Maynard

François Mignet

François Mitterrand

François Nourissier

François Ponsard

François Pétis de la Croix

François Simiand

François Spirito

François Tristan l'Hermite

François Truffaut

François Villon

Françoise-Marguerite de Sévigné

Françoise d'Eaubonne

Françoise Dior

Françoise Dorléac

Françoise Hardy

Françoise Héritier

Françoise Rosay

Frascati bombing raid September 8, 1943

Frau Solf Tea Party

Frauenschaft

Fred A. Leuchter

Fred Anton Maier

Fred B. Rooney

Fred Baker

Fred Bardshar

Fred Blassie

Fred Chaney, senior

Fred Cogswell

Fred Dutton

Fred Faulkner Lester

Fred Fisher (lawyer)

Fred Hargesheimer

Fred J. Christensen

Fred Jones (comics)

Fred Kenneth Moore

Fred Kite

Fred Korematsu

Fred Lauer

Fred Marsh

Fred O'Conner

Fred Tootell

Fred Tuttle

Fred Wander

Fred Wick

Freddie Anderson

Freddie Cox

Freddie de Guingand

Freddie Spencer Chapman

Freddy Schmidt

Frederic Bennett

Frederic H. Smith, Jr.

Frederic John Walker

Frederic Seebohm, Baron Seebohm

Frederic Tuten

Frederic Wake-Walker

Frederick Agnew Gill

Frederick Albert Tilston

Frederick Ashworth

Frederick Augustus Irving

Frederick B. Dent

Frederick Bayer

Frederick Bowhill

Frederick Boylstein

Frederick Browning

Frederick C. Bock

Frederick C. Murphy

Frederick Charles Adler

Frederick Christian (cricketer)

Frederick Corfield

Frederick Cuming

Frederick Curtice Davis

Frederick Cushing Cross, Jr.

Frederick Dalrymple-Hamilton

Frederick E. Morgan

Frederick Etchen

Frederick Freake

Frederick Funston-class attack transport

Frederick George Topham

Frederick Gordon-Lennox, 9th Duke of Richmond

Frederick J. Clarke

Frederick J. Karch

Frederick Kisch

Frederick Kroesen

Frederick Lane

Frederick Leathers, 1st Viscount Leathers

Frederick Lois Riefkohl

Frederick Luke

Frederick Moloney

Frederick Moosbrugger

Frederick Mulley

Frederick Nolting

Frederick Ponsonby, 10th Earl of Bessborough

Frederick Randall

Frederick Rosier

Frederick Sanger

Frederick Sheffield

Frederick Styles Agate

Frederick Thornton Peters

Frederick W. Mote

Frederick Walker Castle

Frederick Warner (diplomat)

Frederick Warren Purdy

Frederick William Kaltenbach

Frederick William Palmer

Fredric Landelius

Fredric Warburg

Fredrik Jensen

Free Belgian Forces

Free China (Second Sino-Japanese War)

Free French Air Force

Free French Forces

Free French Naval Air Service

Free French Naval Forces

Free Republic of Schwarzenberg

Free Society of Teutonia

Free Thai Movement

Free World (World War II)

Freedom Comes High

Freedom from Fear (painting)

Freedom from Want (painting)

Freedom of Speech (painting)

Freedom to Worship (painting)

Freeman Barnardo

Freeman Dyson

Freeman Field Mutiny

Freeman V. Horner

Freiberg subcamp

French-Canadian Brigade

French-Thai War

French 9th Armoured Company (World War II)

French Academy of Sciences

French aircraft carrier Béarn

French and European Nationalist Party

French armoured fighting vehicle production during World War II

French battleship Bretagne

French battleship Courbet (1911)

French battleship Dunkerque

French battleship Jean Bart (1940)

French battleship Lorraine

French battleship Paris

French battleship Provence

French battleship Richelieu

French battleship Strasbourg

French Committee of National Liberation

French corvette Aconit

French Crown Jewels

French cruiser Émile Bertin

French cruiser Algérie

French cruiser Colbert (1928)

French cruiser Duguay-Trouin

French cruiser Dupleix

French cruiser Duquesne

French cruiser Foch

French cruiser Georges Leygues

French cruiser Gloire (1935)

French cruiser Jean de Vienne

French cruiser Jeanne d'Arc (1930)

French cruiser La Galissonnière

French cruiser Lamotte-Piquet

French cruiser Marseillaise (1935)

French cruiser Montcalm

French cruiser Pluton

French cruiser Primauguet (1924)

French cruiser Suffren

French cruiser Tourville

French destroyer La Combattante

French destroyer Le Fantasque

French destroyer Le Terrible

French destroyer Le Triomphant

French destroyer Maillé Brézé (1933)

French destroyer Ouragan

French films of 1944

French Forces of the Interior

French frigate Oise

French Open (tennis)

French Resistance

French submarine Curie (P67)

Fresno Yosemite International Airport

Freundeskreis der Wirtschaft

Freya radar

Freya Stark

Fridolin von Senger und Etterlin

Frieda Belinfante

Frieda Jahnke

Friedhelm Busse

Friedl Dicker-Brandeis

Friedrich-Karl "Nasen" Müller

Friedrich-Karl "Tutti" Müller

Friedrich-Paul von Groszheim

Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock

Friedrich-Wilhelm Müller

Friedrich (novel)

Friedrich Adler (artist)

Friedrich Aue

Friedrich August Freiherr von der Heydte

Friedrich Beckh

Friedrich Bernhard

Friedrich Bertram Sixt von Armin

Friedrich Bonte

Friedrich Born

Friedrich Christiansen

Friedrich Dollmann

Friedrich Franz, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

Friedrich Fromm

Friedrich Geisshardt

Friedrich Graf von Wrangel

Friedrich Gustav Jaeger

Friedrich Hildebrandt

Friedrich Hirzebruch

Friedrich Hoßbach

Friedrich Hollaender

Friedrich Jeckeln

Friedrich Körner

Friedrich Karl Florian

Friedrich Kellner

Friedrich Kirchner

Friedrich Klausing

Friedrich Krüger

Friedrich Lang

Friedrich Lüthi

Friedrich Lorenz

Friedrich Materna

Friedrich Mauz

Friedrich Meinecke

Friedrich Münzer

Friedrich Obleser

Friedrich Olbricht

Friedrich Panse

Friedrich Paulus

Friedrich Pein

Friedrich Peter

Friedrich Rainer

Friedrich Ruge

Friedrich Schulz

Friedrich Syrup

Friedrich T. Noltenius

Friedrich Thielen

Friedrich von Mellenthin

Friedrich Weber

Friedrich Wegener

Friedrich Werner von der Schulenburg

Friedrich Wilhelm Kritzinger

Friedrichshafen FF.29

Friedrichshafen FF.31

Friedrichshafen FF.33

Friedrichshafen FF.34

Friedrichshafen FF.35

Friedrichshafen FF.40

Friedrichshafen FF.41

Friedrichshafen FF.43

Friedrichshafen FF.48

Friedrichshafen FF.49

Friedrichshafen FF.53

Friedrichshafen FF.64

Friedrichshafen G.I

Friedrichshafen G.II

Friedrichshafen G.III

Friedrichshafen G.IV

Friends' Ambulance Unit

Friends of New Germany

Friesack Camp

Frihedsfonden

Frikorps Danmark

Fritjof Hillén

Frits Clausen

Frits Philips

Fritz-Dietlof von der Schulenburg

Fritz-Hubert Gräser

Fritz-Rudolf Schultz

Fritz Bayerlein

Fritz Bracht

Fritz Busch

Fritz Christen

Fritz Fischer (medical doctor)

Fritz Fischer

Fritz Frauenheim

Fritz Fullriede

Fritz G. A. Kraemer

Fritz Gerlich

Fritz Grünbaum

Fritz Hagmann

Fritz Hartjenstein

Fritz Hippler

Fritz Hünenberger

Fritz Houtermans

Fritz John

Fritz Joubert Duquesne

Fritz Julius Kuhn

Fritz Katzmann

Fritz Klein (Nazi)

Fritz Klingenberg

Fritz Knoechlein

Fritz Kolbe

Fritz Krämer

Fritz Lenz

Fritz Lüddecke

Fritz Losigkeit

Fritz Manteuffel

Fritz Morzik

Fritz Nachmann

Fritz Pfeffer

Fritz Pröll

Fritz Reinhardt

Fritz Rumey

Fritz Sauckel

Fritz Stern

Fritz Stiedry

Fritz Strassmann

Fritz ter Meer

Fritz Thiele

Fritz Thyssen

Fritz Todt

Fritz von Scholz

Fritz Walter

Fritz Wendel

Fritz Witt

Fritz X

Frode Jakobsen

Frode Kirkebjerg

From Here to Eternity (novel)

From Here to Eternity

From Swastika to Jim Crow

Fromental Halévy

Frommer Stop

Front (Soviet Army)

Front de Seine

Front Flying Clasp of the Luftwaffe

Front Lot (Walt Disney Studios Park)

Frontbann

Frontierland Shootin' Arcade

Frontierland

FRUMEL

Frédéric Alfred Pierre, comte de Falloux

Frédéric Chopin

Frédéric Da Rocha

Frédéric de Courcy

Frédéric Déhu

Frédéric Joliot-Curie

Frédéric Masson

Frédéric Vitoux

Fräulein (1958 film)

Fu Zuoyi

Fubuki-class destroyer

Fuchi (Qiandaohu) class

Fugu Plan

Fuhlsbüttel

Fuji-class battleship

Fukuromachi Elementary School Peace Museum

Fukuryu

Fukushima Yasumasa

Fulgence Bienvenüe

Fulgencio Batista

Full House (aircraft)

Fuller Warren

Fulton Mackay

Fumimaro Konoe

Functionalism versus intentionalism

Fundusz Obrony Narodowej

Furietti Centaurs

Furman L. Smith

Furutaka-class cruiser

Fury in the Pacific

Fusanosuke Kuhara

Fusō-class battleship

Fusu (Nancang) class

Fuzzy wuzzy angels

Fylfot

Fyodor Isodorovich Kuznetsov

Fyodor Tolbukhin

Fântâna Albă massacre

Félicien-César David

Félicien Marceau

Félix Éboué

Félix Bédouret

Félix Dupanloup

Félix Faure

Félix Ziem

Féodor Atkine

Färit Yarullin

Pact Ribbentrop - Beck

Pact Ribbentrop - Beck (Polish: Pakt Ribbentrop - Beck) is an alternative history novel by Polish journalist and writer Piotr Zychowicz. The book, whose full title is Pact Ribbentrop - Beck, or How Poles could have defeated the Soviet Union alongside the Third Reich (Polish: Pakt Ribbentrop - Beck czyli jak Polacy mogli u boku III Rzeszy pokonać Związek Radziecki), was published in 2012 by Dom Wydawniczy Rebis from Poznań. The author argues that the government of the Second Polish Republic should have accepted Adolf Hitler's offer of a joint Polish-German attack on the Soviet Union, together capturing Moscow. "Beck" refers to Józef Beck, Poland's foreign minister in the 1930s.

The Man in the High Castle

The Man in the High Castle (1962) is an alternate history novel by American writer Philip K. Dick. Set in 1962, fifteen years after an alternative ending to World War II, the novel concerns intrigues between the victorious Axis Powers—primarily, Imperial Japan and Nazi Germany—as they rule over the former United States, as well as daily life under the resulting totalitarian rule. The Man in the High Castle won the Hugo Award for Best Novel in 1963. Beginning in 2015, the book was adapted as a multi-season TV series, with Dick's daughter, Isa Dick Hackett, serving as one of the show's producers.

Reported inspirations include Ward Moore's alternate Civil War history, Bring the Jubilee (1953), various classic World War II histories, and the I Ching (referred to in the novel). The novel features a "novel within the novel" comprising an alternate history within this alternate history wherein the Allies defeat the Axis (though in a manner distinct from the actual historical outcome).

Volkshalle

The Volkshalle ("People's Hall"), also called Große Halle ("Great Hall") or Ruhmeshalle ("Hall of Glory"), was a huge domed monumental building planned by Adolf Hitler and his architect Albert Speer for Germania in Berlin. The project was never realized.

The word Volk had a particular resonance in Nazi thinking. The term völkisch movement, which can be translated to English as "the people's movement" or "the folkish movement", derives from Volk but also implies a particularly racial undertone. Before the First World War, völkisch thought had developed an attitude to the arts as the German Volk; that is, from an organically linked Aryan or Nordic community (Volksgemeinschaft), racially unpolluted and with its roots in the German soil of the Heimat (homeland).

Wannsee Conference

The Wannsee Conference (German: Wannseekonferenz) was a meeting of senior government officials of Nazi Germany and Schutzstaffel (SS) leaders, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942. The purpose of the conference, called by the director of the Reich Main Security Office SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich, was to ensure the cooperation of administrative leaders of various government departments in the implementation of the so-called Final solution to the Jewish question (German: Endlösung der Judenfrage), whereby most of the Jews of German-occupied Europe would be deported to occupied Poland and murdered. Conference attendees included representatives from several government ministries, including state secretaries from the Foreign Office, the justice, interior, and state ministries, and representatives from the SS. In the course of the meeting, Heydrich outlined how European Jews would be rounded up and sent to extermination camps in the General Government (the occupied part of Poland), where they would be killed.Soon after the invasion of Poland in September 1939, the persecution of European Jews was raised to unprecedented levels, but systematic killing of men, women, and children only began in June 1941, after the onset of Operation Barbarossa against the Soviets. On 31 July 1941, Hermann Göring gave written authorization to Heydrich to prepare and submit a plan for a "total solution of the Jewish question" in territories under German control and to coordinate the participation of all involved government organisations. At Wannsee, Heydrich emphasized that once the mass deportation was complete, the SS would take complete charge of the exterminations. A secondary goal was to arrive at a definition of who was formally Jewish, and thus determine the scope of the genocide.

One copy of the Protocol with circulated minutes of the meeting survived the war. It was found by Robert Kempner in March 1947 among files that had been seized from the German Foreign Office. It was used as evidence in the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials. The Wannsee House, site of the conference, is now a Holocaust memorial.

Weaver (Baxter novel)

Weaver is an alternate history and science fiction novel by British writer Stephen Baxter. It is the fourth and final novel in his Time's Tapestry quartet, which deals with psionic broadcast of history-altering content within trans-temporal lucid dreams.

Xavier (given name)

The given name Xavier (; Catalan: [ʃəβiˈe, ʃaviˈeɾ]; Galician: [ʃɐviˈɛɾ]; Portuguese: [ʃɐviˈɛɾ]; French: [ɡzavje]; Spanish: Javier [xaˈβjeɾ]; Basque: Xabier [ʃaβiˈer]) is a masculine name derived from the 16th-century Navarrese Roman Catholic Saint Francis Xavier.

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