Luke March of the School of Social and Political Science at the University of Edinburgh defines the far-left in Europe as those who position themselves to the left of social democracy, which they see as insufficiently left-wing. The two main sub-types are called the radical left, who desire fundamental changes to the capitalist system yet remain accepting of liberal democracy, and the extreme left, who are more hostile to liberal democracy and denounce any compromise with capitalism. March specifies four major subgroups within contemporary European far-left politics: communists, democratic socialists, populist socialists and social populists.
Vít Hloušek and Lubomír Kopeček add secondary characteristics to those identified by March and Mudde, such as anti-Americanism, anti-globalization, opposition to NATO and rejection of European integration.
In France, the term extrême-gauche ("far-left") is a generally accepted term for political groups that position themselves to the left of the Socialist Party, such as Trotskyists, Maoists, anarcho-communists and New Leftists. Some, such as political scientist Serge Cosseron, limit the scope to the left of the French Communist Party, but there is no real consensus.
There were many far-left militant organizations formed from existing political parties in the 1960s and 1970s, such as the Red Brigades and the Red Army Faction. These groups generally aimed to overthrow capitalism and the wealthy ruling classes.
The American Party of Labor is an American anti-revisionist Marxist–Leninist party founded in 2008, which follows the pro-Albanian tradition (Hoxhaism).Anarchist Federation (Britain and Ireland)
The Anarchist Federation (AF, AFed) is a federation of anarcho-communists in Great Britain and Ireland. It is not a political party, but a direct action, agitational and propaganda organisation.Autonomism
Autonomism (also authonomous Marxism or autonomist Marxism) is a set of anti-authoritarian left-wing political and social movements and theories. As a theoretical system, it first emerged in Italy in the 1960s from workerist (operaismo) communism. Later, post-Marxist and anarchist tendencies became significant after influence from the Situationists, the failure of Italian far-left movements in the 1970s, and the emergence of a number of important theorists including Antonio Negri, who had contributed to the 1969 founding of Potere Operaio, as well as Mario Tronti, Paolo Virno and Franco "Bifo" Berardi.
Georgy Katsiaficas summarizes the forms of autonomous movements saying that "In contrast to the centralized decisions and hierarchical authority structures of modern institutions, autonomous social movements involve people directly in decisions affecting their everyday lives. They seek to expand democracy and to help individuals break free of political structures and behavior patterns imposed from the outside." As such this has involved a call for the independence of social movements from political parties in a revolutionary perspective which seeks to create a practical political alternative to both authoritarian socialism and contemporary representative democracy.Autonomism influenced the German and Dutch Autonomen, the worldwide social centre movement, and today is influential in Italy, France, and to a lesser extent the English-speaking countries. Those who describe themselves as autonomists now vary from Marxists to anarchists.Black Guerrilla Family
The Black Guerilla Family, or BGF (also known as the Black Family or the Black Vanguard) is an African-American prison and street gang founded in 1966 by George Jackson, George “Big Jake” Lewis, and W. L. Nolen while they were incarcerated at San Quentin State Prison in Marin County, California.Communist Party (Turkey, 2014)
Communist Party (Turkish: Komünist Parti, or KP) was a communist party in Turkey founded in 2014.Communist Party of Pakistan
The Communist Party of Pakistan (abbreviated CPP; Urdu: کمیونسٹ پارٹی آف پاکستان) is a communist party in Pakistan.Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain
Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (Spanish: Partido Comunista de los Pueblos de España) is a communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Spain. PCPE was founded out of the unification of several Marxist-Leninist factions. The youth organization is called the Collectives of Communist Youth.Dead Prez
Dead Prez, stylized as dead prez, is a hip hop duo from the United States, composed of stic.man and M-1, formed in 1996 in New York City. They are known for their confrontational style, combined with socialist lyrics focused on both militant social justice, Marxism, and Pan-Africanism. The duo maintains an ethical stance against corporate control over the media, especially hip hop record labels.Far-left politics in the United Kingdom
Far-left politics in the United Kingdom have existed since at least the late 19th century, with the formation of various organisations following ideologies such as revolutionary socialism, anarchism and syndicalism. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution and developments in international Marxism, new organisations advocated ideologies such as Marxist-Leninism, Left Communism and Trotskyism. Following the 1949 Chinese Revolution, further international developments from the 1960s led to the emergence of Maoist (and later Hoxhaist) groups. Political schisms within these tendencies created a large number of new political organisations, particularly from the 1960s to the 1990s.Freedom Socialist Party
The Freedom Socialist Party is a far-left socialist political party with a revolutionary feminist philosophy that emerged from a split in the United States Socialist Workers Party in 1966. The party views the struggles of women and minorities as part of the struggle of the working class. The party's Seattle branch, with support from individuals in other cities, split off from the SWP over what it described as the SWP's entrenched opportunism and undemocratic methods. The current National Secretary of the FSP is Doug Barnes.Il manifesto
il manifesto is an Italian language daily newspaper published in Rome, Italy. While it calls itself communist, it is not connected to any political party.Left Group
Left Group (Greek: Αριστερή Συσπείρωση, Aristeri Syspeirosi) is an organization of left in Greece, formed by former members of ARAS. It participates in the Front of the Greek Anticapitalist Left, a coalition of non-parliamentary left-wing parties.Marxist–Leninist Party of Quebec
The Marxist–Leninist Party of Quebec (French: Parti marxiste–léniniste du Québec, PMLQ) is a Marxist–Leninist and separatist political party in Quebec, Canada. The PMLQ is the Quebec branch of the Communist Party of Canada (Marxist–Leninist). It has run candidates in Quebec general elections in 1973, 1981 and since 1989 under various names: Parti communiste du Québec (marxiste-léniniste), Parti marxiste-léniniste (Québec) and Parti marxiste-léniniste du Québec.
In 2002, three leftist political parties (Rassemblement pour l'alternative progressiste, Parti de la démocratie socialiste and Parti communiste du Québec) merged to form the Union des forces progressistes. However, the Parti marxiste–léniniste du Québec refused to join the UFP, and ran candidates in the 2003, 2007, 2008 and 2012 Quebec elections.
The leader of the PMLQ is William Quesnel.National Socialist Council of Nagaland
The National Socialist Council of Nagaland (abbreviated NSCN) is a Greater Naga Revolutionist, Christian Naga nationalist insurgent group operating mainly in Northeast India, with minor activities in northwest Myanmar (Burma) until 2012. The main goal of the organisation is to establish a sovereign Naga state, "Nagalim", which would consist of all the areas inhabited by the Naga people in Northeast India and Northwest Myanmar. According to the NSCN manifesto, their slogan is "Nagaland for Christ". The group is accused of kidnapping, assassination, forced conversion and committing terrorist activities.Two major factions of NSCN include NSCN (K), led by Khaplang; and NSCN (I-M), led by Isak Chishi Swu and Thuingaleng Muviah. On November 6, 2015 in response to an attack on an army convoy in Manipur India designated The NSCN (K) a terrorist organization under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act. India's Ministry of Home Affairs labels NSCN a major insurgent group.New Afrikan Black Panther Party
The New Afrikan Black Panther Party (NABPP) is a revolutionary socialist organization in the United States. The group is largely based in prison and commonly referred to as the New Afrikan Black Panther Party – Prison Chapter (NABPP-PC). The party is built as a modern-day continuation of the Black Panther Party prison chapter developed by George Jackson and W. L. Nolen.Party of Labour of Austria
The Party of Labour of Austria (German: Partei der Arbeit Österreichs, PdA) is a communist political party in Austria. PdA was founded on 12 October 2013 by the Communist Initiative, a Marxist-Leninist breakaway faction of the Communist Party of Austria (KPÖ), who were dissatisfied with the party's ideological orientation.Russian United Labour Front
Russian United Labour Front is a communist party in Russia. It was formed by Left Front, Russian Communist Workers' Party and several unions on 4 December 2012.Workers Vanguard Party of Kurdistan
Workers Vanguard Party of Kurdistan (in Kurdish: Partîya Pêşeng a Karkerî Kurdistan, PPKK, in Turkish: Kürdistan Öncü İşçi Partisi) was a Kurdish underground political party in Turkey.
The party was founded on April 22, 1975.
PPKK published Pêşeng.
In 1992 PPKK merged with Kürdistan Ulusal Kurtuluşçuları-Sosyalist Eğilim (KUK-SE) and Kurdistan Liberation Organization (Kürdistan Özgürlük Örgütü, KAK), to form the United People's Party of Kurdistan (YEKBÛN).YDG-H
The Patriotic Revolutionary Youth Movement (Kurdish: Tevgera Ciwanen Welatparêz Yên Şoreşger, Turkish: Yurtsever Devrimci Gençlik Hareket, YDG-H) is the urban, militant youth wing of Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK). Trained by more experienced PKK cadres for urban fighting, and consisting mostly of children and adults in the 15-25 age group, it was reportedly established in 2006. The group started to clash with Turkish security forces and tried to enforce their authority in the areas they were located in 2014 as part of a strategy which involved unilateral declaration of self-management in various towns in Southeast Anatolia, and creation of trenches and barricades reinforced with IEDs and explosives to deny security forces access to the urban areas.The group is in favor of regional self-management for the Kurdish people in Southeast Anatolia. Other claimed objectives of the YDG-H include stopping all activities related to drugs and prostitution, and other similar crimes in the region.