Le Faisceau (French pronunciation: [lə fɛso], The Fasces) was a short-lived French Fascist political party. It was founded on November 11, 1925 as a far right league by Georges Valois. It was preceded by its newspaper, Le Nouveau Siècle - founded as a weekly on February 26, it became a daily after the party's creation.
|Founded||November 11, 1925|
|Succeeded by||Parti Fasciste Révolutionnaire|
|Newspaper||Le Nouveau Siècle|
|Political position||Syncretic (official), |
Contributors to Le Nouveau Siècle originally included Valois, Jacques Arthuys, Philippe Barrès, Hubert Bourgin, Eugène Mathon, Henri Massis and Xavier Vallat. After the foundation of the party it was the object of bitter attacks from the Action Française, who considered it a potential rival, and most well-known names were intimidated. Arthuys, Barrès and Mathon were among those who remained.
The Faisceau had borrowed its name from the Italian Fasci and the National Fascist Party (PNF), and also adopted their paramilitary style - with uniforms, staged ceremonies and parades; it also expressed admiration for Benito Mussolini. Even extensive investigations by the French police failed to reveal any links, official or unofficial with the PNF and Italy. Many of its ideas were ones already established in the French far right milieu, deriving mostly from the work of Maurice Barrès. Valois claimed that Barrès' Le Cocarde had been the first Fascist newspaper.
They included a "national" state (i.e. for the benefit of all social classes, rather than the existing "bourgeois" state or the Marxist proletarian state) with a strong, authoritarian leader. Thus, its stated aims included a coup d'état and a dictatorship, although it never took any concrete steps towards achieving these ends. Nor was it clear who the dictator was to be - Valois himself did not indicate a willingness to occupy the position, and Maxime Weygand may have been the preferred candidate of some members of the Faisceau.
The Faisceau ran into serious problems almost as soon as it was founded. Valois - a former anarcho-syndicalist who had converted to Orléanism and joined the Action Française (leaving the group after the World War I) - and the industrialists who financed the party, such as Eugène Mathon (the owner of a large textile firm) and the perfume manufacturer François Coty all claimed to favour Corporatism as the basis for economic organisation. Nonetheless, it soon became clear that they had rather different ideas about what the term meant. For Valois, it arguably meant a form of Producerism, with an economy to be run by the producers (everyone involved in manufacturing goods), whereas Mathon interpreted it as an amended laissez-faire Capitalism, where businessmen like himself should be in charge, with no interference by the state.
These differences led to Mathon and Coty leaving shortly after the foundation of the party, placing it in a precarious financial situation, made worse by the commercial failure of Le Nouveau Siècle following the Action Française's attacks.
Valois considered Fascism to be a revolt against "bourgeois rule", and as such it had much in common with Marxism - he described them as "brother enemies". The Faisceau never questioned the existence of private property, but Valois nonetheless felt that Socialism was not his main enemy; he stated that Fascism had "exactly the same object as Socialism", even if he viewed the latter as flawed in its means of achieving that end.
The party tried to place itself above the Left-Right division, but this particular outlook turned out to be a source of further problems. Most of its militants came from the right, particularly the far right (this serves to explain the Action Française's hostility: many Action Française militants joined Faisceau, being disillusioned with the lack of dynamism maintained by Charles Maurras, the group's acute Roman Catholic and Orléanist conservatism, and its primary functioning as a literary society). It worked hard to recruit people from the left, with some success: notably, Marcel Delagrange, former French Communist Party (PCF) mayor of Périgueux, and the anarcho-syndicalist (and future Vichy Régime minister) Hubert Lagardelle.
These minor victories were never proportionate to the effort invested by the Faisceau, and the group failed to expand at the left's expense, while becoming the enemy of the right - unlike in Italy, the latter was strong and confident enough not to rely on Fascists against the left.
The Faisceau's aims were indeed radical, but its actions did not live up to them. The party did form paramilitary "Légions" - but they usually functioned as self-defence against attacks by the Action Française's Camelots du Roi. They rarely clashed with police forces, and their only major engagement with the PCF was at the party's meeting in Rheims on June 27, 1926. Those who had joined hoping for revolutionary action began to leave, and, by the end of 1926, the party was losing militants fast - a decline was hastened by the formation of a right-wing government under Raymond Poincaré, and the stabilisation of the franc.
The Faisceau ceased to exist in 1928. Valois himself, whose politics were becoming more left-wing, was excluded from the party, the remains of which founded the Parti Fasciste Révolutionnaire.
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André Haefliger (born 22 May 1929) is a Swiss mathematician who works primarily on topology.
He studied mathematics at the University of Lausanne. He received his Ph.D. degree in 1958 from the University of Strasbourg under the supervision of Charles Ehresmann with "Structures feuilletées et cohomologie à valeurs dans un faisceau de groupoïdes".
From 1959 to 1961 he worked at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.
Since 1962 he has been a full professor at the University of Geneva.
Haefliger made important contributions to topology, for example, in knot theory and the theory of foliations, where he introduced Haefliger structures. In 1956, he also found the topological obstruction to the existence of a spin structure on an orientable Riemannian manifold.In 1974-75, he was President of the Swiss Mathematical Society.
He was an honorary doctor of ETH Zurich (1992).
His students include Vaughan Jones and Augustin Banyaga.Antoine Rédier
Antoine Redier (7 July 1873 – 27 July 1954) was a French writer who was leader of the far-right Légion organization in the 1920s.CTF3 (CERN)
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The facility stopped its operation in December 2016, and one of its beamlines has been converted into the new "CERN Linear Electron Accelerator for Research" (CLEAR) facility.This page provides a general description of the facility with references to its main experimental program. More detailed informations can be found in the facility Design Report.Croix-de-Feu
The Croix-de-Feu (French: [kʁwa də fø], Cross of Fire) was a nationalist French league of the Interwar period, led by Colonel François de la Rocque (1885–1946). After it was dissolved, as were all other leagues during the Popular Front period (1936–38), La Rocque established the Parti social français (PSF) to replace it.Far-right leagues
The far-right leagues (French: ligues d'extrême droite) were several French far-right movements opposed to parliamentarism, which mainly dedicated themselves to military parades, street brawls, demonstrations and riots. The term ligue was often used in the 1930s to distinguish these political movements from parliamentary parties. After having appeared first at the end of the 19th century, during the Dreyfus affair, they became common in the 1920s and 1930s, and famously participated in the 6 February 1934 crisis and riots which overthrew the second Cartel des gauches, i.e. the center-left coalition government led by Édouard Daladier.For a long time, the French left wing had been convinced that these riots had been an attempted coup d'état against the French Republic. Although contemporary historians have shown that, despite the riots and the ensuing collapse of the governing left wing, there had been no organized plans to overthrow Daladier's Radical-Socialist government, this widespread belief led to the creation of the anti-fascist movement in France, and later to the dissolving of these leagues in 1936 by the leftist Popular Front government headed by Léon Blum.Froissart–Stora equation
The Froissart–Stora equation describes the change in polarization which a high energy charged particle beam in a storage ring will undergo as it passes through a resonance in the spin tune. It is named after the French physicists Marcel Froissart and Raymond Stora. The polarization following passage through the resonance is given by
where is the resonance strength and is the speed at which the resonance is crossed. is the initial polarization before resonance crossing.
The resonance may be crossed by raising the energy so that the spin tune passes through a resonance, or driven with a transverse magnetic field at a frequency that is in resonance with the spin oscillations.
The Froissart–Stora equation has a direct analogy in condensed matter physics in the Landau-Zener effect.Georges Valois
Georges Valois (real name Alfred-Georges Gressent; 7 October 1878 – February 1945) was a French journalist and politician, born in Paris. He was a member of the French resistance and died in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.Grothendieck–Ogg–Shafarevich formula
In mathematics, the Grothendieck–Ogg–Shafarevich formula describes the Euler characteristic of a complete curve with coefficients in an abelian variety or constructible sheaf, in terms of local data involving the Swan conductor. Andrew Ogg (1962) and Igor Shafarevich (1961) proved the formula for abelian varieties with tame ramification over curves, and Alexander Grothendieck (1977, Exp. X formula 7.2) extended the formula to constructible sheaves over a curve (Raynaud 1965).Hubert Bourgin
Hubert Bourgin (3 November 1874 in Nevers – 6 February 1955 in Crosne, Essonne) was a teacher, politician (from socialism to right), and French writer.Jacques Arthuys
Jacques Arthuys (15 February 1894 – 9 September 1943) was a French industrialist, a right-wing intellectual and early leader of the French Fascist movement.
He was initially a pan-European but became opposed to the Nazi movement.
During World War II (1939–45) he was leader of a French Resistance organization. He was arrested, deported to a concentration camp and killed by the Germans.List of fascist movements by country A–F
A list of political parties, organizations, and movements adhering to various forms of fascist ideology, part of the list of fascist movements by country.Marcel Bucard
Marcel Bucard (7 December 1895, Saint-Clair-sur-Epte – 13 March 1946, Fort de Châtillon) was a French Fascist politician.National syndicalism
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Philippe Barrès (8 July 1896, Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine – 14 April 1975) was a French journalist and the son of Maurice Barrès.
He fought in World War I.
He was a member of the editorial staff of the right-wing newspaper Le Nouveau siècle founded on 26 February 1925, along with Georges Valois, Jacques Arthuys and Hubert Bourgin.
He was a member of the short-lived Fascist party the Faisceau in the late 1920s.
During World War II, he lived in the United States and wrote for French language journals. He represented the Rally of the French People (RPF) in the National Assembly from 1951 to 1955. His son Claude Barrès joined the Free French Forces.Pierre Winter
Pierre Winter (29 June 1891 - 29 June 1952) was a French doctor and hygienist.Republican Syndicalist Party
The Republican Syndicalist Party (Parti républicain syndicaliste, PRS) was a French political party founded on June 10, 1928 by Georges Valois following the dissolution of the fascist Faisceau party. The PRS counted among its members Charles Albert, a former anarchist who had turned neo-Jacobin, Jacques Arthuys, Hubert Bourguin and René Capitant, a future left-wing Gaullist. Although it was close to fascism and to some far-right leagues, the PRS later joined the left-wing, and several of its members, including Georges Valois himself, took part in the French Resistance. It is representative of the French non-conformist movement of the 1930s.
The PRS published a press organ, the Cahiers Bleus which published at the Librairie Valois edition its first numero on 15 August 1928 and its 119th and last issue on 23 May 1932, during the Second Cartel des gauches (Left-wing Coalition). The Cahiers Bleus were a monthly and bi-monthly, with the subtitle "Pour la république syndicale: organe de culture générale et d'organisation"" (For the Trade-Unions' Republic: Organ of Culture générale and Organisation"). Its aim was to develop a new economy, founded on trade unions and corporatism. Collaborators to the Cahiers Bleus included Edouard Berth, who had co-founded the Cercle Proudhon with Valois, Marcel Déat, a future neo-socialist excluded from the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and then collaborationist, Bertrand de Jouvenel, co-founder of the liberal Mont Pelerin Society, and Pierre Mendès France, future Prime minister during the Fourth Republic, from the young guard (jeunes loups) of the Radical-Socialist Party. The Cahiers bleus became the Chantiers coopératifs (Co-operative Workshops ?), then followed by the Cahiers bleus. 2e serie. (1931-1932).Solidarité Française
Solidarité Française ("French Solidarity") was a French far right league founded in 1933 by perfume manufacturer François Coty and commanded by Major Jean Renaud, they dressed in blue shirts, black berets, and jackboots, and shouted the slogan "France for the French". While Marcel Bucard's Francisme imitated Italian fascism, Solidarité française imitated the Nazi party.
Coty, former owner of Le Figaro, the sponsor of a newspaper which styled itself L'Ami du peuple after Jean-Paul Marat's (being nonetheless anti-republican), called himself the French Duce. He had financed the syndicalist proto-fascist Georges Valois and his Faisceau in the 1920s, the Croix-de-Feu in the early 1930s, finally deciding to form his own faction.
The movement claimed a strength of 180,000 in 1934, with 80,000 in Paris; the Parisian police thought the number in Paris closer to 15,000. The small membership did not however isolate Coty's group: the Solidarité Française found itself integrated in the loose coalition of far right movements such as Action Française and Pierre Taittinger's Jeunesse Patriotes. In this context, Coty's financing found its importance, as L'Ami du peuple had a fairly large circulation.
The group gained notoriety during the rally and later riot during the 6 February 1934 crisis, in front of the Parliament seat in the Palais Bourbon. It was dissolved by a law adopted by the Popular Front government of Léon Blum in June 1936. Many members of Solidarité Française subsequently joined Jacques Doriot's fascist Parti Populaire Français (PPF).Vascular bundle
A vascular bundle is a part of the transport system in vascular plants. The transport itself happens in vascular tissue, which exists in two forms: xylem and phloem. Both these tissues are present in a vascular bundle, which in addition will include supporting and protective tissues.
The xylem typically lies adaxial with phloem positioned abaxial. In a stem or root this means that the xylem is closer to the centre of the stem or root while the phloem is closer to the exterior. In a leaf, the adaxial surface of the leaf will usually be the upper side, with the abaxial surface the lower side. This is why aphids are typically found on the underside of a leaf rather than on the top, since the sugars manufactured by the plant are transported by the phloem, which is closer to the lower surface.
The position of vascular bundles relative to each other may vary considerably: see stele.