Far East

The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.[1] South Asia is sometimes also included for economic and cultural reasons.[2] The term "Far East" came into use in European geopolitical discourse in the 12th century, denoting the Far East as the "farthest" of the three "easts", beyond the Near East and the Middle East. Likewise, in Qing Dynasty of the 19th and early 20th centuries the term "Tàixī (泰西)" – i.e. anything further west than the Arab world – was used to refer to the Western countries.

Since the 1960s, East Asia has become the most common term for the region in international mass media outlets.[3][4]

Far East
Far east1
Location of the Far East, geographically defined
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese遠東
Simplified Chinese远东
Literal meaningFar East
Burmese name
Burmeseအရှေ့ဖျား ဒေသ
IPA[ʔəʃḛbjá dèθa̰]
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetViễn Đông
Thai name
Thaiตะวันออกไกล
Tawan-oak klai
Korean name
Hangul극동
Hanja極東
Mongolian name
Mongolian CyrillicAls Dornod
Japanese name
Kanji極東
Katakanaキョクトウ
Malay name
Malayتيمور جاوء
Timur Jauh
Indonesian name
IndonesianTimur Jauh
Filipino name
TagalogSilanganan (poetic)
Malayong Silangan (literal)
Portuguese name
PortugueseExtremo Oriente
Russian name
RussianДальний Восток
IPA: [ˈdalʲnʲɪj vɐˈstok]
RomanizationDál'niy Vostók

Popularization

Prior to the colonial era, "Far East" referred to anything further east than the Middle East. In the 16th century, King John III of Portugal called India a "rich and interesting country in the Far East[5] (Extremo Oriente)." The term was popularized during the period of the British Empire as a blanket term for lands to the east of British India.

In pre-World War I European geopolitics, the Near East referred to the relatively nearby lands of the Ottoman Empire, the Middle East denoted northwestern South Asia and Central Asia, and the Far East meant countries along the western Pacific Ocean and eastern Indian Ocean. Many European languages have analogous terms, such as the French (Extrême-Orient), Spanish (Extremo Oriente), Portuguese (Extremo Oriente), German (Ferner Osten), Italian (Estremo Oriente), Polish (Daleki Wschód), Norwegian (Det fjerne Østen) and Dutch (Verre Oosten).

Cultural as well as geographic meaning

Significantly, the term evokes cultural as well as geographic separation; the Far East is not just geographically distant, but also culturally exotic. It never refers, for instance, to the culturally Western nations of Australia and New Zealand, which lie even farther to the east of Europe than East Asia itself. This combination of cultural and geographic subjectivity was well illustrated in 1939 by Robert Menzies, a Prime Minister of Australia. Reflecting on his country's geopolitical concerns with the onset of war, Menzies commented that:

The problems of the Pacific are different. What Great Britain calls the Far East is to us the Near North.[6]

Far East in its usual sense is comparable to terms such as the Orient, which means East; the Eastern world; or simply the East. Southeast Asia, the Russian Far East, and occasionally the Indian Subcontinent might be included in the Far East to some extent.

Concerning the term, John K. Fairbank and Edwin O. Reischauer, professors of East Asian Studies at Harvard University, wrote (in East Asia: The Great Tradition): "When Europeans traveled far to the east to reach Cathay, Japan and the Indies, they naturally gave those distant regions the general name 'Far East.' Americans who reached China, Japan and Southeast Asia by sail and steam across the Pacific could, with equal logic, have called that area the 'Far West.' For the people who live in that part of the world, however, it is neither 'East' nor 'West' and certainly not 'Far.' A more generally acceptable term for the area is 'East Asia,' which is geographically more precise and does not imply the outdated notion that Europe is the center of the civilized world."[4]

Today, the term remains in the names of some longstanding institutions, including the Far Eastern Federal University in Vladivostok, Far Eastern University in Manila, and the Far East University in South Korea. Furthermore, the United Kingdom and United States have historically used Far East for several military units and commands in the region; the Royal Navy's Far East Fleet, for instance.

Territories and regions conventionally included under the term Far East

Name of region[7] and
territory, with flag
Area
(km²)
Population
Population density
(per km²)
Capital Forms of government Currency Official languages
North Asia
Russia Russia[8] 6,952,600[9] 8,371,257[9] 1.2 Moscow Federal semi-presidential republic Ruble Russian and
27 other co-official languages
Southeast Asia
 Brunei 5,765 417,200 72.11 Bandar Seri Begawan Absolute Islamic Sultanate Brunei dollar Malay and English
 Cambodia 181,035 16,245,729 81.8 Phnom Penh Constitutional monarchy Riel Khmer
 Christmas Island[10] 135 1,843 10.39 Flying Fish Cove External territory of Australia Australian dollar English[11]
 Cocos (Keeling) Islands[12] 14 544 43.0 West Island External territory of Australia Australian dollar None[13]
 Indonesia 1,904,569 261,115,456 138.0 Jakarta Presidential republic Rupiah Indonesian
 Laos 237,955 6,758,353 26.7 Vientiane Socialist Republic Kip Lao
 Malaysia 330,803 32,049,700 92.0 Kuala Lumpur Federal constitutional monarchy,
Parliamentary democracy
Ringgit Malay
 Myanmar (Burma) 676,578 53,582,855 76.0 Naypyidaw Unitary presidential
constitutional republic
Kyat Burmese
 Philippines 300,000 100,981,437 336.0 Manila Unitary presidential
constitutional republic
Philippine peso (Piso) Filipino and English
 Singapore 722.5 5,638,700 7,804.0 Singapore Parliamentary republic Singapore dollar Malay, English,
Chinese (Mandarin), and Tamil
 Thailand 513,120 68,863,514 132.1 Bangkok Constitutional monarchy,
Parliamentary democracy under a military junta
Baht Thai
 Timor-Leste (East Timor) 15,410 1,167,242 78.0 Dili Parliamentary republic U.S. dollar / Centavo coins Tetum and Portuguese
 Vietnam 331,212 94,569,072 276.03 Hanoi One-party led state,
Socialist Republic
đồng Vietnamese
East Asia
 China[14] 9,598,094[15]
1,371,821,094[16] 145.0 Beijing One-party socialist republic Yuan (Renminbi) Chinese (Mandarin)[17]
 Hong Kong[18] 1,108 7,448,900 6,777.0 Hong Kong Special administrative region
of the People's Republic of China.
Hong Kong dollar Chinese,[19]
English
 Japan 377,973 126,440,000 334.0 Tokyo Parliamentary democracy,
Constitutional monarchy
Yen None[20]
 Macau[21] 115.3 653,100 21,340.0 Macau Special administrative region
of the People's Republic of China
Pataca Chinese,[22]
Portuguese
 Mongolia 1,566,000 3,081,677 1.97 Ulaanbaatar Parliamentary republic Tögrög Mongolian
 North Korea 120,540 25,368,620 212.0 Pyongyang Juche unitarian dictatorship
Socialist Republic
North Korean won Korean
 South Korea 100,363 51,446,201 507.0 Seoul Presidential republic South Korean won Korean
 Taiwan[23] 36,197 23,577,271 650.0 Taipei Semi-presidential system New Taiwan dollar Chinese (Mandarin)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Oxford Dictionaries - Dictionary, Thesaurus, & Grammar". askoxford.com.
  2. ^ The 'Far Eastern Economic Review' for example covers news from India and Sri Lanka.
  3. ^ "A menagerie of monikers". The Economist. 7 January 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
  4. ^ a b Reischauer, Edwin and John K Fairbank, East Asia: The Great Tradition, 1960.
  5. ^ Robert Sewell (1901). A Forgotten Empire: Vijayanagar; A Contribution to the History of India.
  6. ^ "Historical documents". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.
  7. ^   Continental regions as per UN categorisations (map), except 12. Depending on definitions, various territories cited below (notes 6, 11-13, 15, 17-19, 21-23) may be in one or both of Asia and Europe, Africa, or Oceania.
  8. ^   Russia is generally considered a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe (UN region) and Northern Asia; population and area figures are for Asian portion only.
  9. ^ a b Only includes the area of Far Eastern Federal District.
  10. ^   Christmas Island is an External Territory of Australia.
  11. ^ English does not have de jure status in Christmas Island and in Australia, but it is the de facto language of communication in government.
  12. ^   The Cocos (Keeling) Islands are an External Territory of Australia.
  13. ^ English does not have de jure status in Christmas Island and in Australia, but it is the de facto language of communication in government.
  14. ^   The state is commonly known as simply "China", which is subsumed by the eponymous entity and civilisation (China). Figures given are for Mainland China only, and do not include Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan.
  15. ^ Includes PRC-administered area (Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract, both territories claimed by India).
  16. ^ Information listed is for Mainland China only. The Special administrative region (i.e. Hong Kong and Macau), the island territories under the control of the Republic of China (which includes the islands of Taiwan, Quemoy, and Matsu) are excluded.
  17. ^ "Law of the People's Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language (Order of the President No.37)". Chinese Government. 31 October 2000. Retrieved 21 June 2013. For purposes of this Law, the standard spoken and written Chinese language means Putonghua (a common speech with pronunciation based on the Beijing dialect) and the standardized Chinese characters.
  18. ^   Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
  19. ^ No specific variety of Chinese is official in the territory. Residents predominantly speak Cantonese, the de facto regional standard.
  20. ^ Japan's National Diet have not officially enacted a law stating that the official language is Japanese.
  21. ^   Macau is a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.
  22. ^ No specific variety of Chinese is official in the territory. Residents predominantly speak Cantonese, the de facto regional standard.
  23. ^   Figures are for the area under the de facto control of the Republic of China (ROC) government, commonly referred to as Taiwan. Claimed in whole by the PRC; see political status of Taiwan.

References

  • Ankerl, Guy (2000). Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.
  • Whitaker, Brian (February 23, 2004). "From Turkey to Tibet". The Guardian.
Amur Oblast

Amur Oblast (Russian: Аму́рская о́бласть, tr. Amurskaya oblast, IPA: [ɐˈmurskəjə ˈobləsʲtʲ]) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located on the banks of the Amur and Zeya Rivers in the Russian Far East. The administrative center of the oblast, the city of Blagoveshchensk, is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian Far East, founded in 1856. It is a traditional center of trade and gold mining. The territory is accessed by two railways: the Trans-Siberian Railway and the Baikal–Amur Mainline. As of the 2010 Census, the oblast's population was 830,103.Amur Krai (Аму́рский край) or Priamurye (Приаму́рье) were unofficial names for the Russian territories by the Amur River used in the late Russian Empire that approximately correspond to modern Amur Oblast.

Chinese Eastern Railway

The Chinese Eastern Railway or CER (Chinese: trad. 東清鐵路, simp. 东清铁路, Dōngqīng Tiělù; Russian: Китайско-Восточная железная дорога or КВЖД, Kitaysko-Vostochnaya Zheleznaya Doroga or KVZhD), also known as the Chinese Far East Railway, Trans-Manchurian Railway and North Manchuria Railway, is the historical name for a railway across Manchuria (northeastern China).

The line was built by Imperial Russia using a concession from the Qing dynasty, and linked Chita with Vladivostok in the Russian Far East. The T-shaped line consisted of three branches: the western branch, now the Harbin–Manzhouli Railway, the eastern branch, now the Harbin–Suifenhe Railway, and the southern branch, now part of the Beijing–Harbin Railway, which intersected in Harbin. The railway and the concession, known as the Chinese Eastern Railway Zone, were administered from the city, which grew into a major rail hub.

The southern branch of the CER, which became the Japanese South Manchuria Railway in 1906, became the locus and partial casus belli for the Russo-Japanese War, the 1929 Sino-Soviet Conflict, and the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Soviet Union returned the Chinese Eastern Railway to the People's Republic of China in 1952.

Colgate Far East Open

The Colgate Far East Open was a golf tournament on the LPGA Tour from 1974 to 1979. It was an unofficial event in 1974 and 1975.

East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of Asia, defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural terms. China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam belong to the East Asian cultural sphere. Geographically and geopolitically, the region includes China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia and Taiwan.The region was the cradle of various ancient civilizations such as ancient China, ancient Japan, ancient Korea, and the Mongol Empire. East Asia was one of the cradles of world civilization, with China, an ancient East Asian civilization being one of the earliest cradles of civilization in human history. For thousands of years, China largely influenced East Asia (as it was principally the leading civilization in the region), exerting its enormous prestige and influence on its neighbors. Historically, societies in East Asia have been part of the Chinese cultural sphere, and East Asian vocabulary and scripts are often derived from Classical Chinese and Chinese script. The Chinese calendar preserves traditional East Asian culture and serves as the root to which many other East Asian calendars are derived from. Major religions in East Asia include Buddhism (mostly Mahayana), Confucianism and Neo-Confucianism, Taoism, Ancestral worship, and Chinese folk religion in Greater China, Buddhism and Shintoism in Japan, and Christianity, Buddhism, and Sindoism in Korea. Shamanism is also prevalent among Mongols and other indigenous populations of northern East Asia such as the Manchus.East Asians comprise around 1.6 billion people, making up about 38% of the population in Continental Asia and 22% of the global population. The region is home to major world metropolises such as Beijing, Hong Kong, Seoul, Shanghai, Taipei, and Tokyo. Although the coastal and riparian areas of the region form one of the world's most populated places, the population in Mongolia and Western China, both landlocked areas, is very sparsely distributed, with Mongolia having the lowest population density of any sovereign state. The overall population density of the region is 133 inhabitants per square kilometre (340/sq mi), about three times the world average of 45/km2 (120/sq mi).

Far East Fleet (United Kingdom)

The British Eastern Fleet then later the East Indies Fleet and the Far East Fleet (also called the Far East Station) was a fleet of the Royal Navy which existed between 1941 and 1971.

In 1904, the British First Sea Lord, Sir John Fisher, ordered that in the event of war the three main commands in the Far East, the East Indies Squadron, the China Squadron, and the Australian Squadron, should all come under one command called the Eastern Fleet based in Singapore. The Commander-in-Chief on the China Station would then take command. During the First World War, the squadrons retained their distinct identities and 'Eastern Fleet' was used only as a general term. The three-squadron structure continued until the Second World War and the beginning of hostilities with the Empire of Japan, when the Eastern Fleet was formally constituted on 8 December 1941, amalgamating the East Indies Squadron and the China Squadron.During the war, it included many ships and personnel from other navies, including those of the Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States. On 22 November 1944 the Eastern Fleet was re-designated East Indies fleet and continued to be based in Trincomalee. Following its re-designation its remaining ships formed the British Pacific Fleet. In December 1945 the British Pacific Fleet was disbanded and its forces were absorbed into the East Indies fleet. In 1952 The East Indies Fleet was renamed the Far East Fleet. After the Second World War the East Indies Station continued as a separate command to this one until 1958. In 1971 the Far East Fleet was abolished and its remaining forces returned home, coming under the command of the new, unified, Commander-in-Chief Fleet.

Far East Movement

Far East Movement (abbreviated FM) is an American hip hop and electronic music group based in Los Angeles. The group formed in 2003 and as of August 2018 consists of Kev Nish (Kevin Nishimura), Prohgress (James Roh) and DJ Virman (Virman Coquia). Their single "Like a G6", featuring pop-rap duo The Cataracs and singer Dev hit number one on both the Billboard Hot 100 chart and on the iTunes chart in late October 2010, making them the first Asian-American group to earn a number one hit on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. Among their other chart toppers are: "Rocketeer" featuring Ryan Tedder of One Republic (peaked at number seven on Billboard), "Turn Up the Love" (number two on the UK charts), and their 2012 remix to the song "Get Up (Rattle)" by the Bingo Players, also hit number one on the UK charts.

The group's latest album, Identity, is the first release under their own record label Transparent Music. Identity focuses on bridging Eastern artists with FM's Western dance music roots. The album received a positive review in Billboard magazine; the single "Freal Luv" with Marshmello featuring Tinashe and Chanyeol from the chart topping K-pop group EXO, received 31 million plays on YouTube. Far East Movement has also branched out with a number of collaborations on labels Ministry of Sound, Dim Mak, and Ultra.

In 2016, Far East Movement's company, Transparent Arts (TA), moved into artist management. TA manages seven artists of various genres, including Korean pop superstar Tiffany, rappers Dumbfoundead and Year of the Ox, producers Yultron, Autolaser, Rell the Soundbender, and singer Satica. The artists have garnered millions of social media plays, sold out national tours, and have released tracks through labels Owsla, Spinnin', Armada, and Universal. FM also has a joint label, BredNButter, with Trap City, a large YouTube dance music channel with more than ten million subscribers. BredNButter's many releases have amassed millions of plays in total in a little over a year of existence. They also founded Identity Festival, a festival celebrating Asian American Heritage with the City of Los Angeles on the steps of City Hall that gathered over 10,000 attendees in 2018 with headliners Mike Shinoda of Linkin Park and K-pop star Jay Park. Far East Movement is in the process of recording their next full-length release.

Far East scarlet-like fever

Far East scarlet-like fever or scarlatinoid fever is an infectious disease caused by the gram negative bacillus Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. In Japan it is called Izumi fever.

Far Eastern Federal District

The Far Eastern Federal District (Russian: Дальневосто́чный федера́льный о́круг, Dalnevostochny federalny okrug) is the largest of the eight federal districts of Russia but the least populated, with a population of 8,371,257 (75.5% urban) according to the 2010 Census. The entire federal district lies within the easternmost part of Asia and covers the territory of the Russian Far East.

International Military Tribunal for the Far East

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trial or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, was a military trial convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for joint conspiracy to start and wage war (categorized as "Class A" crimes), conventional war crimes ("Class B") and crimes against humanity ("Class C").Eleven countries (Australia, Canada, China, France, British India, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Philippines, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States) provided judges and prosecutors for the court. The defense comprised Japanese and American lawyers.

Twenty-nine Japanese military and political leaders were charged with 55 separate counts encompassing the waging of aggressive war, murder and conventional war crimes committed against prisoners-of-war, civilian internees and the inhabitants of occupied territories. The defendants included former prime ministers, former foreign ministers and former military commanders. In the course of the proceedings, the court ruled that 45 of the counts, including all the murder charges, were either redundant or not authorized under the IMTFE Charter.

Two defendants died during the proceedings and one was ruled unfit to stand trial. All remaining defendants were found guilty of at least one count. Sentences ranged from seven years' imprisonment to execution.

The tribunal was adjourned on November 12, 1948.

Little League World Series in Japan

Japan first participated in the Little League World Series in 1962. Between 1962 and 2000, Japan participated in the Far East Region of the LLWS. In 2001, the Far East Region was divided into the Asia Region and the Pacific Region. From 2001 to 2006, Japan competed in the Asia Region. In 2007, the Japan Region was created, so that the winner of the Japanese championship receives an automatic berth in the Series.

As of the 2017 tournament, Japan has participated in the LLWS 25 times since 1962, and has won the tournament eleven times (1967, 1968, 1976, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2017).

Pacific Air Forces

Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) is a Major Command (MAJCOM) of the United States Air Force and is also the air component command of the United States Indo-Pacific Command (USINDOPACOM). PACAF is headquartered at Joint Base Pearl Harbor–Hickam (former Hickam AFB), Hawaii, and is one of two USAF MAJCOMs assigned outside the Continental United States, the other being the United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa. Over the past sixty-five plus years, PACAF has been engaged in combat during the Korean and Vietnam Wars and Operations Desert Storm, Southern Watch, Northern Watch, Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.

The mission of Pacific Air Forces is to provide ready air and space power to promote U.S. interests in the Asia-Pacific region during peacetime, through crisis, and in war. PACAF organizes, trains, and equips the 45,000 Total Force personnel of the Regular Air Force, the Air Force Reserve and the Air National Guard with the tools necessary to support the Commander of United States Indo-Pacific Command. PACAF comprises three numbered Air Forces, nine main bases and nearly 375 aircraft.

The command's area of responsibility extends from the west coast of the United States to the east coast of Asia and from the Arctic to the Antarctic, more than 100,000,000 square miles (260,000,000 km2). The area is home to nearly two billion people who live in 44 countries.

Pacific Plate

The Pacific Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean. At 103 million square kilometres (40,000,000 sq mi), it is the largest tectonic plate.The Pacific Plate contains an interior hot spot forming the Hawaiian Islands.Hillis and Müller are reported to consider the Bird's Head Plate to be moving in unison with the Pacific Plate. Bird considers them to be unconnected.

Primorsky Krai

Primorsky Krai (Russian: Примо́рский край, tr. Primorsky kray, IPA: [prʲɪˈmorskʲɪj kraj] is a federal subject (a krai) of Russia, located in the Far East region of the country and is a part of the Far Eastern Federal District. The city of Vladivostok is the administrative center of the krai, as well as the largest city in the Russian Far East. The krai has the largest economy among the federal subjects in the Russian Far East, and a population of 1,956,497 as of the 2010 Census.The name of the krai is derived from the Russian words "приморский" (primorsky), meaning "maritime", and "край (kray), meaning "edge" or "frontier". It is informally known as Primorye (Примо́рье, IPA: [prʲɪˈmorʲjɪ]) in Russian, and is occasionally translated as Maritime Territory in English. The krai shares Russia's only border with North Korea, along the Tumen River in Khasansky District in the southwestern corner of the krai. Peter the Great Gulf, the largest gulf in the Sea of Japan, is located along the south coast.

Historically part of Manchuria, Primorsky Krai was ceded to the Russian Empire by Qing China in 1860 as part of a region known as Outer Manchuria, forming most of the territory of Primorskaya Oblast. During the Russian Civil War it became part of the Far Eastern Republic before joining the Soviet Union, going through numerous changes until reaching its current form in 1938. Primorsky Krai is home to the Russian Navy's Russian Pacific Fleet.

Russian Far East

The Russian Far East (Russian: Дальний Восток России, tr. Dal'niy Vostok Rossii, IPA: [ˈdalʲnʲɪj vɐˈstok rɐˈsʲiɪ], literally "The distant East of Russia") comprises the Russian part of the Far East, the easternmost territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.

The Far Eastern Federal District shares land borders with Mongolia, the People's Republic of China and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to its south, and shares maritime borders with Japan to its southeast and with the United States to its northeast. Although geographically part of Siberia, the Russian Far East is categorized separately from the Siberian Federal District to its west in Russian geographical schemes.

Siberian tiger

The Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is a tiger population in the Far East, particularly the Russian Far East and Northeast China. This population inhabits mainly the Sikhote Alin mountain region in southwest Primorye Province in the Russian Far East. The Siberian tiger once ranged throughout Korea, north China, Russian Far East, and eastern Mongolia. In 2005, there were 331–393 adult and subadult Siberian tigers in this region, with a breeding adult population of about 250 individuals. The population had been stable for more than a decade due to intensive conservation efforts, but partial surveys conducted after 2005 indicate that the Russian tiger population was declining. An initial census held in 2015 indicated that the Siberian tiger population had increased to 480–540 individuals in the Russian Far East, including 100 cubs. This was followed up by a more detailed census which revealed there was a total population of 562 wild Siberian tigers in Russia.Results of a phylogeographic study comparing mitochondrial DNA from Caspian tigers and living tiger subspecies indicate that the common ancestor of the Siberian and Caspian tigers colonized Central Asia from eastern China, via the Gansu−Silk Road corridor, and then subsequently traversed Siberia eastward to establish the Siberian tiger population in the Russian Far East. The Caspian and Siberian tiger populations were the northernmost in mainland Asia.The Siberian tiger was also called Amur tiger, Manchurian tiger, Korean tiger, and Ussurian tiger, depending on the region where individuals were observed.

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

The United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) is one of the five regional commissions under the jurisdiction of the United Nations Economic and Social Council. It was established in order to increase economic activity in Asia and the Far East, as well as to foster economic relations between the region and other areas of the world.The Commission is composed of 53 Member States and nine Associate members, all mostly from the Asia and Pacific regions. As well as countries in Asia and the Pacific, the Commission's members includes France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States.

The region covered by the Commission is home to 4.1 billion people, or two thirds of the world’s population, making ESCAP the most comprehensive of the United Nation's five regional commissions.

United Nations Economic and Social Council

The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; French: Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, CESNU) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic and social fields of the organisation, specifically in regards to the 15 specialised agencies, the eight functional commissions and the five regional commissions under its jurisdiction.

The Council serves as the central forum for discussing international economic and social issues and formulating policy recommendations addressed to member states and the United Nations system. A number of non-governmental organisations have been granted consultative status to the Council to participate in the work of the United Nations.

It holds one four-week session each year in July, and since 1998, it has also held an annual meeting in April with finance ministers heading key committees of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

United States Army Forces in the Far East

United States Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) (Filipino: Hukbong Katihan ng Estados Unidos sa Malayong Silangan/HKEUMS) was a military formation of the United States Army active from 1941 to 1946. The new command's headquarters was created on 26 July 1941, at No. 1, Calle Victoria, Manila, Luzon, the Philippines, with General Douglas MacArthur as commander. The Chief of Staff was Brigadier General Richard K. Sutherland and the Deputy Chief of Staff was Lieutenant Colonel Richard J. Marshall. The core of this command (including MacArthur, Marshall, and Sutherland) was drawn from the Office of the Military Advisor to the Commonwealth Government.

Creation of this command led to the subordination of the headquarters of the Philippine Department of the U.S. Army, as a service command, since planning and tactical control were now under USAFFE control. MacArthur explains, "It became an administrative echelon. It was analogous to a corps area". MacArthur recommended that Philippine Department commander Major General Grunert be reassigned, as his services were no longer needed. On 23 October, Grunert returned to the United States and MacArthur was temporarily appointed as the Philippine Department's commander.

Vladivostok

Vladivostok (Russian: Владивосто́к, IPA: [vlədʲɪvɐˈstok] (listen), literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative centre of Far Eastern Federal District and Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea. The population of the city as of 2018 was 604,901, up from 592,034 recorded in the 2010 Russian census. Harbin in China is about 515 kilometres (320 mi) away, while Sapporo in Japan is about 775 kilometres (482 mi) east across the Sea of Japan.

The city is the home port of the Russian Pacific Fleet and is the largest Russian port on the Pacific coast.

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