Far-left politics

Far-left politics are political views located further on the left of the left-right spectrum than the standard political left.

The term has been used to describe ideologies such as: communism, anarchism, anarcho-communism, left-communism, anarcho-syndicalism, Marxism–Leninism, Trotskyism, and Maoism.[1][2]

Europe

NPA Révolution tunisienne Planoise
French posters of support to the Tunisian Revolution (and feminism below)

Luke March of the School of Social and Political Science at the University of Edinburgh defines the far-left in Europe as those who position themselves to the left of social democracy, which they see as insufficiently left-wing. The two main sub-types are called the radical left, who desire fundamental changes to the capitalist system yet remain accepting of liberal democracy, and the extreme left, who are more hostile to liberal democracy and denounce any compromise with capitalism. March specifies four major subgroups within contemporary European far-left politics: communists, democratic socialists, populist socialists and social populists.[3]

Vít Hloušek and Lubomír Kopeček add secondary characteristics to those identified by March and Mudde, such as anti-Americanism, anti-globalization, opposition to NATO and rejection of European integration.[4]

In France, the term extrême-gauche ("far-left") is a generally accepted term for political groups that position themselves to the left of the Socialist Party, such as Trotskyists, Maoists, anarcho-communists and New Leftists. Some, such as political scientist Serge Cosseron, limit the scope to the left of the French Communist Party,[5] but there is no real consensus.

Far-left terrorism

RAF-Bombenanschlag in Ramstein, 1981
Aftermath of the bombing on American Ramstein Air Base in 1981 by left-wing terrorist group RAF

There were many far-left militant organizations formed from existing political parties in the 1960s and 1970s,[6] such as the Red Brigades and the Red Army Faction.[7] These groups generally aimed to overthrow capitalism and the wealthy ruling classes.

See also

References

  1. ^ Left Communism in Australia, by J.A. Dawson Thesis 11]
  2. ^ Left Communism and Trotskyism, by Loren Goldner et al.
  3. ^ March, Luke (2008). Contemporary Far Left Parties in Europe: From Marxism to the Mainstream? (PDF). Berlin: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung. p. 3. ISBN 9783868720006. Retrieved 3 June 2017.
  4. ^ Hloušek, Vít; Kopeček, Lubomír (2010). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. Farnham: Ashgate. p. 46. ISBN 9780754678403.
  5. ^ Cosseron, Serge (2007). Dictionnaire de l'extrême gauche. Paris: Larousse. p. 20. ISBN 2035826209.
  6. ^ Weinberg, Leonard; Pedahzur, Ami; Perliger, Arie (2009). Political Parties and Terrorist Groups (2nd ed.). London: Routledge. p. 53. ISBN 9781135973377.
  7. ^ Chaliand, Gérard (2010). The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to Al Qaeda. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. ISBN 9780520247093.

External links

American Party of Labor

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Anarchist Federation (Britain and Ireland)

The Anarchist Federation (AF, AFed) is a federation of anarcho-communists in Great Britain and Ireland. It is not a political party, but a direct action, agitational and propaganda organisation.

Autonomism

Autonomism (also authonomous Marxism or autonomist Marxism) is a set of anti-authoritarian left-wing political and social movements and theories. As a theoretical system, it first emerged in Italy in the 1960s from workerist (operaismo) communism. Later, post-Marxist and anarchist tendencies became significant after influence from the Situationists, the failure of Italian far-left movements in the 1970s, and the emergence of a number of important theorists including Antonio Negri, who had contributed to the 1969 founding of Potere Operaio, as well as Mario Tronti, Paolo Virno and Franco "Bifo" Berardi.

Georgy Katsiaficas summarizes the forms of autonomous movements saying that "In contrast to the centralized decisions and hierarchical authority structures of modern institutions, autonomous social movements involve people directly in decisions affecting their everyday lives. They seek to expand democracy and to help individuals break free of political structures and behavior patterns imposed from the outside." As such this has involved a call for the independence of social movements from political parties in a revolutionary perspective which seeks to create a practical political alternative to both authoritarian socialism and contemporary representative democracy.Autonomism influenced the German and Dutch Autonomen, the worldwide social centre movement, and today is influential in Italy, France, and to a lesser extent the English-speaking countries. Those who describe themselves as autonomists now vary from Marxists to anarchists.

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Communist Party (Turkey, 2014)

Communist Party (Turkish: Komünist Parti, or KP) was a communist party in Turkey founded in 2014.

Communist Party of Pakistan

The Communist Party of Pakistan (abbreviated CPP; Urdu: کمیونسٹ پارٹی آف پاکستان‎) is a communist party in Pakistan.

Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain

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Dead Prez

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Far-left politics in the United Kingdom

Far-left politics in the United Kingdom have existed since at least the late 19th century, with the formation of various organisations following ideologies such as revolutionary socialism, anarchism and syndicalism. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution and developments in international Marxism, new organisations advocated ideologies such as Marxist-Leninism, Left Communism and Trotskyism. Following the 1949 Chinese Revolution, further international developments from the 1960s led to the emergence of Maoist (and later Hoxhaist) groups. Political schisms within these tendencies created a large number of new political organisations, particularly from the 1960s to the 1990s.

Freedom Socialist Party

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Il manifesto

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Left Group

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Marxist–Leninist Party of Quebec

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In 2002, three leftist political parties (Rassemblement pour l'alternative progressiste, Parti de la démocratie socialiste and Parti communiste du Québec) merged to form the Union des forces progressistes. However, the Parti marxiste–léniniste du Québec refused to join the UFP, and ran candidates in the 2003, 2007, 2008 and 2012 Quebec elections.

The leader of the PMLQ is William Quesnel.

National Socialist Council of Nagaland

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New Afrikan Black Panther Party

The New Afrikan Black Panther Party (NABPP) is a revolutionary socialist organization in the United States. The group is largely based in prison and commonly referred to as the New Afrikan Black Panther Party – Prison Chapter (NABPP-PC). The party is built as a modern-day continuation of the Black Panther Party prison chapter developed by George Jackson and W. L. Nolen.

Party of Labour of Austria

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Workers Vanguard Party of Kurdistan

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The party was founded on April 22, 1975.

PPKK published Pêşeng.

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YDG-H

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