Faneuil Hall

Faneuil Hall (/ˈfænjəl/ or /ˈfænəl/; previously /ˈfʌnəl/), located near the waterfront and today's Government Center, in Boston, Massachusetts, has been a marketplace and a meeting hall since 1743. It was the site of several speeches by Samuel Adams, James Otis, and others encouraging independence from Great Britain. Now it is part of Boston National Historical Park and a well-known stop on the Freedom Trail. It is sometimes referred to as "the Cradle of Liberty".[2]

In 2008, Faneuil Hall was rated number 4 in America's 25 Most Visited Tourist Sites by Forbes Traveler.[3]

Faneuil Hall
Faneuil Hall Boston Massachusetts
Faneuil Hall today, east side
Faneuil Hall is located in Boston
Faneuil Hall
Faneuil Hall is located in Massachusetts
Faneuil Hall
Faneuil Hall is located in the United States
Faneuil Hall
LocationBoston, Massachusetts
Coordinates42°21′36.0″N 71°03′22.5″W / 42.360000°N 71.056250°WCoordinates: 42°21′36.0″N 71°03′22.5″W / 42.360000°N 71.056250°W
Built1742
ArchitectJohn Smibert; Charles Bulfinch
Architectural styleGeorgian
NRHP reference #66000368[1]
Significant dates
Added to NRHPOctober 15, 1966
Designated NHLOctober 9, 1960

History

View of Faneuil-Hall in Boston, Massachusetts, March 1789
Faneuil Hall in 1789
Faneuilhall104
Faneuil Hall in 1830

18th century

After the project of erecting a public market house in Boston had been discussed for some years, slave merchant Peter Faneuil offered, at a public meeting in 1740, to build a suitable edifice at his own cost as a gift to the town. There was a strong opposition to market houses, and although a vote of thanks was passed unanimously, his offer was accepted by a majority of only seven. Funded in part by profits from slave trading,[4] the building was begun in Dock Square in September of the same year.[5] It was built by artist John Smibert in 1740–1742 in the style of an English country market, with an open ground floor serving as the market house, and an assembly room above. According to Sean Hennessey, a National Park Service spokesman, some of Boston's early slave auctions took place near Faneuil Hall.[6]

In 1761, the hall was destroyed by fire, with nothing but the brick walls remaining. It was rebuilt by the town in 1762. In 1775, during the British occupation of Boston, it was used for a theatre.[5]

19th century

In 1806, the hall was greatly expanded by Charles Bulfinch, doubling its height and width and adding a third floor. Four new bays were added, to make seven in all; the open arcades were enclosed, and the cupola was moved to the opposite end of the building. Bulfinch applied Doric brick pilasters to the lower two floors, with Ionic pilasters on the third floor. This renovation added galleries around the assembly hall and increased its height. Neighboring Quincy Market was constructed in 1824–1826. Faneuil Hall was entirely rebuilt of noncombustible materials in 1898–1899.

20th and 21st centuries

On October 9, 1960, the building was designated a National Historic Landmark and added to the National Register of Historic Places a number of years later.[7] The ground floor and basement were altered in 1979. The Hall was restored again in 1992, and in 1994 the building was designated a local Boston Landmark by the Boston Landmarks Commission.

The headquarters of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts is located on the fourth floor and includes an armory, library, offices, quartermaster department, commissary, and military museum with free admission.

Faneuil Hall LOC 4a30408u
Faneuil Hall, photograph dated 1903

Faneuil Hall Marketplace

Faneuil Hall is one of four historic buildings in a festival marketplace, Faneuil Hall Marketplace, which includes three historic granite buildings called North Market, Quincy Market, and South Market adjacent to the east of Faneuil Hall, and which operates as an indoor/outdoor mall and food eatery. It was designed by Benjamin Thompson and Associates and managed by Ashkenazy Acquisition Corp.; its success in the late 1970s led to the emergence of similar marketplaces in other U.S. cities.

According to Ashkenazy, Faneuil Hall Marketplace had 18 million visitors in 2016.[8]

Uses

On Friday in early August 1890, one of the first black Republican legislators of Boston, Julius Caesar Chappelle, made a speech "At the Cradle of Liberty" in support of the Federal Elections bill that would help give blacks the right to vote. Chappelle was a Boston legislator from 1883–1886. The Faneuil Hall event was covered by the media in the United States, and the speech by Chappelle appeared in an August 9, 1890, article, "At the Cradle of Liberty, Enthusiastic Endorsement of the Elections Bill, Faneuil Hall again Filled with Liberty Loving Bostonians to Urge a Free Ballot and Fare Count..." on the front page of The New York Age newspaper on Saturday, August 9, 1890.[9]

On November 7, 1979, Faneuil Hall was the site of Sen. Edward M. Kennedy's speech declaring his candidacy for president.[10] On November 3, 2004, Faneuil Hall was the site of Senator John Kerry's concession speech in the 2004 presidential election.

On April 11, 2006, Governor Mitt Romney signed Massachusetts' historic healthcare bill into law with a fife and drum band in Faneuil Hall before 300 ticketed guests.[11]

On October 30, 2013, President Barack Obama delivered a defense of the Affordable Care Act from the same spot where Governor Mitt Romney signed his state's expansion of healthcare in 2006.[12]

On November 2, 2014, Boston Mayor Thomas Menino was laid in state at Faneuil Hall following his death on October 30, 2014.[13]

The Headquarters of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts has been in Faneuil Hall since 1746, currently on the 4th floor.

It is also still used for political debates between Massachusetts candidates as well as political shows, such as The O'Reilly Factor.

Name

Faneuil is a French name, and is anglicized as /ˈfænəl/ or /ˈfænjəl/.[14] In Colonial times, it may have been pronounced as in funnel. Peter Faneuil's gravestone is marked "P. Funel." However, the inscription was added long after his burial; the stone originally displayed only the Faneuil family crest, not his surname. In his 1825 novel Lionel Lincoln, James Fenimore Cooper used eye dialect for Bostonian characters to indicate that they pronounced it Funnel Hall.[15]

Boston area locals often use the term Faneuil to refer to the entire surrounding neighborhood, particularly as a landmark for its vibrant nightlife.[16]

In August 2017, amid heightened media coverage of the removal of Confederate monuments and memorials, the activist group New Democracy Coalition proposed that Faneuil Hall's name be changed because of Peter Faneuil's participation in the slave trade.[17] In response to the proposal, Boston Mayor Marty Walsh stated: "We are not going the change the name of Faneuil Hall".[18]

Building elements

Faneuilgrasshopper
The gilded grasshopper weather vane atop Faneuil Hall

Bell

The bell was repaired in 2007 by spraying the frozen clapper with WD-40 over the course of a week and attaching a rope. Prior to this repair, the last known ringing of the bell with its clapper was at the end of World War II, in 1945, though it had since been rung several times by striking with a mallet.[19]

Samuel Adams at Faneuil Hall, Boston IMG 2845
Samuel Adams, described on the 1880 statue by Anne Whitney at Faneuil Hall as "A Stateman: Incorruptible and Fearless"

Grasshopper weather vane

The gilded grasshopper weather vane on top of the building was created by Deacon Shem Drowne in 1742. Gilded with a gold leaf, the copper weather vane weighs 80 pounds (36 kg) and is 4 feet (1.2 m) long.[20] The weather vane is believed to be modeled after the grasshopper weather vane on the London Royal Exchange, based upon the family crest of Thomas Gresham.[21][22]

Public art and landscape artwork

The area between the eastern end of Faneuil Hall and Congress Street is part of Boston National Historical Park. In this landscape is a 19th-century sculpture of Samuel Adams[23] created by sculptor Anne Whitney. The granite plaza surface is marked for 850 feet (260 m) with the approximate location of the early Colonial shoreline c. 1630. The street layout and building plot plan designations from an 1820 map are shown by etched dashed lines and changes from pink granite to grey granite paving slabs. The shoreline marking artwork entitled, A Once and Future Shoreline, is made with etched silhouettes of seaweed, sea grass, fish, shells and other materials found along a high tide line.[24]

Art within Faneuil Hall includes many paintings and sculpture busts of Revolutionary War activists, pre Civil War abolitionists, and political leaders.[25]

Timeline of events

  • 1761 – Hall burned down
  • 1762 – Hall rebuilt
  • 1767 – October 28: Petition to boycott imported goods signed.[26]
  • 1768 – Faneuil Hall is briefly used to quarter the newly arrived 14th Regiment during the occupation of Boston.
  • 1773 – December 3: Meeting about tea lately arrived on the ship Eleanor; Capt. James Bruce, Samuel Adams, Jonathan Williams, and others present[27]
  • 1806 – Building remodelled and expanded by Charles Bulfinch
  • August 2, 1826 – Daniel Webster eulogizes John Adams and Thomas Jefferson[28]
  • July 11, 1831 – Timothy Fuller speaks "at the request of the Suffolk Anti-Masonic Committee"[29]
  • September 6, 1834 – Edward Everett eulogizes Lafayette[30]
  • 1837
  • 1839 – Peleg Sprague stumps for candidate William Henry Harrison[33]
  • July 4, 1843 – Charles Francis Adams, Sr. speaks[34]
  • April 15, 1848 – Edward Everett eulogizes John Quincy Adams[35]
  • May 26, 1854 – After arrest of Anthony Burns, public meeting "to secure justice for a man claimed as a slave by a Virginia kidnapper, and imprisoned in Boston Court House, in defiance of the laws of Massachusetts."[36]
  • April 18, 1863 – Andrew Jackson Hamilton "of Texas" speaks "at the war meeting"[37]
  • January 9, 1865 – Edward Everett speaks on "the relief of the suffering people of Savannah"[38]
  • June 7, 1876 – Meeting "in favor of public parks;" Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. and others speak[39]
  • August 1, 1878 – "Indignation meeting ... to protest against the injury done to the freedom of the press by the conviction and imprisonment of Ezra H. Heywood"[40]
  • October 29, 1887 – Eben Norton Horsford speaks on occasion of the unveiling of Anne Whitney's Leif Ericson statue (installed on Commonwealth Ave.)[41]
  • August 1890 – Julius Caesar Chappelle, Republican legislator of Boston, MA (1883–1886), one of the first black legislators in the United States, makes a speech (endorsing the Federal Elections bill that would help give blacks the right to vote) that was printed in The New York Age newspaper's front-page article, "At the Cradle of Liberty" on August 9, 1890.[42]
  • June 15, 1898 – James E. McCormick published a letter in the Boston Evening Transcript on June 2 which led to a June 15 meeting at Faneuil Hall, thus the founding of the American Anti-Imperialist League in opposition to the Spanish–American War as well the subsequent Filipino-American War. To note one of the league's more familiar names, Mark Twain served as vice-president from 1901 to his passing in 1910.
  • 1903
    • March 4 – Frederic J. Stimson debates James F. Carey[43]
    • March 19 – Protest "against the suppression of truth about the Philippines"[44]
  • May 1909 – 32nd Grand Division (Order of Railroad Conductors)ORC Convention
  • 1974 – Weathervane stolen, then returned[45]
  • 1992 – Building restored
  • 2012 – Lower Level and First Level completely renovated by Eastern General Contractors, Inc. of Springfield, MA.
  • August 2017 – Kevin Peterson suggest changing the name of Faneuil Hall due to connections to slavery and propose to rename after Crispus Attucks.[46]

Gallery

Bartlett Fanueil Hall From the Water

View of Faneuil Hall from the harbor, early 19th century

QuincyHall Bowen PictureOfBoston 1838

View of Faneuil Hall from the harbor; by Abel Bowen, 1838

Hunter Faneuil BostonDirectory1849

Advertisement for William Hunter, seller of butter, cheese, lard, eggs, 1849

1853 4thJuly FaneuilHall Gleasons

Fourth of July festivities at Faneuil Hall; Gleason's Pictorial, 1853

Fair at Faneuil Hall, Boston, from Robert N. Dennis collection of stereoscopic views

Exhibition of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, 19th century

2351618576 DockSquare

View of Faneuil Hall from Dock Square, 19th century

Grasshopper FaneuilHall

Firemen washing the grasshopper, 19th century

Faneuil Hall in May 1973 - Boston MA

Faneuil Hall and Congress St., 1973

Faneuil Hall-Skyscrapers

Faneuil Hall and its newer neighbors, 2006

Faneuil Hall - Great Hall - Balcony

The Balcony in the Great Hall, Faneuil Hall, Boston MA, 2007

Faneuil Hall - Great Hall

View from the back of the Great Hall, Faneuil Hall, Boston MA, 2008

USA-Faneuil Hall

The Great Hall

USA-Faneuil Hall0

Samuel Adams and Faneuil Hall

Faneuil Hall sign, Boston, Mass

Faneuil Hall sign

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ National Park Service (2007-01-23). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  2. ^ "Faneuil Hall Boston, The Cradle Of Liberty". www.celebrateboston.com. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  3. ^ Baedeker, Rob (2008-05-05). "America's 25 Most Visited Tourist Sites". Forbes Traveler. Archived from the original on 2009-08-31. Retrieved 2008-05-14.
  4. ^ "Was Faneuil Hall Built with Slave Money?". 13 March 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  5. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainWilson, J. G.; Fiske, J., eds. (1900). "Faneuil, Peter" . Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
  6. ^ "Unearthing Boston?s Past – The Daily Free Press". dailyfreepress.com. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  7. ^ http://www.nps.gov/history/nhl/designations/Lists/MA01.pdf
  8. ^ Logan, Tim (2017-06-08). "Faneuil Hall Marketplace aims to draw more locals". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2017-06-09.
  9. ^ "At the Cradle of Liberty," The New York Age, front page, Saturday August 9th, 1890.
  10. ^ "PBS Carter Administration Timelilne". Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  11. ^ Belluck, Pam; Zezima, Katie (April 13, 2006). "Massachusetts Legislation on Insurance Becomes Law". The New York Times.
  12. ^ "President Obama heading to Boston on Wednesday for health care speech - The Boston Globe". Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  13. ^ "Thousands say goodbye to Menino - The Boston Globe". Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  14. ^ That is, rhyming with panel or Daniel.
  15. ^ Cooper, James Fenimore; Cooper, James Fenimore. "Lionel Lincoln : or, The leaguer of Boston". New York : Lovell, Coryell. Retrieved 30 May 2018 – via Internet Archive.
  16. ^ Zander, Amy (16 August 2016). "Faneuil Hall: Everything you need to know". Maverick Empire. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  17. ^ Gere, Michelle (17 August 2017). "Group calls for Faneuil Hall to be renamed". Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  18. ^ "Marty Walsh has a confession to make". bostonglobe.com. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  19. ^ Viser, Matt (2007-05-04). "It tolls for the city". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2007-05-05.
  20. ^ "Grasshopper Weather Vane on Faneuil Hall Is Stolen". New York Times. January 6, 1974. p. 54.
  21. ^ "Faneuil Hall Grasshopper". Celebrate Boston. Retrieved 2008-12-27.
  22. ^ Unsworth, Tania (February 26, 1996). "Playing Tourist At Home". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-27.
  23. ^ "Samuel Adams Statue at Faneuil Hall Boston". www.celebrateboston.com. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  24. ^ "CultureNOW - A Once and Future Shoreline (orignal shoreline c. 1630): Ross Miller, Boston Art Commission and Boston Landmarks Commission". culturenow.org. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  25. ^ "Art in Faneuil Hall, Boston National Historical Park Brochure" (PDF). Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  26. ^ "Houghton Library Blog". Harvard University. 11 July 2013.
  27. ^ Snow. History of Boston. 1828; p.293-294
  28. ^ Daniel Webster. A discourse in commemoration of the lives and services of John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, delivered in Faneuil Hall, Boston, August 2, 1826. Boston: Cummings, Hilliard, and Company, 1826
  29. ^ Timothy Fuller. An oration, delivered at Faneuil Hall, Boston, July 11, 1831: at the request of the Suffolk Anti-Masonic Committee. 1831
  30. ^ Edward Everett. Eulogy on Lafayette: delivered in Faneuil hall, at the request of the young men of Boston, September 6, 1834. Boston: N. Hale, 1834
  31. ^ The freedom speech of Wendell Phillips: Faneuil Hall, December 8, 1837, with descriptive letters from eye witnesses. Boston: Wendell Phillips Hall Association, 1890
  32. ^ First Exhibition and Fair of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association. 1837
  33. ^ Remarks of the Hon. Peleg Sprague at Faneuil Hall: before the citizens of Boston and its vicinity, upon the character and services of Gen. William Henry Harrison, of Ohio, the Whig candidate for the presidency of the United States. Boston: Whig Republican Assoc., 1839
  34. ^ Charles Francis Adams. An oration, delivered before the City Council and citizens of Boston, in Faneuil Hall, on the sixty-seventh anniversary of the Declaration of Independence: July 4th, 1843. Boston: J. H. Eastburn, City printer, 1843
  35. ^ Edward Everett. A eulogy on the life and character of John Quincy Adams: delivered at the request of the legislature of Massachusetts, in Faneuil hall, April 15, 1848. Boston: Dutton and Wentworth, state printers, 1848
  36. ^ Boston slave riot, and trial of Anthony Burns: Containing the report of the Faneuil Hall meeting, the murder of Batchelder, Theodore Parker's Lesson for the day, speeches of counsel on both sides, corrected by themselves, a verbatim report of Judge Loring's decision, and detailed account of the embarkation. Boston: Fetridge and Co., 1854
  37. ^ Speech of Gen. A. J. Hamilton, of Texas, at the war meeting at Faneuil hall, Saturday evening, April 18, 1863. Boston: Press of T. R. Marvin & son, 1863
  38. ^ Savannah and Boston: account of the supplies sent to Savannah ; with the Last appeal of Edward Everett in Faneuil Hall ; The letter to the mayor of Savannah ; and, The proceedings of the citizens, and letter of the mayor of Savannah. Boston: J. Wilson, 1865
  39. ^ Parks for the people: Proceedings of a public meeting held at Faneuil hall, June 7, 1876. Boston: Franklin press: Rand, Avery, & co., 1876
  40. ^ Proceedings of the indignation meeting held in Faneuil Hall, Thursday evening, August 1, 1878: to protest against the injury done to the freedom of the press by the conviction and imprisonment of Ezra H. Heywood. B.R. Tucker, 1878
  41. ^ Eben Norton Horsford. Discovery of America by Northmen: address at the unveiling of the statue of Leif Eriksen, delivered in Faneuil Hall, Oct. 29, 1887. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1888
  42. ^ "At the Cradle of Liberty," The New York Age, front page, Saturday, August 9, 1890.
  43. ^ Socialism: a speech delivered in Faneuil hall, February 7th, 1903, by Frederic J. Stimson ... in joint debate with James F. Carey. Boston: The Old Corner Book Store, Inc., 1903
  44. ^ Mass meetings of protest against the suppression of truth about the Philippines, Faneuil hall, Thursday, March 19, 1903.
  45. ^ "Grasshopper Weather Vane on Faneuil Hall Is Stolen". New York Times. January 6, 1974. p. 54.
  46. ^ Stevens, Carl (2017-08-16). "Leader Of Boston Group Calls To Rename Faneuil Hall". CBS Boston. Retrieved 2017-08-17.

Further reading

External links

Preceded by
Site of the Boston Massacre
Locations along Boston's Freedom Trail
Faneuil Hall
Succeeded by
Paul Revere House
Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts

The Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company of Massachusetts is the oldest chartered military organization in North America and the third oldest chartered military organization in the world. Its charter was granted in March 1638 by the Great and General Court of Massachusetts Bay and signed by Governor John Winthrop as a volunteer militia company to train officers enrolled in the local militia companies across Massachusetts. With the professionalization of the US Military preceding World War I including the creation of the National Guard of the United States and the federalization of officer training, the Company's mission changed to a supportive role in preserving the historic and patriotic traditions of Boston, Massachusetts, and the Nation. Today the Company serves as Honor Guard to the Governor of Massachusetts who is also its Commander in Chief. The headquarters is located on the 4th floor of Faneuil Hall and consists of an armory, library, offices, quartermaster department, commissary, and military museum with free admission.

BostInno

BostInno is a local online news site and community publishing platform covering “the view from inside” innovation in Boston. It was founded in 2008 as a community startup blog by Chase Garbarino, CEO and co-founder of Streetwise Media, and Kevin McCarthy, CTO and co-founder. On December 7, 2009, BostInno was relaunched as a news platform profiling local innovation across verticals including tech, venture capital, city news, food, higher education, and sports.

BostInno is operated by Streetwise Media, the online media company founded by Chase Garbarino, Kevin McCarthy, and Greg Gomer which seeks to reinvent the model of local news online.BostInno headquarters are in Faneuil Hall in Boston.

Boston Classical Orchestra

The Boston Classical Orchestra is a chamber orchestra based in Boston, Massachusetts. It was founded in 1980 by the violinist Robert Brink. The orchestra's music director is Steven Lipsitt. It performs at Faneuil Hall.

The orchestra has performed music by Tison Street.

Boston Landmark

A Boston Landmark is a designation by the Boston Landmarks Commission for historic buildings and sites based on the grounds that it has historical, social, cultural, architectural or aesthetic significance to New England or the United States. While National Landmark or National Register status can provide tax incentives for the owner of an income-producing property, local landmark status provides more control over modifications to a designated historic structure or place.

Boston National Historical Park

The Boston National Historical Park is an association of sites that showcase Boston's role in the American Revolution. It was designated a national park on October 1, 1974. Seven of the eight sites are connected by the Freedom Trail, a walking tour of downtown Boston. All eight properties are National Historic Landmarks.

Five of the sites that make up the park are neither owned nor operated by the National Park Service, and operate through cooperative agreements established upon the park's creation. The park service operates visitor centers in Faneuil Hall and at the Charlestown Navy Yard.

Charles Bulfinch

Charles Bulfinch (August 8, 1763 – April 15, 1844) was an early American architect, and has been regarded by many as the first native-born American to practice architecture as a profession.

Dock Square (Boston)

Dock Square in downtown Boston, Massachusetts is a public square adjacent to Faneuil Hall, bounded by Congress Street, North Street, and the steps of the 60 State Street office tower. Its name derives from its original (17th-century) location at the waterfront. From the 1630s through the early 19th century, it served boats in the Boston Harbor as "the common landing place, at Bendell's Cove," later called Town Dock. "Around the dock was transacted the chief mercantile business of the town." After the waterfront was filled in in the early 19th century, Dock Square continued as a center of commerce for some years. The addition in the 1960s of Government Center changed the scale and character of the square from a hub of city life, to a place one merely passes through. As of the 1950s the square has become largely a tourist spot, with the Freedom Trail running through it.

Downtown Boston

Downtown Boston is the central business district of Boston, Massachusetts, United States. The city of Boston was founded in 1630. The largest of the city's commercial districts, Downtown is the location of many corporate or regional headquarters; city, county, state and federal government facilities; and many of Boston's tourist attractions. Similar to other central business districts in the U.S., Downtown has recently undergone a transformation that included the construction of new condos and lofts, renovation of historic buildings, and arrival of new residents and businesses. It is represented in the Boston City Council by District 2's Bill Linehan.

Downtown is bound by the Back Bay, North End, Beacon Hill, and the South End areas. It includes Government Center and the Financial District.The area that is now Downtown Boston constituted much of the town/city proper prior to the city's dramatic expansion in the 1860s and 1870s. The Great Boston Fire of 1872 destroyed much of the neighborhood, especially between Summer, Washington, and Milk Streets. In the 1950s the Central Artery highway began operating, until the Big Dig (1982-2007) relocated it underground. In the 1960s and 1970s the enormous new Government Center complex replaced Scollay Square.

Landmarks in Downtown Boston include the Greenway, Custom House Tower, City Hall, Faneuil Hall, Quincy Market, Old South Meeting House, Massachusetts State House, Park Street Church, Boston Common, and Boston Public Garden.Educational institutions located downtown include Emerson College and Suffolk University.

The four MBTA subway lines converge in the downtown area at the Downtown Crossing, Park Street, Government Center, and State stations. South Station is a transportation hub with subway, commuter rail, intercity bus, and Amtrak service.

Dubuque City Hall

Dubuque City Hall is located in Dubuque, Iowa, United States. The building was designed by J.N. Moody after Faneuil Hall in Boston and the Fulton Street Market in New York City. Dubuque architect John F. Rague served as the supervising architect during construction. Following a Medieval tradition, the city market was located on the first floor, municipal offices were located on the second floor, and a ballroom for civic events was located on the third floor.The three-story brick structure rests on a raised limestone basement. It features a gable roof with bracketed eaves. Each gable has a circular window. The 11-foot (3.4 m) tall windows are located in bays defined by arches. The building was first occupied in February 1858. Initially, the main floor was divided into stalls. They were converted into additional office space for the city when the market relocated. The third floor ballroom was converted into an archery and pistol range for the police department, a bowling alley, and a horseshoe pitching area. The original cupola, which held a bell and four-faced clock, became deteriorated and was removed from the building in 1954. The bell was placed in the plaza next to city hall. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. A new cupola was created using the original design, and it was erected in 1990. The bell was returned to the tower at that time.

Durgin-Park

Durgin-Park was a centuries-old restaurant at 340 Faneuil Hall Marketplace in downtown Boston. The Greater Boston Convention and Visitors Bureau stated that it had been a "landmark since 1827", and it was a popular tourist destination within Quincy Market. The restaurant had entrances on both of its facades (Faneuil Hall and Clinton Street).

On January 3, 2019, the owners announced that their last day of service would be January 12, 2019; the restaurant closed permanently on that date.

Edward J. Logue

Edward J. "Ed" Logue (February 7, 1921 – January 27, 2000) was an urban planner, public administrator, lawyer, politician, and academic who worked in New Haven, Boston, and New York State.

Commentators often compare Logue with Robert Moses - both were advocates of large-scale urban renewal in the United States from the 1950s through the 1970s. Logue is best known for overseeing major public works projects, such as Faneuil Hall-Quincy Market and Government Center in Boston, and the re-development of Roosevelt Island in New York City.

Freedom Trail

The Freedom Trail is a 2.5-mile-long (4.0 km) path through downtown Boston, Massachusetts, that passes by 16 locations significant to the history of the United States. Marked largely with brick, it winds between Boston Common to the Bunker Hill Monument in Charlestown. Stops along the trail include simple explanatory ground markers, graveyards, notable churches and buildings, and a historic naval frigate. While most of the sites are free or suggest donations, the Old South Meeting House, the Old State House, and the Paul Revere House charge admission. The Freedom Trail is overseen by the City of Boston's Freedom Trail Commission and is supported in part by grants from various nonprofits and foundations, private philanthropy, and Boston National Historical Park.

The Freedom Trail was conceived by local journalist William Schofield, who in 1951 suggested building a pedestrian trail to link important local landmarks. Boston mayor John Hynes decided to put Schofield's idea into action. By 1953, 40,000 people were walking the trail annually.The National Park Service operates a visitor's center on the first floor of Faneuil Hall, where they offer tours, provide free maps of the Freedom Trail and other historic sites, and sell books about Boston and United States history.

Some observers have noted the tendency of the Freedom Trail's narrative frame to omit certain historical locations, such as the sites of the Boston Tea Party and the Liberty Tree.Members of the Boy Scouts of America who hike or camp along the Freedom Trail may be eligible for the Historic Trails Award.

One Federal Street

One Federal Street is a skyscraper in the Financial District neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. Completed in 1975, it is Boston's 12th-tallest building, standing 520 feet (159 m) tall, and housing 38 floors. It is very close to the Rose F. Kennedy Greenway, Faneuil Hall Marketplace. Construction of the building was completed in 1976. However, it underwent renovations between 1992 and 2011. Some of the most notable tenants include: AON Service Corporation, Morgan Lewis & Bockius LLP, Credit Suisse, J.P. Morgan, Iron Mountain, Oppenheimer, and U.S. Bank.

Peter Faneuil

Peter Faneuil (June 20, 1700 – March 3, 1743) was a wealthy American colonial merchant, slave trader, and philanthropist who donated Faneuil Hall to Boston.

Quincy Market

Quincy Market is a historic market complex near Faneuil Hall in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It was constructed in 1824–26 and named in honor of Mayor Josiah Quincy, who organized its construction without any tax or debt. The market is a designated National Historic Landmark and Boston Landmark, significant as one of the largest market complexes built in the United States in the first half of the 19th century.

Samuel Adams (Whitney)

Anne Whitney created two public statues of Samuel Adams. One, made in 1876, resides in the National Statuary Hall Collection in the US Capitol, Washington, D.C.. The other, made in 1880, is located in front of Faneuil Hall Plaza in Boston.

Shem Drowne

Deacon Shem Drowne (December 4, 1683 – January 13, 1774) was a colonial coppersmith and tinplate worker in Boston, Massachusetts and was America's first documented weathervane maker. He is most famous for the grasshopper weathervane atop of Faneuil Hall, well known as a symbol of Boston.

Union Street (Boston)

Union Street is a street in Boston, Massachusetts, near Faneuil Hall and the North End. Prior to 1828, it was also called Green Dragon Lane.

Ursuline Convent riots

The Ursuline Convent riots occurred August 11 and 12, 1834, in Charlestown, Massachusetts, near Boston, in what is now Somerville, Massachusetts. During the riot, a convent of Roman Catholic Ursuline nuns was burned down by a Protestant mob. The event was triggered by reported abuse of a member of the order, and was fueled by the rebirth of extreme anti-Catholic sentiment in antebellum New England.

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