Faroese (/ˌfɛəroʊˈiːz/; Faroese: føroyskt mál, pronounced [ˈføːɹɪst mɔaːl]) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 72,000 people, 51,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark. It is one of five languages descended from Old West Norse spoken in the Middle Ages, the others being Norwegian, Icelandic, and the extinct Norn and Greenlandic Norse. Faroese and Icelandic, its closest extant relative, are not mutually intelligible in speech, but the written languages resemble each other quite closely, largely owing to Faroese's etymological orthography.
|Native to||Faroe Islands, Denmark, Greenland|
|Latin (Faroese orthography)|
Official language in
|Regulated by||Faroese Language Board Føroyska málnevndin|
Around 900, the language spoken in the Faroes was Old Norse, which Norse settlers had brought with them during the time of the settlement of Faroe Islands (landnám) that began in 825. However, many of the settlers were not from Scandinavia, but descendants of Norse settlers in the Irish Sea region. In addition, women from Norse Ireland, Orkney, or Shetland often married native Scandinavian men before settling in the Faroe Islands and Iceland. As a result, the Irish language has had some influence on both Faroese and Icelandic. There is some debatable evidence of Irish language place names in the Faroes: for example, the names of Mykines, Stóra Dímun, Lítla Dímun and Argir have been hypothesized to contain Celtic roots. Other examples of early-introduced words of Celtic origin are: blak/blaðak (buttermilk), cf. Middle Irish bláthach; drunnur (tail-piece of an animal), cf. Middle Irish dronn; grúkur (head, headhair), cf. Middle Irish gruaig; lámur (hand, paw), cf. Middle Irish lámh; tarvur (bull), cf. Middle Irish tarbh; and ærgi (pasture in the outfield), cf. Middle Irish áirge.
Between the 9th and the 15th centuries, a distinct Faroese language evolved, although it was probably still mutually intelligible with Old West Norse, and remained similar to the Norn language of Orkney and Shetland during Norn's earlier phase.
Faroese ceased to be a written language after the union of Norway with Denmark in 1380, with Danish replacing Faroese as the language of administration and education. The islanders continued to use the language in ballads, folktales, and everyday life. This maintained a rich spoken tradition, but for 300 years the language was not used in written form.
In 1823 the Danish Bible Society published a diglot of the Gospel of Matthew, with Faroese on the left and Danish on the right.
Venceslaus Ulricus Hammershaimb and the Icelandic grammarian and politician Jón Sigurðsson published a written standard for Modern Faroese in 1854, which still exists. They set a standard for the orthography of the language, based on its Old Norse roots and similar to that of Icelandic. This had the advantage of being etymologically clear, as well as keeping the kinship with the Icelandic written language. The actual pronunciation, however, often differs from the written rendering. The letter ð, for example, has no specific phoneme attached to it.
In 1937, Faroese replaced Danish as the official school language, in 1938 as the church language, and in 1948 as the national language by the Home Rule Act of the Faroes. However, Faroese did not become the common language of media and advertising until the 1980s. Today Danish is considered a foreign language, although around 5% of residents on the Faroes learn it as a first language, and it is a required subject for students in third grade and up.
The Visit Faroese tourism organisation launched the Faroe Islands Translate online service in 2017, available in English and another 13 languages including Chinese, Russian, Japanese, and Portuguese. A Faroese video database has also been built.
Old Faroese (miðaldarføroyskt, ca. mid-14th to mid-16th centuries) is a form of Old Norse spoken in medieval times in the Faroe Islands. The language shares many features with both Old Icelandic and Old Norwegian; Old Norwegian appears closer to Old Faroese, whereas Old Icelandic remained rather archaic compared to other medieval varieties of Old West Norse. The most crucial aspects of the development of Faroese are diphthongisation and palatalisation.
There is not enough data available to establish an accurate chronology of Faroese, but a rough one may be developed through comparison to the chronologies of Old Icelandic and Old Norwegian. In the 12th/13th centuries, á and ǫ́ merged as /ɔː/; later on at the beginning of the 14th century, delabialization took place: y, øy, au > /i, ɔi, ɛi/; í and ý merged in addition to i and y, but in the case of í and ý, it appears that labialisation took place instead as is documented by later development to /ʊɪ/. Further, the language underwent a palatalisation of k, g and sk before Old Norse e, i, y, ø, au > /kʲ, ɡʲ, skʲ/ > /cᶜ̧, ɟᶨ, ɕcᶜ̧/ > /tʃʰ, tʃ, ʃ/. Before the palatalisation é and ǽ merged as /ɛː/ and approximately in the same period epenthetic u is inserted into word-final /Cr/ and /CrC/ clusters. The Great Quantity Shift operated in the 15th/16th centuries. In the case of skerping, it took place after delabialization but before loss of post-vocalic ð and g /ɣ/. The shift of hv /hw/ to /kw/, the deletion of /h/ in (remaining) word-initial /h/–sonorant clusters (hr, hl, hn > r, l, n), and the dissolution of þ (þ > t; þ > h in demonstrative pronouns and adverbs) appeared before the end of the 13th century. Another undated change is the merger of ǫ, ø and ǿ into /ø/; pre-nasal ǫ, ǫ́ > o, ó. enk, eng probably became eing, eink in the 14th century; the development of a to /ɛ/ before ng, nk appeared after the palatalisation of k, g, and sk had been completed, such a change is quite a recent development, as well as change Cve > Cvø.
|up to 14th century
(Late Old Faroese)
|e and æ||/e/||/eː/||/eː/||/ɛ/||/e/||/ɛ/||[eː]||[ɛ]||[eː]||[ɛ]||e|
|Long vowel -> Diphthong|
|é and ǽ||/ɛː/||/ɛː/||/eː/||/ɛaː/||/ɛa/||/eː/||/ɛ/||[ɛa]||[a]||[eː]||[ɛ]||æ|
|á and ǫ́||/ɔː/||/ɔː/||/ɔː/||/ɔ/||/ɔː/||/ɔ/||[ɔa]||[ɔ]||[ɔa]||[ɔ]||á|
The Faroese alphabet consists of 29 letters derived from the Latin script:
|Majuscule forms (also called uppercase or capital letters)|
|Minuscule forms (also called lowercase or small letters)|
As with most other Germanic languages, Faroese has a large number of vowels, with 26 in total. Vowel distribution is similar to other North Germanic languages in that short vowels appear in closed syllables (those ending in consonant clusters or long consonants) and long vowels appearing in open syllables. Árnason (2011) provides the following alternations:
|/ø/||høgur||[ˈhøːʋʊɹ~ˈhøœʋʊɹ]||'high (M.)'||høgt||[hœkt]||'high (N.)'|
|/ʊi/||hvítur||[ˈkvʊiːtʊɹ]||'white (M.)'||hvítt||[kvʊiʰtː]||'white (N.)'|
|/ɛi/||deyður||[ˈteiːjʊɹ]||'dead (M.)'||deytt||[tɛʰtː]||'dead (N.)'|
|/ai/||feitur||[ˈfaiːtʊɹ]||'fat (M.)'||feitt||[faiʰtː~fɔiʰtː]||'fat (N.)'|
|/ɛa/||spakur||[ˈspɛaː(ʰ)kʊɹ]||'calm (M.)'||spakt||[spakt]||'calm (N.)'|
|/ɔa/||vátur||[ˈvɔaːtʊɹ]||'wet (M.)'||vátt||[vɔʰtː]||'wet (N.)'|
|/ʉu/||fúlur||[ˈfʉuːlʊɹ]||'foul (M.)'||fúlt||[fʏl̥t]||'foul (N.)'|
|/ɔu/||tómur||[ˈtʰɔuːmʊɹ~ˈtʰœuːmʊɹ]||'empty (M.)'||tómt||[tʰœm̥t~tʰɔm̥t]||'empty (N.)'|
Faroese shares with Icelandic and Danish the feature of maintaining a contrast between stops based exclusively on aspiration, not voicing. Geminated stops may be pre-aspirated in intervocalic and word-final position. Intervocalically the aspirated consonants become pre-aspirated unless followed by a closed vowel. In clusters, the preaspiration merges with a preceding nasal or apical approximant, rendering them voiceless.
|Nasal||m m̥||n n̥||(ɳ ɳ̊)||ɲ ɲ̊||ŋ ŋ̊|
There are several phonological processes involved in Faroese, including:
Faroese grammar is related and very similar to that of modern Icelandic and Old Norse. Faroese is an inflected language with three grammatical genders and four cases: nominative, accusative, dative and genitive.
|Faroese||Icelandic||Norwegian (nynorsk)||Norwegian (bokmål)||English||Frisian||Danish||Swedish||German||Dutch|
|Farvæl||Far vel; Farðu heill||Farvel||Farvel||Farewell||Farwol||Farvel||Farväl||Lebwohl||Vaarwel|
|Hvussu eitur tú?||Hvað heitir þú?||Kva heiter du?||Hva heter du?||What is your name?||Wat is dyn namme?||Hvad hedder du?||Vad heter du?||Wie heißt du?||Hoe heet je?|
|Hvussu gongur?||Hvernig gengur?||Korleis gjeng / går det?||Hvordan går det?||How is it going? (How goes it?)||Hoe giet it?||Hvordan går det?||Hur går det?||Wie geht’s?||Hoe gaat het?|
|Hvussu gamal (m) / gomul (f) ert tú?||Hversu gamall (m) / gömul (f) ert þú?||Kor gamal er du?||Hvor gammel er du?||How old are you?||Hoe âld bisto?||Hvor gammel er du?||Hur gammal är du?||Wie alt bist du?||Hoe oud ben je?|
|Reytt / reyður / reyð||Rautt / rauður / rauð||Raud(t)||Rød(t)||Red||Read||Rød(t)||Rött / Röd||Rot||Rood / Rode|
|Blátt / bláur / blá||Blátt / blár / blá||Blå(tt)||Blå(tt)||Blue||Blau(e)||Blå(t)||Blå(tt)||Blau||Blauw(e)|
|Hvítt / hvítur / hvít||Hvítt / hvítur / hvít||Kvit(t)||Hvit(t)||White||Wyt||Hvid(t)||Vit(t)||Weiß||Wit(te)|
1. deild is the second tier league of football in the Faroe Islands. It was founded in 1943. The league is organised by the Faroe Islands Football Association. It was originally the top level of Faroe Islands football but was replaced by the Faroe Islands Premier League in 2005.
It currently has 10 participating clubs. At the end of each season, two teams are relegated and two promoted from the 2. deild, pending the fact that the promoted team does not already have a team in 1. deild. In such cases, the team that finished third will be promoted instead. If a team is relegated to 1. deild and already have a side playing there, their reserve team will move one division down, thereby saving another team from relegation.2. deild
2. deild, is the third tier of football in the Faroe Islands. It was originally the second tier; however, following a reorganization in 1976, it became a third tier league.2008 Faroe Islands Cup
The Faroe Islands Cup 2008 was played between March 15 and June 14, 2008. It was won by EB/Streymur, who successively defended their title.
Only the first teams of Faroese football clubs were allowed to participate. The First Round involved only teams from second and third deild. Teams from the highest two divisions entered the competition in the Second Round.2009 Faroe Islands Cup
The Faroe Islands Cup 2009 started on March 28, 2009 and ended on July 29, 2009. The defending champions were two-time winners EB/Streymur.
Only the first teams of Faroese football clubs are allowed to participate. The Preliminary Round involved only teams from first, second and third deild. Teams from the highest division entered the competition in the First Round.2013 Faroe Islands Premier League
2013 Faroe Islands Premier League was the seventy-first season of top-tier football on the Faroe Islands. For sponsorship reasons, it is known as Effodeildin. EB/Streymur were the defending champions.2015 Faroe Islands Cup
The 2015 Faroe Islands Cup was the 61st edition of Faroe Islands domestic football cup. It started in March and ended with the final on 29 August 2015. Víkingur were the defending champions, having won their fourth cup title the previous year, and successfully defended their title, qualifying for the first qualifying round of the 2016–17 UEFA Europa League.
Only the first teams of Faroese football clubs were allowed to participate. The Preliminary Round involved clubs from 2. deild, 3. deild and one from 1. deild. The remaining teams from 1. deild and all of the Effodeildin entered the competition in the First Round.2019 Faroe Islands Premier League
The 2019 Faroe Islands Premier League (referred to as Betri deildin menn for sponsorship reasons) is the 77th season of top-tier football in the Faroe Islands and the 15th under the current format.
Havnar Bóltfelag are the defending champions, having won their 23rd Faroese title in the previous season. The season started on 10 March and will end on 26 October.B36 Tórshavn
B36 Tórshavn (Faroese: Bóltfelagið 1936 Tórshavn) or F.C. Tórshavn is a Faroese semi professional football club, based in the capital of the country, Tórshavn, playing in the Faroe Islands Premier League, the top tier of Faroese football. The club was founded in 1936, and plays its home games in Gundadalur. B36 Tórshavn is among the most successful football clubs in the Faroe Islands, having won the Faroe Islands Premier League 11 times, the Faroese Cup 5 times and the Faroese Super Cup once.Faroe Islanders
Faroese people or Faroe Islanders (Faroese: føroyingar) are a North Germanic ethnic group and nation native to the Faroe Islands. The Faroese are of mixed Norse and Gaelic origins.
About 21,000 Faroese live in neighbouring countries, particularly in Denmark, Iceland and Norway. Most Faroese are citizens of the Kingdom of Denmark, in which the Faroe Islands are a constituent nation. The Faroese language is one of the North Germanic languages and is closely related to Icelandic and to western Norwegian varieties.Faroe Islands Football Association
The Faroe Islands Football Association (Faroese: Fótbóltssamband Føroya; Danish: Færøernes fodboldforbund), or FSF, is the governing body of all domestic football in the Faroe Islands, the highest level of which is the Faroe Islands Premier League. It also runs the Faroe Islands national teams for men and women. Established in 1979, it is based in Tórshavn.Faroe Islands Super Cup
The Faroe Islands Super Cup (in Faroese: Stórsteypadystur) is a football competition contested between the Faroe Islands Premier League champions and the winners of the Faroe Islands Cup from the previous season.Faroese Braille
Faroese Braille is the braille alphabet of the Faroese language. It has the same letter assignments as the rest of the Nordic braille alphabets.
All base letters are as in International Braille (meaning the French Braille alphabet, as that was the first one created). The letters are also the same as the other Nordic Braille alphabets, just as they are in the normal printed Nordic alphabets. For example, å/á, ö/ø and ä/æ are the same letters not only in Braille between, say, Faroese and Swedish Braille, but also recognized as the same characters between, for example, ink-printed Norwegian and Swedish (it is merely a stylistic choice in which language uses which). That is to say, all letter assignments in the Swedish and Icelandic Braille alphabets are the same in the Faroese one.For example, ð is the same letter in both Faroese and Icelandic ink-print characters, and their Braille alphabets. The difference in the alphabets comes only in the Faroese diphthongs (ei being 26, ey 356, oy 24 - that is to say, "ei" is represented by one dot filled in, in the second row of the first column and the third row of the second column of a Braille character). These diphthongs are also considered single sounds when spelling Faroese in general, as in, it always would be spelled "ey" instead of "e-y" and the two letters cannot be separated. These assignments conveniently do not exist in the Icelandic Braille alphabet, so they are an easy way to tell if the Braille is Faroese or Icelandic. Likewise, the Icelandic letter þ (which no longer exists in Faroese) is assigned to 1246, which is a character that does not exist already in the Faroese Braille alphabet. Summarized, it is just as easy to read Icelandic Braille if one is a Faroese-speaker, as it is to read Icelandic ink-printed text if one can read Faroese.
(Note that the Braille character assignments in the chart below are incorrect and/or have missing letters, due to the previous Wiki user finding incorrect information! Please view this actual Faroese source for the correct alphabet.)Social Democratic Party (Faroe Islands)
The Social Democratic Party (Faroese: Javnaðarflokkurin, JF; literally the Equality Party) is a social-democratic political party in the Faroe Islands, led by Aksel V. Johannesen.Voiceless retroflex approximant
The voiceless retroflex approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɻ̊⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\`_0.West Nordic Council
The West Nordic Council (Danish: Vestnordisk Råd, Greenlandic: Nunat Avannarliit Killiit Siunnersuisoqatigiiffiat, Faroese: Útnorðurráðið, Icelandic: Vestnorræna ráðið) is a cooperation forum of the parliaments and governments of Greenland, the Faroe Islands and Iceland. It was initially founded in 1985 as the West Nordic Parliamentarian Council of Cooperation but the name was changed in 1997. The council comprises six MPs from each nation appointed by their respective parliaments. The annual general meeting of the council rotates between the members and is its highest authority. The work and activities of the Council are organized by a three-member presidium of which the president of the council is a member. The current (August 2017 to september 2018) president is Kári P. Højgaard.
The nations of the Council share a somewhat common recent history: Greenland and the Faroes are autonomous territories of Denmark and Iceland is a former Danish possession. They also share a similar economic base, all being dependent on fisheries. The Council's main objectives are:
To promote West Nordic (north Atlantic) interests.
To be guardians of north Atlantic resources and north Atlantic culture and to help promoting West Nordic interests through the West Nordic governments – not least with regards to the serious issues of resource management, pollution etc.
To follow up on the governments' West Nordic cooperation.
To work with the Nordic Council and to be the West Nordic link in Nordic cooperation.
To act as the parliamentary link for inter-West Nordic organisations, including Arctic parliamentary cooperation.The West Nordic Council is separate from the Nordic Council, although all of the members of the West Nordic Council are also members of the Nordic Council and there is some cooperation between the two.Women's Baltic Cup
The Women's Baltic Cup is a women's association football tournament contested between the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, usually every year. They can also invite other teams to participate, like they did in 2016, when the Faroe Islands were invited. The tournament is the women's equivalent of the men's Baltic Cup.Æ
Æ (minuscule: æ) is a grapheme named æsc or ash, formed from the letters a and e, originally a ligature representing the Latin diphthong ae. It has been promoted to the full status of a letter in the alphabets of some languages, including Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faroese. As a letter of the Old English Latin alphabet, it was called æsc ("ash tree") after the Anglo-Saxon futhorc rune ᚫ ( ) which it transliterated; its traditional name in English is still ash . It was also used in Old Swedish before being changed to ä. In recent times, it is also used to represent a short "a" sound (as in "cat"). Variants include Ǣ ǣ Ǽ ǽ æ̀.Ø
Ø (or minuscule: ø) is a vowel and a letter used in the Danish, Norwegian, Faroese, and Southern Sami languages. It is mostly used as a representation of mid front rounded vowels, such as [ø] and [œ], except for Southern Sami where it is used as an [oe] diphthong.
The name of this letter is the same as the sound it represents (see usage). Though not its native name, among English-speaking typographers the symbol may be called a "slashed o" or "o with stroke". Although these names suggest it is a ligature or a diacritical variant of the letter o, it is considered a separate letter in Norwegian and Danish, and it is alphabetized after "z"—thus z, æ, ø, and å.
In other languages that do not have the letter as part of the regular alphabet, or in limited character sets such as ASCII, ø is frequently replaced with the digraph "oe".
ø (lower case) is also used in the International Phonetic Alphabet to represent a close-mid front rounded vowel.
Faroe Islands articles
According to contemporary philology