Fairuzabadi

Fairuzabadi (Persian: فیروزآبادی‎), also known as El-Firuz Abadi or al-Fayrūzābādī (Arabic: الفيروزابادی‎) (1329–1414) was a lexicographer and was the compiler of a comprehensive Arabic dictionary.[1] The dictionary, called al-Qamous (القاموس), was one of the most widely used in Arabic for nearly five centuries. His full name was Abu Tahir Majid al-Din Muhammad Ibn Ya'qub Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ibrahim al-Shirazi al-Fairuzabadi (أبو طاهر مجيد الدين محمد بن يعقوب بن محمد بن إبراهيم الشيرازي الفيروزابادي). The shorter form is Muhammad Ibn Ya'qub al-Firuzabadi (محمد بن يعقوب الفيروزابادي).[2]

Name

Fairuzabadi (Persian: فیروزآبادی‎) is also known as El-Firuz Abadi or al-Fayrūzabādī (Arabic: الفيروزآبادي‎). His full name was Abu Tahir Majid al-Din Muhammad ibn Ya'qub ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Shirizi al-Fairuzabadi (أبو طاهر مجيد الدين محمد بن يعقوب بن محمد بن إبراهيم الشيرازي الفيروزآبادي). The shorter form is Muhammad Ibn Ya'qub al-Firuzabadi (محمد بن يعقوب الفيروزآبادي).[2] The nisba "al-Shirazi" refers to the city of Shiraz, Fars, Persia, and the nisba "al-Firuzabadi" refers to the city of Firuzabad, also in Fars.

Life

He was born in Fars, Persia, and educated in Shiraz, Wasit, Baghdad and Damascus. He lived in Jerusalem for ten years and then traveled in Western Asia and Egypt,[1] before settling in Mecca in 1368. He remained there for the bulk of the next three decades, spending some time in Delhi in the 1380s, and finally leaving Mecca in the mid-1390s to return to Baghdad, Shiraz (where he was received by Timur), and finally travelling to Ta'izz[1] in Yemen. In 1395, he was appointed chief qadi (judge) of Yemen[1] by Al-Ashraf Umar II, who had summoned him from India a few years before to teach in his capital. Al-Ashraf also married a daughter of Fairuzabadi, something which added to Fairuzabadi's prestige and power in the royal court.[3]

During the later years of his life, Fairuzabadi converted his house at Mecca into a school of Maliki law and established three teachers in it.[1]

Sufism and relations with Ibn Arabi

Fairuzabadi lauded Ibn Arabi's creed and writings, and composed several poems praising him, including the وما علي إن قلت معتقدي دع الجهول يظن العدل عدوانا. He also developed an intense interest in Sufism based on Ibn Arabi's works.

Works

Fairuzabadi produced many writings but he is principally remembered for the dictionary Al-Qamus Al-Muhit (Arabic: القاموس المحيط‎) ("The Surrounding Ocean"). In the preface to this dictionary Fairuzabadi acknowledges that the bulk of it was formed as a merger and compilation from two pre-existing dictionaries, the al-Muhkam dictionary of Ibn Sida (died 1066) and the al-ʿUbab dictionary of Al-Saghani (died 1252).[2][4] Al-Saghani's dictionary (ar:العباب الزاخر واللباب الفاخر) was an expansion of the al-Sihah dictionary of Al-Jawhari (died c. 1008), which is a core dictionary of medieval Arabic. Initially upon the merger, Fairuzabadi's dictionary was huge. He then greatly reduced its size by eliminating examples of usage, eliminating some grammatical aspects of usage, and leaving mostly only simple definitions, and eliminating some lesser-used definitions. He made it more concise with a set of terse but effective notation conventions.[4] The abridgement was still a large and comprehensive dictionary occupying two large volumes in print. It proved to be much more popular with users than the huge Lisan al-Arab dictionary of Ibn Manzur (died 1312) which contains a huge number of quotations and examples of usage.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Wikisource Thatcher, Griffithes Wheeler (1911). "Fairūzābādī" . In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 133.
  2. ^ a b c The Biographical Encyclopedia of Islamic Philosophy, edited by Oliver Leaman, year 2006, biographical entry for Al-Firuzabadi.
  3. ^ Introduction of Bassair Dhawi Tamyeez
  4. ^ a b Arabic Lexicography: Its History, and Its Place in the General History of Lexicography, by John Haywood, year 1965, pages 83 - 88.
1329

Year 1329 (MCCCXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1414

Year 1414 (MCDXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Ibn Arabi

Ibn ʿArabi (Arabic: إبن عربـي‎) (26 July 1165 – 16 November 1240), full name Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibnʿArabī al-Ḥātimī aṭ-Ṭāʾī (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محـمـد بن علي بن محمـد إبن عربـي الحاتمي‎), was an Arab Andalusian Muslim scholar, mystic, poet, and philosopher, whose works have grown to be very influential beyond the Muslim world. Of the over 800 works which are attributed to him, 100 survive in the original manuscript. His cosmological teachings became the dominant worldview in many parts of the Islamic world.

Jacobus Golius

Jacob Golius born Jacob van Gool (1596 – September 28, 1667) was an Orientalist and mathematician based at the University of Leiden in Netherlands. He is primarily remembered as an Orientalist. He published Arabic texts in Arabic at Leiden, and did Arabic-to-Latin translations. His best-known work is an Arabic-to-Latin dictionary, Lexicon Arabico-Latinum (1653), which he sourced for the most part from the Sihah dictionary of Al-Jauhari and the Qamous dictionary of Fairuzabadi.

List of English words of Arabic origin (A-B)

The following English words have been acquired either directly from Arabic or else indirectly by passing from Arabic into other languages and then into English. Most entered one or more of the Romance languages before entering English.

To qualify for this list, a word must be reported in etymology dictionaries as having descended from Arabic. A handful of dictionaries have been used as the source for the list. Words associated with the Islamic religion are omitted; for Islamic words, see Glossary of Islam. Archaic and rare words are also omitted. A bigger listing including many words very rarely seen in English is available at Wiktionary dictionary.

List of English words of Arabic origin (T-Z)

The following English words have been acquired either directly from Arabic or else indirectly by passing from Arabic into other languages and then into English. Most entered one or more of the Romance languages before entering English.

To qualify for this list, a word must be reported in etymology dictionaries as having descended from Arabic. A handful of dictionaries has been used as the source for the list. Words associated with the Islamic religion are omitted; for Islamic words, see Glossary of Islam. Archaic and rare words are also omitted. A bigger listing including many words very rarely seen in English is available at Wiktionary dictionary.

List of lexicographers

This list contains people who contributed to the field of lexicography, the theory and practice of compiling dictionaries.

Majd ad-Din

Majd ad-Din may refer to:

Majd al-Din Abu'l Fotuh Ahmad Ghazali (1061 – c. 1123), Persian Sufi writer and preacher

Majd ad-Dīn Usāma ibn Murshid ibn ʿAlī ibn Munqidh al-Kināni, or more briefly Usama ibn Munqidh (1095–1188), Syrian poet

Majd ad-Dīn Ibn Athir (1149–1210), Kurdish lexicographer

Abu-t-Tahir Ibn Ibrahim Majd ud-Din ul-Fairuzabadi (1329–1414), Arab lexicographer

Majed Aldin Ghazal (born 1987), Syrian high jumper

Shafi‘i

The Shafi‘i (Arabic: شافعي‎ Shāfiʿī, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam. It was founded by the Arab scholar Al-Shafi‘i, a pupil of Malik, in the early 9th century. The other three schools of Sunni jurisprudence are Hanafi, Maliki and Hanbali.The Shafi school predominantly relies on the Quran and the Hadiths for Sharia. Where passages of Quran and Hadiths are ambiguous, the school first seeks religious law guidance from Ijma – the consensus of Sahabah (Muhammad's companions). If there was no consensus, the Shafi‘i school relies on individual opinion (Ijtihad) of the companions of Muhammad, followed by analogy.The Shafi‘i school was, in the early history of Islam, the most followed ideology for Sharia. However, with the Ottoman Empire's expansion and patronage, it was replaced with the Hanafi school in many parts of the Muslim world. One of the many differences between the Shafi‘i and Hanafi schools is that the Shafi‘i school does not consider Istihsan (judicial discretion by suitably qualified legal scholars) as an acceptable source of religious law because it amounts to "human legislation" of Islamic law.The Shafi‘i school is now predominantly found in Somalia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, eastern Egypt, the Swahili coast, Hijaz, Yemen, Kurdish regions of the Middle East, Dagestan, Chechen and Ingush regions of the Caucasus, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Kerala and some coastal parts of India, Singapore, Myanmar, Thailand, Brunei, and the Philippines.

William Guise

William Guise (Guilelmus Guisius) (c.1653–1683), was an English orientalist.

Yusuf Hamadani

Abu Yaqub Yusuf Hamdani (born 1062 /440 H - died March 1141 /Rajab 535 H) is the first of the group of Central Asian Sufi teachers known simply as Khwajagan (the Masters) of the Naqshbandi order. His shrine is at Merv (Turkmenistan).

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