Falange Española de las JONS

The Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (FE de las JONS) (English: Spanish Phalanx of the Councils of the National Syndicalist Offensive) was a fascist political party founded in 1934 as a merger of the Falange Española and the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista. The Falange Española de las JONS ceased to exist as such when, during the Civil War, General Francisco Franco merged it with the Traditionalist Communion in April 1937 to form the similarly named Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS, which became the sole legal party in Spain until its dissolution in 1977.

Falange Española de las JONS
National ChiefJosé Primo de Rivera (first)
Manuel Hedilla (last)
FoundedFebruary–March 1934
Dissolved19 April 1937
Preceded byFalange Española
JONS
Merged intoFET y de las JONS
HeadquartersMadrid, Spain
NewspaperDiario Arriba
Student wingSindicato Español Universitario
Women's wingSección Femenina
IdeologyFalangism
National syndicalism
Political positionFar-right
Colours     Red      Black      Blue
Anthem"Cara al Sol"
("Facing the Sun")
Party flag
Bandera FE JONS

History

Early history

In 1934, Falange Española merged with the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista of Onésimo Redondo and Ramiro Ledesma, becoming the Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista.

The party direction was initially organised as a triumvirate formed by Ramiro Ledesma, Ruiz de Alda and José Antonio Primo de Rivera, while the secondary General Secretary position was given to Raimundo Fernández-Cuesta.[1] The party attracted a considerable number of prominent intellectuals, including Pedro Mourlane Michelena, Rafael Sánchez Mazas, Ernesto Giménez Caballero, Eugenio Montes, José María Alfaro, Agustín de Foxa, Luys Santa Marina, Samuel Ros, Jacinto Miquelarena and Dionisio Ridruejo.[2]

Being a somewhat ecumenical party, Martin Blinkhorn has recognised at least four different ideological strands within the Falange since the fusion until the expulsion of Ledesma: the conservatism one espoused by monarchists such as Francisco Moreno Herrera, marquis of the Eliseda, the authoritarian Catholicism of Onésimo Redondo, the radical (and anti-clerical) national syndicalism of Ramiro Ledesma and the distinctive elitist regenerationism of José Antonio Primo de Rivera.[3]

In October 1934, the direction unified under a Jefe Nacional (National Chief) in the person of José Antonio and developed the political program known as "the 27 Points".[4]

In November 1934, the marquis of the Eliseda, who was a financial backer of the party, left the Falange over disagreements with the proposals of the party in regards of the state-church relations, which he deemed "frankly heretical".[5] His dismissal left the party without its main financial income and propaganda apparatus.[6]

Inner tensions over the draft of the political program continued. The power struggle between Ramiro Ledesma, who espoused a radical and anti-capitalist vision; and José Antonio Primo de Rivera, which held a more conservative and aristocratic one, eventually led to the expulsion of Ledesma in January 1935.[7]

The party was republican, modernist, championed the lower classes and opposed both oligarchy and communism, but it never garnered the kind of popular following demonstrated by fascist movements elsewhere in Europe.[8] For these reasons, the Falange was shunned by other right-leaning parties in the Spanish general election of 1936, where it received just 0.7% of the vote and did not win a single seat in the Cortes. It only surpassed one percent of the vote in five provinces, performing best in the provinces of Valladolid and Cadiz, where it received between 4% and 5%.[9] Having likely never exceeded ten thousand members in the early 1930s, the Falange lost supporters in the run-up to the Spanish Civil War, leaving a core of young, dedicated activists, many in the organization's student organization, the Sindicato Español Universitario.[10]

Following the elections the left-wing Popular Front government persecuted the Falange and imprisoned José Antonio Primo de Rivera on 6 July 1936. In turn, the Falange joined the conspiracy to overthrow the Second Spanish Republic, supporting the military revolt ultimately led by Francisco Franco and continuing to do so throughout the ensuing Spanish Civil War.

Spanish Civil War

Escudo de las Milicias Universitarias
The swan, symbol of Ximenez de Cisneros, also symbol of the Frente de Juventudes

With the eruption of the Spanish Civil War in July 1936, the Falange fought on the Nationalist Faction against the Second Spanish Republic. Expanding rapidly from several thousand to several hundred thousand members,[11] the Falange's male membership was accompanied by a female auxiliary, the Sección Femenina. Led by José Antonio's sister Pilar, this latter subsidiary organization claimed more than a half million members by the end of the Civil War and provided nursing and support services for the Nationalist forces.[12]

The command of the party rested upon Manuel Hedilla as many of the first generation leaders were dead or incarcerated by the Republicans. Among them was José Antonio Primo de Rivera, who was a Government prisoner. As a result, he was referred to among the leadership as el Ausente, ("the Absent One"). After being sentenced to death on 18 November 1936, Primo de Rivera was executed on 20 November 1936, in a Republican prison, giving him martyr status among the Falangists. This conviction and sentence was possible because he had lost his parliamentary immunity after his party did not have enough votes during the last elections.

Franco united under his command the Falange with the Carlist Comunión Tradicionalista, forming the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS), whose official ideology was the Falangists' 27 puntos—reduced after the unification to 26. Despite this, the party was in fact a wide-ranging nationalist coalition, closely controlled by Franco. Parts of the original Falange (including Hedilla) and many Carlists did not join the unified party. Franco had sought to control the Falange after a clash between Hedilla and his main critics within the group, the legitimistas of Agustín Aznar and Sancho Dávila y Fernández de Celis, that threatened to derail the Nationalist war effort.[13]

None of the vanquished parties in the war suffered such a toll of deaths among their leaders as did the Falange. Sixty per cent of the pre-war Falangist membership lost their lives in the war.[14]

However, most of the property of all other parties and trade unions were assigned to the party. In 1938, all trade unions were unified under Falangist command.

Francoist Spain

Symbols

References

  1. ^ Sanz Hoya 2008, p. 187.
  2. ^ See Mónica and Pablo Carbajosa, La Corte Literaria de José Antonio (Crítica; Barcelona, 2003) and Mechtild Albert, Vanguardistas de Camisa Azul tr. by Cristina Diez Pampliego and Juan Ramón García Ober (Madrid: Visor Libros, 2003).
  3. ^ Blinkhorn 1975, p. 168.
  4. ^ Quirosa-Cheyrouse y Muñoz 1998, p. 62.
  5. ^ González Cuevas 1996, pp. 107-108; Sanz Hoya 2008, p. 151; Diego González 1998, p. 47.
  6. ^ González Calleja 2012.
  7. ^ Preston 2003, p. 223.
  8. ^ Berdichevsky, Norman (September 2008). "Franco, Fascism and the Falange: Not One and the Same Thing". New English Review.
  9. ^ Payne 1987, p. 65.
  10. ^ Payne 1987, p. 62.
  11. ^ Payne 1987, p. 176.
  12. ^ Payne 1987, p. 187.
  13. ^ Paul Preston, Franco, London: 1995, pp. 261-6
  14. ^ Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War (2001), p. 903

Bibliography

Cara al Sol

Cara al Sol (English: Facing the Sun) is the anthem of the Falange Española de las JONS. The lyrics were written in December 1935 and are usually credited to the leader of the Falange, José Antonio Primo de Rivera. The music was composed by Juan Tellería and Juan R. Buendia.

The circumstances of its creation are unusual. The Falangists needed a stirring song of their own to counter the popular appeal of El Himno de Riego (the official anthem of the Second Spanish Republic) and A las barricadas (a very popular Anarchist song).

To solve the problem, Primo de Rivera formed a committee [1], meeting on 2 December 1935 in the home of Marichu de la Mora Maura. Those present included José María Alfaro, Rafael Sánchez Mazas, Agustín (Así) de Foxá, Mourlane Michelena, Dionisio Ridruejo, Agustín Aznar, and Luis Aguilar. The result of their efforts, following a period of sub-committee review (at the Cueva del Orkompon, a Basque bar in Calle Miguel Moya, Madrid) was provisionally entitled the Himno de Falange Española. It was first performed in Madrid in 1936.

Its popularity was boosted by Primo de Rivera's execution on 20 November 1936 and his subsequent glorification by the Spanish Nationalists.

During the Spanish Civil War the Falange, which was since its inception quite military or paramilitary, like other equivalent youth parties in countries under totalitarian regimes, became an important part of the National Army (or National Movement), both ideologically and militarily, still as an independent organization but strengthening the regular insurgent army in the combat lines, which caused plenty of Falangist casualties, and Cara al sol was their anthem throughout "the war days", the lyrics acquiring an even more special signification for its remembering of the "fallen comrades".

In Francoist Spain, the Falange was merged with other far-right groups to form the "Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS", the only legal political party. Cara al Sol became an official hymn together with the Oriamendi, the hymn of the Carlist movement, often played alongside the official anthem, the Marcha Real, and was regarded as the battle song of the Spanish far right.

Since the transition to democracy, the song has often been played at far-right gatherings and rallies.

FET y de las JONS

The Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS, Traditionalist Spanish Phalanx and of the Councils of the National Syndicalist Offensive) was the sole legal party of the Francoist regime in Spain. It emerged in 1937 from the merger of the Carlist Party with the Falange Española de las JONS and was dissolved in 1977 by Adolfo Suárez's transitional government.

Falange (disambiguation)

Falange is the name of a political party whose ideology is Falangism.

Falange primarily refers to:

Falange Española de las JONS, a Spanish political party active 1933–1937

Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista, formed in 1937 of the merger of the Carlist Party with the Falange Española y de las JONSFalange may also refer to other fascist-type political parties:

Falange Española de las JONS (1976), Spanish political party founded in 1976

La Falange (1999), Spanish political party founded in 1999

Authentic Falange, Spanish political party founded in 2002

Bolivian Socialist Falange, Bolivian party founded in 1937

Lebanese Phalanges Party, another name of the Kataeb Party, a Lebanese party

National Falange, Chilean party founded in 1935 and dissolved in 1957Christian Democratic Party (Chile), founded in 1957, successor of the National Falange

Falange Auténtica

Falange Auténtica (English: Authentic Phalanx, FA) is a Falangist political party in Spain. FA emerged in 2002 as a split from Falange Española/La Falange. FA claims to represent the heritage of the dissolved Falange Española de las JONS (Auténtica) (FE-JONS).

The term 'Authentic' refers to the positioning of FA as 'authentic' as opposed to the official Falange under the rule of Francisco Franco. The second National Chief of the Spanish Falange, Manuel Hedilla (1902–1970), had opposed the forced merger of FE-JONS with the traditionalists. Hedilla who had refused to join the council of the new party and had tried to mobilize his supporters was arrested on 25 April 1937, accused of conspiring against Franco, and condemned to death. However, his sentence was commuted to life in prison on the advice of Ramón Serrano Suñer, Franco's brother-in-law.FA contested the 2003 municipal election in various parts of the country. It won two seats in El Hoyo de Pinares, Ávila, and one in Ardales, Málaga.

Falange Española

Falange Española (FE) (English: Spanish Phalanx) was a Spanish political organization of fascist inspiration active in 1933 and 1934.

Falange Española Auténtica

Falange Española Auténtica (English: Authentic Spanish Phalanx, FE–JONS(A)) was a falangist political party, split from Falange Española de las JONS (Auténtica) in 1978.

Falange Española de las JONS (1976)

Falange Española de las JONS (Spanish for "Spanish Phalanx of the Committees for the National-Syndicalist Offensive", FE-JONS) is a Spanish political party registered in 1976, originating from a faction the previous Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista. The word Falange is Spanish for phalanx. Members of the party are called Falangists (Spanish: Falangistas). The main ideological bases of the party are national syndicalism, third positionism and ultranationalism.

Falange Española de las JONS (Auténtica)

Falange Española de las JONS (Auténtica) (English: Spanish Phalanx of the CNSO (Authentic), FE–JONS(A)) was a falangist political party, split from Spanish Falange of the JONS, which contested both the 1977 and 1979 general elections.

Falangism

Falangism (Spanish: falangismo) was the political ideology of the Falange Española de las JONS and afterwards, of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (both known simply as the "Falange") as well as derivatives of it in other countries. Under the leadership of Francisco Franco, it largely became an authoritarian, conservative ideology connected with Francoist Spain.Opponents of Franco's changes to the party included former Falange leader Manuel Hedilla. Falangism places a strong emphasis on Catholic religious identity, though it has held some secular views on the Church's direct influence in society as it believed that the state should have the supreme authority over the nation. Falangism emphasized the need for total authority, hierarchy and order in society. Falangism is anti-communist, anti-democratic and anti-liberal; under Franco, the Falange abandoned its original anti-capitalist tendencies, declaring the ideology to be fully compatible with capitalism.The Falange's original manifesto, the "Twenty-Seven Points", declared Falangism to support the unity of Spain and the elimination of regional separatism, the establishment of a dictatorship led by the Falange, utilizing violence to regenerate Spain, and promoting the revival and development of the Spanish Empire. The manifesto supported a social revolution to create a national syndicalist economy that creates national syndicates of both employees and employers to mutually organize and control the economic activity, agrarian reform, industrial expansion and respect for private property with the exception of nationalizing credit facilities to prevent capitalist usury. It supports criminalization of strikes by employees and lockouts by employers as illegal acts. Falangism supports the state to have jurisdiction of setting wages. The Franco-era Falange supported the development of cooperatives such as the Mondragon Corporation because it bolstered the Francoist claim of the nonexistence of social classes in Spain during his rule.The Spanish Falange and its affiliates in Hispanic states across the world promoted a form of panhispanism known as hispanidad that advocated both cultural and economic union of Hispanic societies around the world.Falangism has attacked both the political left and the right as its "enemies", declaring itself to be neither left nor right, but a syncretic third position. However, scholarly sources reviewing Falangism place it on the far right.

José Antonio Primo de Rivera

José Antonio Primo de Rivera y Sáenz de Heredia, 1st Duke of Primo de Rivera, 3rd Marquess of Estella, (April 24, 1903 – November 20, 1936), often referred to as José Antonio, was a Spanish lawyer, nobleman, politician, and founder of the Falange Española ("Spanish Phalanx"), later Falange Española de las JONS. He was the eldest son of military dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera. Imprisoned before the start of the Spanish Civil War, he was accused of conspiracy and military rebellion against the Government of the Second Spanish Republic and was sentenced to death and executed during the first months of the war.

The image of José Antonio was revered during the war by the Nationalist faction and, after the establishment of Francoist Spain, he was regarded as a martyr, his figure being a tool of the Francoist propaganda apparatus. The inscription of "José Antonio ¡Presente!" could be found in many churches all across Spain.

José Calvo Sotelo

José Calvo Sotelo, 1st Duke of Calvo Sotelo, GE (6 May 1893 – 13 July 1936) was a Spanish jurist and politician, minister of Finance during the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera and a leading figure of the anti-republican right during the Second Republic. His assassination in July 1936 by the bodyguards of Socialist party leader Indalecio Prieto was an immediate prelude to the triggering of the military coup plotted since February 1936, the partial failure of which marked the beginning of the Spanish Civil War.

Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista

Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (JONS; Spanish for "Councils of the National-Syndicalist Offensive") was a nationalist and fascist movement in 1930s Spain, merged with the Falange Española into the Falange Española de las JONS in 1934.

La Falange (1999)

La Falange (Spanish for "The Phalanx", also known as FE/La Falange) is a Spanish political party registered in 1999. The party originated as a split of the Falange Española de las JONS, led by Gustavo Morales and Jesús López. Ideologically the party claims to be a successor of the original Falange Española of the 1930s, and follower of the ideas of José Antonio Primo de Rivera, Ramiro Ledesma Ramos, Onésimo Redondo and Julio Ruiz de Alda.

Leopoldo Panero

Leopoldo Panero was Spanish poet, born in Astorga in 1909 and deceased in 1962. He was the father of the poets Leopoldo María Panero and Juan Luis Panero.

List of political parties in Spain

This article lists political parties in Spain.

Spain has a multi-party system at both the national and regional level. Nationally, there are five dominant political parties: Podemos (left-wing), PSOE (centre-left), Ciudadanos (centre to centre-right), Partido Popular (centre-right to right-wing) and Vox (right-wing to far-right).

The current makeup makes it difficult for any other formation or coalition to achieve an electoral majority in the bicameral Cortes Generales (consisting of both the national Congress of Deputies and regional representation in the Senate). Regional parties can be strong in autonomous communities like Catalonia and the Basque Country and are often essential for national government coalitions.

Municipal elections in Torrejón de Ardoz

Elections to the municipal council of Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid province, Spain.

Raimundo Fernández-Cuesta

Raimundo Fernández-Cuesta y Merelo (5 October 1896, Madrid – 9 July 1992, Madrid) was a leading Spanish politician with both the Falange and its successor movement the Spanish Traditionalist Phalanx of the Assemblies of National-Syndicalist Offensive.

Una, Grande y Libre

Una, Grande y Libre (English: One, Great and Free or United, Great and Free) was the Francoist tripartite motto which expressed the nationalist concept of Spain as being indivisible (preaching against separatism), imperial, and no sometida a influencias extranjeras (not submitted to foreign influences).

The motto was created by jonsist student Juan Aparicio López (he also created the motto Por la Patria, el Pan y la Justicia; "for the Homeland, for Bread and for Justice" and was also behind the adoption of the Yoke and the Arrows as symbol of the JONS as well as the red-black flag). It was later adopted by Falange Española de las JONS along other JONS' symbols.¡Una, Grande y Libre! was often used at the end of speeches. The leader would exclaim three times ¡España!, and the public would successively respond to each of these shouts with ¡Una!, ¡Grande!, and finally ¡Libre!. The effect was similar to the way Amen is used in church, as well as to the chant of "Sieg Heil!" in Nazi Germany. The theatre would continue with an almost choreographed script of ¡Arriba España!, ¡Arriba! José Antonio, ¡Presente!, Caídos por Dios y por España, ¡Presente!. ¡Viva Franco!, ¡Viva!, or just intoning ¡Franco, Franco, Franco…!

In his farewell message to the Spanish people, Franco referred to "the great task of making Spain united, great and free."The slogan was incorporated into the Falangist anthem, Cara al Sol; it ended with the stanza ¡España una! ¡España grande! ¡España libre! (Spain, one (united)! Spain, great! Spain, free!)

Unification Decree (Spain, 1937)

The Unification Decree was a political measure adopted by Francisco Franco in his capacity of Head of State of Nationalist Spain on April 19, 1937. The decree merged two existing political groupings, the Falangists and the Carlists, into a new party - the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS). As all other parties were declared dissolved at the same time, the FET became the only legal party in Nationalist Spain. It was defined in the decree as a link between state and society and was intended to form the basis for an eventual totalitarian regime. The head of state – Franco himself – was proclaimed party leader, to be assisted by the Junta Política and Consejo Nacional. A set of decrees which followed shortly after appointed members to the new executive.

The merger was imposed upon the Falange Española de las JONS and the Carlist Comunión Tradicionalista. Leaders of both parties - Manuel Hedilla of the Falange and Manuel Fal Conde of the Carlists - were outmaneuvered by Franco, who divided, deceived, and misled them and finally left them no option but to comply with unification on his own terms, and they along with other political opponents were subsequently marginalized. The Unification Decree ensured Franco's total political dominance and secured at least a formal political unity within the Nationalist zone, albeit not one of genuine affection. It in reality represented the absorption of Carlist offshoots into a subsequently domesticated and subordinated Falange. Most scholars consider unification to have been a stepping stone towards a semi-fascist state. This augmented Falange served as Spain's sole legal party for the next 38 years, becoming one of the instrumental pillars of Franco's regime.

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