Fars Province

Fars Province (/fɑːrs/; Persian: استان فارس‎, Ostān-e Fārs, pronounced [ˈfɒː(ɾ)s]) also known as Pars (Persian: پارس, Pārs) or Persia in the Greek sources[4] in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country. It is in the south of the country, in Iran's Region 2,[5] and its administrative center is Shiraz. It has an area of 122,400 km². In 2011, this province had a population of 4.6 million people, of which 67.6% were registered as urban dwellers (urban/suburbs), 32.1% villagers (small town/rural), and 0.3% nomad tribes.[6] The etymology of the word Persian (From Latin Persia, from Ancient Greek Περσίς (Persis)), found in many ancient names associated with Iran, is derived from the historical importance of this region.[7] Fars Province is the original homeland of the Persian people.[8]

Fars Province

استان فارس
Persepolis
Cyrus the great tomb
Firouzabad
Naqshi Rustam
Shiraz Gardens
Arg of Karim khan
Location of Fars within Iran
Location of Fars within Iran
Coordinates: 29°37′N 52°32′E / 29.617°N 52.533°ECoordinates: 29°37′N 52°32′E / 29.617°N 52.533°E
Country Iran
RegionRegion 2
CapitalShiraz
Counties29
Area
 • Total122,608 km2 (47,339 sq mi)
Population
(2016)[1]
 • Total4,851,274
 • Density40/km2 (100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+03:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+04:30 (IRST)
Area code(s)071
Main language(s)Persian
Qashqai
Luri[2][3]
Dialects of Fars
Fars Province Historical population
YearPop.±%
20064,336,878—    
20114,596,658+6.0%
20164,851,274+5.5%
amar.org.ir

Etymology

The Persian word Fârs (فارس) is the Arabized form of the earlier form Pârs (پارس), which is in turn derived from Pârsâ (𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿), the Old Persian name for the Persis region.

History

Persis

Takht-jamshid
The ruins of Persepolis
Bas relief nagsh-e-rostam couronnement
A Sassanid relief showing the investiture of Ardashir I

The ancient Persians were present in the region from about the 10th century BC, and became the rulers of the largest empire the world had yet seen under the Achaemenid dynasty which was established in the mid 6th century BC, at its peak stretching from Thrace-Macedonia, Bulgaria-Paeonia and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in its far east.[9] The ruins of Persepolis and Pasargadae, two of the four capitals of the Achaemenid Empire, are located in Fars.

The Achaemenid Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great in 333 BC, incorporating most of their vast empire. Shortly after this the Seleucid Empire was established. However it never extended its power in Fars beyond the main trade routes, and by the reign of Antiochus I or possibly later Persis emerged as an independent state that minted its own coins.[10]

The Seleucid Empire was subsequently defeated by the Parthians in 238 BC, but by 205 BC, the Seleucid king Antiochus III had extended his authority into Persis and it ceased to be an independent state.[11]

Babak was the ruler of a small town called Kheir. Babak's efforts in gaining local power at the time escaped the attention of Artabanus IV, the Parthian Arsacid Emperor of the time. Babak and his eldest son Shapur I managed to expand their power over all of Persis.

The subsequent events are unclear, due to the sketchy nature of the sources. It is however certain that following the death of Babak around 220, Ardashir who at the time was the governor of Darabgird, got involved in a power struggle of his own with his elder brother Shapur. The sources tell us that in 222, Shapur was killed when the roof of a building collapsed on him.

At this point, Ardashir moved his capital further to the south of Persis and founded a capital at Ardashir-Khwarrah (formerly Gur, modern day Firouzabad).[12] After establishing his rule over Persis, Ardashir I rapidly extended the territory of his Sassanid Persian Empire, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars, and gaining control over the neighboring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan, Susiana, and Mesene.

Artabanus marched a second time against Ardashir I in 224. Their armies clashed at Hormizdegan, where Artabanus IV was killed. Ardashir was crowned in 226 at Ctesiphon as the sole ruler of Persia, bringing the 400-year-old Parthian Empire to an end, and starting the virtually equally long rule of the Sassanian Empire, over an even larger territory, once again making Persia a leading power in the known world, only this time along with its arch-rival and successor to Persia's earlier opponents (the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire); the Byzantine Empire.

The Sassanids ruled for 425 years, until the Muslim armies conquered the empire. Afterwards, the Persians started to convert to Islam, this making it much easier for the new Muslim empire to continue the expansion of Islam.

Persis then passed hand to hand through numerous dynasties, leaving behind numerous historical and ancient monuments; each of which has its own values as a world heritage, reflecting the history of the province, Iran, and West Asia. The ruins of Bishapur, Persepolis, and Firouzabad are all reminders of this. Arab invaders brought about a decline of Zoroastrian rule and made Islam ascendant from the 7th century.

Administrative divisions

Fars province is located in the south of Iran. It neighbours Bushehr Province to the west, Hormozgān Province to the south, Kerman and Yazd provinces to the east, Isfahan province to the north and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province to the northwest. According to the latest divisions, the province contains the following counties: Abadeh, Sarvestan, Jahrom, Eqlid, Rostam, Estahban, Darab, Nayriz, Bavanat, Larestan, Qir and Karzin, Khorrambid, Lamerd, Kazerun, Fasa, Firuzabad, Zarrin Dasht, Mamasani, Shiraz, Marvdasht, Sepidan, Arsanjan, Pasargad, Kavar, Khonj, Farashband, Gerash, Kharameh, Mohr.

Fars-clear
Fars-clear

Climate and wildlife

There are three distinct climatic regions in the Fars Province. First, the mountainous area of the north and northwest with moderate cold winters and mild summers. Secondly, the central regions, with relatively rainy mild winters, and hot dry summers. The third region located in the south and southeast, has cold winters with hot summers. The average temperature of Shiraz is 16.8 °C, ranging between 4.7 °C and 29.2 °C.[13]

The geographical and climatic variation of the province causes varieties of plants; consequently, variation of wildlife has been formed in the province. Additional to the native animals of the province, many kinds of birds migrate to the province every year.[14] Many kinds of ducks, storks and swallows migrate to this province in an annual parade. The main native animals of the province are gazelle, deer, mountain wild goat, ram, ewe and many kinds of birds. In the past, like in Khuzestan Plain, the Persian lion had occurred here.[15][16]

The province of Fars includes many protected wildlife zones. The most important protected zones are:

  • Toot Siah (Black Berry) Hunt Forbidden Zone, which is located at the end of Boanat region.
  • Basiran Hunt Forbidden Zone, which is located 4 kilometers south to Abadeh;
  • Bamu National Park, which is located north-east of Shiraz;
  • Estahban Forest Park (Parke Jangaly), which is located on the outskirts of Touraj mountain;
  • Hermoodlar Protected Zone, which is located east to Larestan.[14]

Arjan Meadow 22 km2 (8.5 sq mi) and Lake Parishan 40 km2 (15 sq mi) are designated Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar convention.

Baghe Eram Shiraz
Eram Garden

Economy

Agriculture is of great importance in Fars.[17] The major products include cereal (wheat and barley), citrus fruits, dates, sugar beets and cotton. Fars has major petrochemical facilities, along with an oil refinery, a factory for producing tires, a large electronics industry, and a sugar mill. Tourism is also a large industry in the province. UNESCO has designated an area in the province, called Arzhan (known as Dasht e Arjan) as a biosphere reserve. Shiraz, provincial capital of Fars, is the namesake of Shirazi wine. A large number of wine factories existed in the city.

Demographics

The main ethnic group in the province constitutes of Persians (including Larestani people and the Basseri), while Qashqai, Lurs, Kurds, Arabs, Georgians, and Circassians constitute minorities. [18]

Due to the geographical characteristics of Fars and its proximity to the Persian Gulf, Fars has long been a residing area for various peoples and rulers of Iran. However, the tribes of Fars including, Mamasani Lurs, Khamseh and Kohkiluyeh have kept their native and unique cultures and lifestyles which constitute part of the cultural heritage of Iran attracting many tourists.

Among the hundreds of thousands of Georgians and Circassians that were transplanted to Persia under Shah Abbas I, his predecessors, and successors, a certain amount of them were to guard the main caravan routes; many were settled around Āspās and other villages along the old Isfahan-Shiraz road. By now the vast majority Caucasians that were settled in Fars have lost their cultural, linguistic, and religious identity, having mostly being assimilated into the population.[19]


The province has a population of 4.6 million approximately.

Transportation

Shiraz Airport is the main international airport of the province and the second in the country. The cities of Jahrom, Lar and Lamerd also have airports linking them with Shiraz and Tehran and nearby Persian Gulf countries such as the UAE and Bahrain. Shiraz is along the main route from Tehran to southern Iran.

Higher education

The Fars Province is home to many higher education institutes and universities. The main universities of the province include Shiraz University of Medical Sciences,[20] Shiraz University, Shiraz University of Technology and Islamic Azad University of Shiraz.

Notable people

Hafez Fixed
Tomb of Hafez
The tomb of Saadi 1
Tomb of Saadi

References

  1. ^ "National census 2016". amar.org.ir. Retrieved 2017-03-14.[]
  2. ^ "پرتال سازمان ميراث فرهنگي، صنایع دستی و گردشگري > استانها > فارس > آداب و رسوم". 11 January 2012. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012.
  3. ^ http://www.sil.org/iso639-3/documentation.asp?id=luz
  4. ^ Sykes, Percy (1921). A History of Persia. London: Macmillan and Company. p. 43.
  5. ^ "همشهری آنلاین-استان‌های کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند (Provinces were divided into 5 regions)". Hamshahri Online (in Persian). 22 June 2014 [1 Tir 1393, Jalaali]. Archived from the original on 23 June 2014.
  6. ^ "National Population and Housing Census, 2011".
  7. ^ M. A. Dandamaev (1989). A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire. BRILL. pp. 4–6.
  8. ^ Austin, Peter (1 January 2008). "One Thousand Languages: Living, Endangered, and Lost". University of California Press – via Google Books.
  9. ^ David Sacks, Oswyn Murray, Lisa R. Brody; Oswyn Murray; Lisa R. Brody (2005). Encyclopedia of the ancient Greek world. Infobase Publishing. pp. 256 (at the right portion of the page). ISBN 978-0-8160-5722-1.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  10. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 3 (1), p. 299
  11. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 3 (1), p. 302
  12. ^ Kaveh Farrokh (2007). Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War. Osprey Publishing. pp. 176–9.
  13. ^ کشور, پورتال سازمان هواشناسی. "اقلیم استان فارس". www.irimo.ir.
  14. ^ a b "Iran fars-shiraz". www.irantour.org.
  15. ^ Humphreys, P., Kahrom, E. (1999). Lion and Gazelle: The Mammals and Birds of Iran. Images Publishing, Avon.
  16. ^ Firouz, E. (2005). The complete fauna of Iran. I. B. Tauris. pp. 5–67. ISBN 978-1-85043-946-2.
  17. ^ Aref, Farshid (2011). Indian Journal of Science and Technology (PDF) http://www.indjst.org/index.php/indjst/article/download/29952/25909. Retrieved January 22, 2014. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  18. ^ P. Oberling, "FĀRS vii. Ethnography", Encyclopaedia Iranica>"FĀRS vii. Ethnography". 31 May 2014.
  19. ^ P. Oberling, "FĀRS vii. Ethnography", Encyclopaedia Iranica>"FĀRS vii. Ethnography". 31 May 2014.
  20. ^ Various scholars/contributors (2013). Issues in Discovery, Experimental, and Laboratory Medicine: 2013 Edition. Scholarly Editions. pp. 139–40.

Bibliography

External links

Aliabad Rural District (Fars Province)

Aliabad Rural District (Persian: دهستان علي آباد‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Khafr District, Jahrom County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 7,138, in 1,796 families. The rural district has 13 villages.

Anarestan Rural District (Fars Province)

Anarestan Rural District (Persian: دهستان انارستان‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Chenar Shahijan District, Kazerun County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 11,070, in 2,414 families. The rural district has 18 villages.

Bala Deh Rural District (Fars Province)

Bala Deh Rural District (Persian: دهستان بالاده‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Beyram District, Larestan County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 5,213, in 1,078 families. The rural district has 14 villages.

Baladeh, Fars

Baladeh (Persian: بالاده‎, also Romanized as Bālādeh and Bālā Deh) is a city and capital of Jereh and Baladeh District, in Kazerun County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2016 census, its population was 5,972, in 856 families.

Balyan Rural District

Balyan Rural District (Persian: دهستان بليان‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in the Central District of Kazerun County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 17,089, in 3,491 families. The rural district has 20 villages.

Central District (Mamasani County)

The Central District of Mamasani County (Persian: بخش مرکزی شهرستان ممسنی‎) is a district (bakhsh) in Mamasani County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 97,206, in 21,208 families. The District has two cities: Nurabad and Khumeh Zar. The District has five rural districts (dehestan): Bakesh-e Do Rural District, Bakesh-e Yek Rural District, Fahlian Rural District, Javid-e Mahuri Rural District, and Jowzar Rural District.

Doshman Ziari Rural District (Fars Province)

Doshman Ziari Rural District (Persian: دهستان دشمن زيارئ‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Doshman Ziari District, Mamasani County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 4,944, in 1,254 families. The rural district has 30 villages.

Fasarud Rural District

Fasarud Rural District (Persian: دهستان فسارود‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in the Central District of Darab County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 8,531, in 1,988 families. The rural district has 22 villages.

Istakhr

Istakhr (Middle Persian: Stakhr, Persian: اصطخر‎ Estakhr) was an ancient city located in southern Iran, in Fars province, five kilometers north of Persepolis. It was a prosperous city under the Sasanian Empire and briefly served as its capital from 224 to 226 CE.

Jereh Rural District

Jereh Rural District (Persian: دهستان جره‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Jereh and Baladeh District, Kazerun County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 14,950, in 3,183 families. The rural district has 49 villages.

Jereh and Baladeh District

Jereh and Baladeh District (Persian: بخش جره و بالاده‎) is a district (bakhsh) in Kazerun County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 37,315, in 7,805 families. The District has one city: Baladeh. The District has three rural districts (dehestan): Dadin Rural District, Famur Rural District, and Jereh Rural District.

Kamfiruz District

Kamfiruz District (Persian: بخش کامفیروز‎) is a district (bakhsh) in Marvdasht County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 31,341, in 6,774 families. The District has two cities: Kamfiruz & Khaniman. The District has three rural districts (dehestan): Kamfiruz-e Jonubi Rural District, Kamfiruz-e Shomali Rural District, and Khorram Makan Rural District.

Kuhestan Rural District (Fars Province)

Kuhestan Rural District (Persian: دهستان كوهستان‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Rostaq District, Darab County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 5,070, in 1,196 families. The rural district has 67 villages.

Kuhmareh Rural District

Kuhmareh Rural District (Persian: دهستان كوهمره‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Kuhmareh District, Kazerun County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 9,356, in 2,136 families. The rural district has 13 villages.

Mashayekh Rural District (Fars Province)

Mashayekh Rural District (Persian: دهستان مشايخ‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Doshman Ziari District, Mamasani County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 5,252, in 1,272 families. The rural district has 19 villages.

Meshkan Rural District (Fars Province)

Meshkan Rural District (Persian: دهستان مشكان‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Poshtkuh District, Neyriz County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 265, in 89 families. The rural district has 10 villages.

Mohammadabad Rural District (Fars Province)

Mohammadabad Rural District (Persian: دهستان محمدآباد‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in the Central District of Marvdasht County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 8,758, in 2,150 families. The rural district has 24 villages.

Rahmatabad Rural District (Fars Province)

Rahmatabad Rural District (Persian: دهستان رحمت آباد‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in Zarqan District, Shiraz County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 6,597, in 1,686 families. The rural district has 12 villages.

Rudbal Rural District

Rudbal Rural District (Persian: دهستان رودبال‎) is a rural district (dehestan) in the Central District of Marvdasht County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 10,880, in 2,599 families. The rural district has 15 villages.

Places adjacent to Fars Province

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