Fagus sylvatica

Fagus sylvatica, the European beech or common beech, is a deciduous tree belonging to the beech family Fagaceae.

Fagus sylvatica
European beech
European beech in alpine forest (Italy)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Fagales
Family: Fagaceae
Genus: Fagus
F. sylvatica
Binomial name
Fagus sylvatica
Fagus sylvatica range
Distribution map
  • Castanea fagus Scop.
  • Fagus aenea Dum.Cours.
  • Fagus asplenifolia Dum.Cours.
  • Fagus cochleata (Dippel) Domin
  • Fagus comptoniifolia Desf.
  • Fagus crispa Dippel
  • Fagus cristata Dum.Cours.
  • Fagus cucullata Dippel
  • Fagus cuprea Hurter ex A.DC.
  • Fagus echinata Gilib. nom. inval.
  • Fagus incisa Dippel
  • Fagus laciniata A.DC. nom. inval.
  • Fagus pendula (Lodd.) Dum.Cours.
  • Fagus purpurea Dum.Cours.
  • Fagus quercoides (Pers.) Dippel
  • Fagus salicifolia A.DC.
  • Fagus sylvestris Gaertn.
  • Fagus tortuosa (Dippel) Domin
  • Fagus variegata A.DC.


Fagus sylvatica Purpurea JPG4a
Copper beech in autumn
European Beech
European beech shoot with nut cupules

Fagus sylvatica is a large tree, capable of reaching heights of up to 50 m (160 ft) tall[2] and 3 m (9.8 ft) trunk diameter, though more typically 25–35 m (82–115 ft) tall and up to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) trunk diameter. A 10-year-old sapling will stand about 4 m (13 ft) tall. It has a typical lifespan of 150–200 years, though sometimes up to 300 years. In cultivated forest stands trees are normally harvested at 80–120 years of age.[3] 30 years are needed to attain full maturity (as compared to 40 for American beech). Like most trees, its form depends on the location: in forest areas, F. sylvatica grows to over 30 m (100 ft), with branches being high up on the trunk. In open locations, it will become much shorter (typically 15–24 m (50–80 ft)) and more massive.

The leaves are alternate, simple, and entire or with a slightly crenate margin, 5–10 cm long and 3–7 cm broad, with 6–7 veins on each side of the leaf (7–10 veins in Fagus orientalis). When crenate, there is one point at each vein tip, never any points between the veins. The buds are long and slender, 15–30 mm (0.59–1.18 in) long and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) thick, but thicker (to 4–5 mm (0.16–0.20 in)) where the buds include flower buds.

The leaves of beech are often not abscissed (dropped) in the autumn and instead remain on the tree until the spring. This process is called marcescence. This particularly occurs when trees are saplings or when plants are clipped as a hedge (making beech hedges attractive screens, even in winter), but it also often continues to occur on the lower branches when the tree is mature.

Small quantities of seeds may be produced around 10 years of age, but not a heavy crop until the tree is at least 30 years old. F. sylvatica male flowers are borne in the small catkins which are a hallmark of the Fagales order (beeches, chestnuts, oaks, walnuts, hickories, birches, and hornbeams). The female flowers produce beechnuts, small triangular nuts 15–20 millimetres (0.59–0.79 in) long and 7–10 mm (0.28–0.39 in) wide at the base; there are two nuts in each cupule, maturing in the autumn 5–6 months after pollination. Flower and seed production is particularly abundant in years following a hot, sunny and dry summer, though rarely for two years in a row.

Distribution and habitat

Fagus sylvatica pliocenica MHNT.PAL.VEG.2002.31
Fagus sylvatica pliocenicaMuseum of Toulouse

The natural range extends from southern Sweden to northern Sicily,[4] west to France, southern England, northern Portugal, central Spain, and east to northwest Turkey, where it intergrades with the oriental beech (Fagus orientalis), which replaces it further east. In the Balkans, it shows some hybridisation with oriental beech; these hybrid trees are named Fagus × taurica. In the southern part of its range around the Mediterranean, it grows only in mountain forests, at 600–1,800 m (1,969–5,906 ft) altitude.

Although often regarded as native in southern England, recent evidence suggests that F. sylvatica did not arrive in England until about 4000 BC, or 2,000 years after the English Channel formed after the ice ages; it could have been an early introduction by Stone age humans, who used the nuts for food.[5] The beech is classified as a native in the south of England and as a non-native in the north where it is often removed from 'native' woods.[6] Localised pollen records have been recorded in the North of England from the Iron Age by Sir Harry Godwin. Changing climatic conditions may put beech populations in southern England under increased stress and while it may not be possible to maintain the current levels of beech in some sites it is thought that conditions for beech in north-west England will remain favourable or even improve. It is often planted in Britain. Similarly, the nature of Norwegian beech populations is subject to debate. If native, they would represent the northern range of the species. However, molecular genetic analyses support the hypothesis that these populations represent intentional introduction from Denmark before and during the Viking Age.[7] However, the beech in Vestfold and at Seim north of Bergen in Norway is now spreading naturally and regarded as native.[8]

Though not demanding of its soil type, the European beech has several significant requirements: a humid atmosphere (precipitation well distributed throughout the year and frequent fogs) and well-drained soil (it cannot handle excessive stagnant water). It prefers moderately fertile ground, calcified or lightly acidic, therefore it is found more often on the side of a hill than at the bottom of a clayey basin. It tolerates rigorous winter cold, but is sensitive to spring frost. In Norway's oceanic climate planted trees grow well as far north as Trondheim. In Sweden, beech trees do not grow as far north as in Norway.[9]

A beech forest is very dark and few species of plant are able to survive there, where the sun barely reaches the ground. Young beeches prefer some shade and may grow poorly in full sunlight. In a clear-cut forest a European beech will germinate and then die of excessive dryness. Under oaks with sparse leaf cover it will quickly surpass them in height and, due to the beech's dense foliage, the oaks will die from lack of sunlight.


The root system is shallow, even superficial, with large roots spreading out in all directions. European beech forms ectomycorrhizas with a range of fungi including members of the genera Amanita, Boletus, Cantharellus, Hebeloma, Lactarius, and with the species Ramaria flavosaponaria;[10] these fungi are important in enhancing uptake of water and nutrients from the soil.

In the woodlands of southern Britain, beech is dominant over oak and elm south of a line from about north Suffolk across to Cardigan. Oak are the dominant forest trees north of this line. One of the most beautiful European beech forests called Sonian Forest (Forêt de Soignes/Zoniënwoud) is found in the southeast of Brussels, Belgium. Beech is a dominant tree species in France and constitutes about 10% of French forests. The largest virgin forests made of beech trees are Uholka-Shyrokyi Luh (8,800 ha (22,000 acres)) in Ukraine[11] and Izvoarele Nerei (5,012 ha (12,380 acres) in one forest body) in Semenic-Cheile Carașului National Park, Romania. These habitats are home of Europe's largest predators (the brown bear, the grey wolf and the lynx).[12][13][14] Many trees are older than 350 years in Izvoarele Nerei[15] and even 500 years in Uholka-Shyrokyi Luh.[11]

Spring leaf budding by the European beech is triggered by a combination of day length and temperature. Bud break each year is from the middle of April to the beginning of May, often with remarkable precision (within a few days). It is more precise in the north of its range than the south, and at 600 m (2,000 ft) than at sea level.[16]

The European beech invests significantly in summer and autumn for the following spring. Conditions in summer, particularly good rainfall, determine the number of leaves included in the buds. In autumn, the tree builds the reserves that will sustain it into spring. Given good conditions, a bud can produce a shoot with ten or more leaves. The terminal bud emits a hormonal substance in the spring that halts the development of additional buds. This tendency, though very strong at the beginning of their existence, becomes weaker in older trees.

It is only after the budding that root growth of the year begins. The first roots to appear are very thin (with a diameter of less than 0.5 mm). Later, after a wave of above ground growth, thicker roots grow in a steady fashion.


European beech is a very popular ornamental tree in parks and large gardens in temperate regions of the world. In North America, they are preferred for this purpose over the native F. grandifolia, which despite its tolerance of warmer climates, is slower growing, taking an average of 10 years longer to attain maturity. The town of Brookline, Massachusetts has one of the largest, if not the largest, grove of European beech trees in the United States. The 2.5 acre public park, called 'The Longwood Mall', was planted sometime before 1850 qualifying it as the oldest stand of European beeches in the United States.[17]

It is frequently kept clipped to make attractive hedges.

Since the early 19th century there have been numerous cultivars of European beech made by horticultural selection, often repeatedly; they include:

  • copper beech or purple beech (Fagus sylvatica purpurea)[18] – leaves purple, in many selections turning deep spinach green by mid-summer. In the United States Charles Sprague Sargent noted the earliest appearance in a nurseryman's catalogue in 1820, but in 1859 "the finest copper beech in America... more than fifty feet high" was noted in the grounds of Thomas Ash, Esq., Throggs Neck, New York;[19] it must have been more than forty years old at the time.
  • fern-leaf beech (Fagus sylvatica Heterophylla Group) – leaves deeply serrated to thread-like
  • dwarf beech (Fagus sylvatica Tortuosa Group) – distinctive twisted trunk and branches
  • weeping beech (Fagus sylvatica Pendula Group) – branches pendulous
  • Dawyck beech (Fagus sylvatica 'Dawyck') – fastigiate (columnar) growth – occurs in green, gold and purple forms; named after Dawyck Botanic Garden in the Scottish Borders
  • golden beech (Fagus sylvatica 'Zlatia') – leaves golden in spring

The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-[20]

Image gallery

Fagus sylvatica pendula, Harlow Carr

'Pendula', Harlow Carr.

Hyde park tree

The famous Upside-down Tree, Hyde Park, London, an example of F. sylvatica 'pendula'.

March dyke sourlie

Beech planted on a march dyke (boundary hedge) in Scotland.

Leaves of a "Fagus sylvatica Asplenifolia" tree in summer - Belfast (Botanic Gardens) 2015-08-21

Leaves of var. heterophylla 'Aspleniifolia', Belfast Botanic Garden

Brussels Zonienwoud

Old stand of beech prepared for regeneration (note the young undergrowth) in the Sonian Forest.

Fagus sylvatica MHNT.BOT.2010.6.81

Fagus sylvatica wood – MHNT

Fagus sylvatica MHNT.BOT.2004.0.312

Fagus sylvaticaMHNT

Entzia - Brotes de haya 01


Mølleparken (maj 02)

Copper beech (spring)


Fagus sylvatica


The wood of the European beech is used in the manufacture of numerous objects and implements. Its fine and short grain makes it an easy wood to work with, easy to soak, dye, varnish and glue. Steaming makes the wood even easier to machine. It has an excellent finish and is resistant to compression and splitting and it is stiff when flexed. Milling is sometimes difficult due to cracking. The density of the wood is 720 kg per cubic meter.[28] It is particularly well suited for minor carpentry, particularly furniture. From chairs to parquetry (flooring) and staircases, the European beech can do almost anything other than heavy structural support, so long as it is not left outdoors. Its hardness make it ideal for making wooden mallets and workbench tops. The wood rots easily if it is not protected by a tar based on a distillate of its own bark (as used in railway sleepers).[29][30] It is better for paper pulp than many other broadleaved trees though is only sometimes used for this, the high cellulose content can also be spun into modal, which is used as a textile akin to cotton. The code for its use in Europe is fasy (from FAgus SYlvatica). Common beech is also considered one of the best firewoods for fireplaces.[31]

Other uses

Detail of Biscogniauxia nummularia
Detail of the tarcrust's structure.

The nuts are eaten by humans and animals.[32] Slightly toxic to humans if eaten in large quantities due to the tannins and alkaloids they contain, the nuts were nonetheless pressed to obtain an oil in 19th-century England that was used for cooking and in lamps. They were also ground to make flour, which could be eaten after the tannins were leached out by soaking.[33][34][35]

Primary Product AM 01, a smoke flavouring, is produced from Fagus sylvatica L.[36]


Biscogniauxia nummularia (beech tarcrust) is an ascomycete primary pathogen of beech trees, causing strip-canker and wood rot. It can be found at all times of year and is not edible.[37]


  1. ^ "The Plant List".
  2. ^ "Tall Trees".
  3. ^ Wühlisch, G. (2008). "European beech – Fagus sylvatica" (PDF). EUFORGEN Technical Guidelines for Genetic Conservation and Use.
  4. ^ Brullo, S.; Guarino, R.; Minissale, P.; Siracusa, G.; Spampinato, G. (1999). "Syntaxonomical analysis of the beech forests from Sicily". Annali di Botanica. 57: 121–132. ISSN 2239-3129. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  5. ^ Harris, E. (2002) Goodbye to Beech? Farewell to Fagus? Quarterly Journal of Forestry 96 (2):97.
  6. ^ International foresters study Lake District's 'greener, friendlier forests' forestry.gov.uk
  7. ^ Myking, T.; Yakovlev, I.; Ersland, G. A. (2011). "Nuclear genetic markers indicate Danish origin of the Norwegian beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations established in 500–1,000 AD". Tree Genetics & Genomes. 7 (3): 587–596. doi:10.1007/s11295-010-0358-y.
  8. ^ Bøk – en kulturvekst? (in Norwegian)
  9. ^ Laurie, James; Balbi, Adriano (1842-01-01). System of Universal Geography: Founded on the Works of Malte-Brun and Balbi: Embracing a Historical Sketch of the Progress of Geographical Discovery …. A. and C. Black.
  10. ^ Agerer, Reinhard, ed. (1987–2012). "Tables of identified ectomycorrhizae". Colour Atlas of Ectomycorrhizae. Schwäbisch Gmünd: Einhorn-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-921703-77-9. OCLC 263940450. Retrieved 19 July 2018. Ramaria flavo-saponaria + Fagus selvatica (Raidl, Scattolin)
  11. ^ a b Commarmot, Brigitte; Brändli, Urs-Beat; Hamor, Fedir; Lavnyy, Vasyl (2013). Inventory of the Largest Primeval Beech Forest in Europe (PDF). Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL.
  12. ^ Romania & Moldova. Lonely Planet. 1998-01-01. ISBN 978-0-86442-329-0.
  13. ^ Romanescu, Gheorghe; Stoleriu, Cristian Constantin; Enea, Andrei (2013-05-23). Limnology of the Red Lake, Romania: An Interdisciplinary Study. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9789400767577.
  14. ^ Apollonio, Marco; Andersen, Reidar; Putman, Rory (2010-02-04). European Ungulates and Their Management in the 21st Century. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-76061-4.
  15. ^ "Parcul Naţional Semenic – Cheile Caraşului (in Romanian)".
  16. ^ Efe, Recep (2014-03-17). Environment and Ecology in the Mediterranean Region II. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4438-5773-4.
  17. ^ "Longwood Mall". Brookline, MA.
  18. ^ "Copper Beech". Tree-Guide.com. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
  19. ^ Andrew Jackson Downing and Henry Winthrop Sargent, A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Adapted to North America 1859:150.
  20. ^ "AGM Plants – Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 38. Retrieved 26 February 2018.
  21. ^ "Fagus sylvatica AGM". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  22. ^ "Fagus sylvatica 'Dawyck' AGM". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  23. ^ "Fagus sylvatica 'Dawyck Gold' AGM". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  24. ^ "Fagus sylvatica 'Dawyck Purple' AGM". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  25. ^ "Fagus sylvatica 'Pendula' AGM". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  26. ^ "Fagus sylvatica (Atropurpurea Group) 'Riversii' AGM". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  27. ^ "Fagus sylvatica var heterophylla 'Aslpeniifolia' AGM". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  28. ^ Steamed Beech. Niche Timbers. Accessed 20-08-2009.
  29. ^ Association, American Wood-Preservers' (1939-01-01). Railroad Tie Decay: Comprising The Decay of Ties in Storage, by C. J. Humphrey ... Defects in Cross Ties, Caused by Fungi, by C. Audrey Richards. American wood-preservers' association.
  30. ^ Goltra, William Francis (1912-01-01). Some Facts about Treating Railroad Ties. Press of The J.B. Savage Company.
  31. ^ "The burning properties of wood" (PDF). Scoutbase (Scout Information Centre). Scout Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 December 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  32. ^ Little, Elbert L. (1994) [1980]. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Trees: Western Region (Chanticleer Press ed.). Knopf. p. 390. ISBN 0394507614.
  33. ^ Fergus, Charles; Hansen, Amelia (2005-01-01). Trees of New England: A Natural History. Globe Pequot. ISBN 978-0-7627-3795-6.
  34. ^ Fergus, Charles (2002-01-01). Trees of Pennsylvania and the Northeast. Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-2092-2.
  35. ^ Lyle, Susanna (2006-03-20). Fruit & nuts: a comprehensive guide to the cultivation, uses and health benefits of over 300 food-producing plants. Timber Press.
  36. ^ European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Scientific Opinion on Safety of smoke flavour – Primary Product – AM 01 8 January 2010
  37. ^ Blanchette, Robert; Biggs, Alan (2013-11-11). Defense Mechanisms of Woody Plants Against Fungi. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-3-662-01642-8.

External links


Beech (Fagus) is a genus of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia, and North America.

Recent classification systems of the genus recognize 10 to 13 species in two distinct subgenera, Engleriana and Fagus. The Engleriana subgenus is found only in East Asia, and is notably distinct from the Fagus subgenus in that these beeches are low-branching trees, often made up of several major trunks with yellowish bark. Further differentiating characteristics include the whitish bloom on the underside of the leaves, the visible tertiary leaf veins, and a long, smooth cupule-peduncle. Fagus japonica, Fagus engleriana, and the species F. okamotoi, proposed by the botanist Chung-Fu Shen in 1992, comprise this subgenus. The better known Fagus subgenus beeches are high-branching with tall, stout trunks and smooth silver-grey bark. This group includes Fagus sylvatica, Fagus grandifolia, Fagus crenata, Fagus lucida, Fagus longipetiolata, and Fagus hayatae. The classification of the European beech, Fagus sylvatica is complex, with a variety of different names proposed for different species and subspecies within this region (for example Fagus taurica, Fagus orientalis, and Fagus moesica). Research suggests that beeches in Eurasia differentiated fairly late in evolutionary history, during the Miocene. The populations in this area represent a range of often overlapping morphotypes, though genetic analysis does not clearly support separate species.Within its family, the Fagaceae, recent research has suggested that Fagus is the evolutionarily most basal group. The southern beeches (genus Nothofagus) previously thought closely related to beeches, are now treated as members of a separate family, the Nothofagaceae (which remains a member of the order Fagales). They are found in Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea, New Caledonia, Argentina, and Chile (principally Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego).

The European beech (Fagus sylvatica) is the most commonly cultivated, although few important differences are seen between species aside from detail elements such as leaf shape. The leaves of beech trees are entire or sparsely toothed, from 5–15 cm long and 4–10 cm broad. Beeches are monoecious, bearing both male and female flowers on the same plant. The small flowers are unisexual, the female flowers borne in pairs, the male flowers wind-pollinating catkins. They are produced in spring shortly after the new leaves appear. The bark is smooth and light grey. The fruit is a small, sharply three–angled nut 10–15 mm long, borne singly or in pairs in soft-spined husks 1.5–2.5 cm long, known as cupules. The husk can have a variety of spine- to scale-like appendages, the character of which is, in addition to leaf shape, one of the primary ways beeches are differentiated. The nuts are edible, though bitter (though not nearly as bitter as acorns) with a high tannin content, and are called beechnuts or beechmast.

The name of the tree (Latin fagus, whence the species name; cognate with English "beech") is of Indo-European origin, and played an important role in early debates on the geographical origins of the Indo-European people. Greek φηγός is from the same root, but the word was transferred to the oak tree (e.g. Iliad 16.767) as a result of the absence of beech trees in Greece.

Caloptilia alchimiella

Caloptilia alchimiella (commonly known as yellow-triangle slender) is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is found in Europe and the Near East.

The wingspan is 10–13 millimetres (0.39–0.51 in). Forewings purplish - ferruginous ; dorsum suffused with yellow towards base ; a large triangular yellow median costal blotch, apex often rounded. Hindwings dark grey. .The moth flies from May to July depending on the location.

The larvae feed on Quercus species, Castanea sativa and Fagus sylvatica.

Caloptilia robustella

Caloptilia robustella (commonly known as new oak slender) is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is known from all of Europe, except the Balkan Peninsula.

The wingspan is 10–13 millimetres (0.39–0.51 in). There are multiple generations per year, with adults on wing between April and November.The larvae feed on Fagus sylvatica and Quercus robur. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine starts as a narrow lower-surface epidermal gallery, regularly intersecting itself. Later, the mine becomes full depth. It remains a small mine, either rectangular or (more frequently) a triangle in a vein axle, with frass along the sides. Older larvae leave the mine and continue feeding in a leaf roll. Pupation takes place in a white cocoon.

Coleophora currucipennella

Coleophora currucipennella is a moth of the family Coleophoridae. It is found in most of Europe, except Ireland, the Iberian Peninsula and the Mediterranean Islands.

The wingspan is 13–16 mm.The larvae feed on Betula, Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana, Fagus sylvatica, Malus, Prunus cerasus, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus communis, Quercus petraea, Quercus robur, Quercus rubra, Salix and Sorbus aucuparia. Full-grown larva live in a dull black pistol case of about 9 mm and with a mouth angle of 80-90° (meaning it stands erect on the leaf). After hibernation, the larvae no longer mine, but rather cause skeleton feeding. Full-grown larvae can be found in early June.

Dwarf Beech

The Dwarf Beech, Fagus sylvatica Tortuosa Group, is a rare Cultivar Group of the European Beech with less than 1500 older specimens in Europe. It is also known as Twisted Beech or Parasol Beech.

It is a wide-spreading tree with distinctive twisted and contorted branches that are quite pendulous at their ends. With its short and twisted trunk the Dwarf Beech grows more in width than height, only seldom reaching a height of more than 15 m. It sometimes grows from seed and has formed colonies in Sweden ("Vresboken"), Denmark ("Vrange bøge"), Germany ("Süntel-Buchen"), France ("Faux de Verzy") and Italy ("Alberi serpente", nel Monte Pollino).

A similar form is the Weeping Beech (Fagus sylvatica Pendula Group), which has more pendulous branching.

Fagivorina arenaria

Fagivorina arenaria, the speckled beauty, is a species of moth of the family Geometridae. The species was first described by Johann Siegfried Hufnagel in 1767. It is found from most of central Europe to the Balkan Peninsula and Ukraine. In the south it is found up to Sicily and in the north to Sweden and Norway.

The wingspan is 22–30 mm. Adults are on wing from May to July.

The larvae feed on deciduous trees, including Fagus sylvatica and Quercus species.

Forests of Sweden

Sweden is covered by 53.1% forest. In southern Sweden, human interventions started to have a significant impact on broadleaved forests around 2000 years ago, where the first evidence of extensive agriculture has been found. Recent studies describe a long-term process of borealization in south-central Sweden starting at the beginning of the Holocene where oak (Quercus spp.) and alder (Alnus spp.) seemingly started to decline around 2000 years ago due to a decrease in temperature. At the same time the Norway spruce (Picea abies) started to emigrate from the north, and the European beech (Fagus sylvatica) emigrated from the south of Europe. Though, as a primary result of production forest management at the middle of the twentieth century, P. abies and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) covers together around 75% of southern Sweden actual standing tree volume.

Jardin botanique de Tourcoing

The Jardin botanique de Tourcoing (11,900 m²) is a municipal botanical garden and arboretum located at 32 rue du Moulin Fagot, Tourcoing, Nord, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France. It is open daily; admission is free.

The garden was established in 1917 on the site of a former private garden, and has recently been renovated and extended. Today it is arranged into five major sections:

Cherry tree allée

Greenhouses for collections and education

French garden, divided into four quadrants

English garden

New garden with a North American themeThe garden contains fine specimens of Fagus sylvatica, Pinus nigra, and Tilia platyphyllos, as well as trees including Acer pseudoplatanus, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Platanus x acerifolia, Populus nigra, Prunus serrulata, Robinia pseudoacacia, Taxus baccata, and Tilia platyphylla, with lesser trees including Acer platanoides, Ailanthus altissima, Crataegus, Fagus sylvatica, Ginkgo biloba, Gleditsia triacanthos, Ilex aquifolium, Pinus griffithii, Pinus mugo, Pinus nigra, Pyrus communis, Salix alba, Sophora japonica, Taxus baccata, and Tilia americana.

King's Wood and Urchin Wood SSSI

King's Wood and Urchin Wood SSSI (grid reference ST454645) is a 128.1 hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest near the villages of Cleeve and Congresbury, North Somerset, notified in 1990.

The site has long been renowned for its botanical interest and records date back to the County Flora of 1893. The woodland supports a particularly high diversity of vascular plants, including populations of the nationally rare plant Purple Gromwell (Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum) and the scarce Angular Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum odoratum).Large areas of King’s Wood were replanted during the 1960s with beech Fagus sylvatica and a variety of conifer species including Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), Lawson’s cypress (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) . These crop trees have, however, largely been unsuccessful and the replanted areas are now being overtaken by hardwoods.King’s Wood supports nationally important populations of the rare and endangered greater horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) and dormice (Muscardinus avellanarius), and a nationally scarce Chrysomelid beetle (Clytra quadripunctata).

Mantaritza Biosphere Reserve

Mantaritza Biosphere Reserve (Bulgarian: Биосферен резерват "Мантарица") is situated to the north of Golyama Syutka Peak in the Rhodope Mountains in Bulgaria, and covers an area of 1319,9 hectares. The reserve was established in 1968 to protect the old coniferous forests and the biotopes of the Western capercaillie (Tetrao urogalus). The area was declared as biosphere reserve in 1977. It represents century-old forests of pure and mixed stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies), European birch (Fagus sylvatica) and European silver fir (Abies alba). The reserve is situated in the Bulgarian Floristic sub-region of West Rhodope within the Central European mountain biotic province. The varied fauna includes brown bear (Ursus arctos) , red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), pine marten (Martes martes), European badger (Meles meles), hazel grouse (Bonasa bonasia), black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius) and European crested tit (Parus cristatus).

This area has been little affected by man. Before the biosphere reserve was designated in 1977, small-scale selective cutting took place and water reservoirs were constructed. This biosphere reserve is currently under revision.

Nematopogon adansoniella

"Tinea panzerella" redirects here. This name has also been applied to Pseudatemelia subochreella in error.

Nematopogon adansoniella is a moth of the family Adelidae. It is found in Europe.

The wingspan is 17–19 mm. The moth flies from late April to June depending on the location.

The larvae feed on Fagus sylvatica, oak, Prunus spinosa and bilberry.


Nemërçka Mountains (Albanian: Nemërçkë, Greek: Doúsko, Nemértsika or Aeropós Δούσκο, Νεμέρτσικα or Αεροπός) are a mountain range in southern Albania between Përmet and Gjirokastër District, which extends from a north-west direction to the south-east near the border between Albania and Greece. Geologically, Nemërçkë is a limestone-flysch forming a massive anticline situated between the graben valley of Vjosë river. The mountain forms the southern section of the Trëbëshinj-Dhëmbel-Nemërçka mountain chain. To the north, Nemërçkë is separated from the Albanian Pindus mountains, by the Vjosë river. The mountains are characterized by steep cliffs and wooden mountain slopes. The eastern scarps falls on the Vjosë river, 2000 metres down.

Nemërçka falls within the Pindus Mountains mixed forests terrestrial ecoregion of the Palearctic temperate broadleaf and mixed forest. Its forests are renowned for housing European beech (Fagus sylvatica). It is the southernmost point where European beech can be found in Albania.Maja e Papingut, (formerly Albanian: Maja e Dritës), is the highest peak within the mountain range. With an elevation of 2,482 m (8,143 ft) and a prominence of 1,792 m (5,879 ft) above sea level, it is the 44th most prominent mountain peak in Europe. Other peaks in Nemërçkë includes Maja e Gatakut 2,269 m (7,444 ft), Maja e Qesarit 2,253 m (7,392 ft), and Maja e Poliçanit 2,138 m (7,014 ft).

New Canaan Nature Center

The New Canaan Nature Center (40 acres or 16 hectares) is a botanical garden, arboretum and nature preserve located at 144 Oenoke Ridge, Route 124, about .25 miles (0.40 km) north of the center of New Canaan, Connecticut.

The nature center includes wet and dry meadows, two ponds, wet and dry woodlands, dense thickets, an old orchard, and a cattail marsh, as well as a 4,000-square-foot (370 m2) greenhouse. Landscaped areas of the site include a wildflower garden (which won the 1997 Homer Lucas Landscape Award from the New England Wild Flower Society), a herb garden and a perennial border. About 90% of the plant specimens in the wildflower garden are native species, including bloodroot, columbine, mayapple, jack-in-the-pulpit, wild geranium, Solomon's plume, starflower, and trillium. Shade-loving perennials include bleeding heart, crested iris, Jacob's ladder, hepatica, European ginger and Virginia bluebells. Azaleas, rhododendrons and a stand of mountain laurel also feature.

The center also contains a small arboretum of Sciadopitys verticillata (Umbrella Pine), Chamaecyparis pisifera Squarrosa (Moss Sawara Cypress), Chamaecyparis pisifera Plumosa (Plume False Cyprus), Pinus densiflora ‘Umbraculifera’ (Japanese Umbrella Pine), Fagus sylvatica ‘Atropunicea’ (Purple Beech), Fagus sylvatica ‘Pendula’ (European Weeping Beech), Cercis canandensis (Eastern Redbud), Acer palmatum ‘Dissectum-Pendula’, Pinus cembra (Swiss Stone Pine) and Picea apies ‘Repens’ (Weeping Norway Spruce).

New Canaan Nature Center features many nature programs throughout the year, including the Fall Fair every October, and maple sugaring celebrations in early spring.

Parornix fagivora

Parornix fagivora is a moth of the family Gracillariidae. It is found from Sweden to the Pyrenees, Italy and Albania and from Great Britain to southern Russia.

The wingspan is 11–14 mm.The larvae feed on Fagus sylvatica, including subspecies Fagus sylvatica orientalis. They mine the leaves of their host plant. The mine starts as a small lower-surface epidermal corridor with reddish brown frass. Later, it becomes a small rectangular full depth blotch with black frass. The larva deposits only little silk in the mine, that remains practically flat. In the end, the larva leaves the mine and continues living freely under a folded leaf margin or leaf tip.

Phytophthora cambivora

Phytophthora cambivora is a plant pathogen that causes ink disease in European chestnut trees (Castanea sativa). Ink disease, also caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, is thought to have been present in Europe since the 18th century, and causes chestnut trees to wilt and die; major epidemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries. P. cinnamomi and P. cambivora are now present throughout Europe since the 1990s. Ink disease has resurged, often causing high mortality of trees, particularly in Portugal, Italy, and France. It has also been isolated from a number of different species since the 1990s, including:

Golden chinquapin trees, (Chrysolepis chrysophylla) in Oregon, United States

Rhododendron and Pieris species in North Carolina

Noble fir trees (Abies procera) in Norway

Beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) in Italy and Germany.Some species of mycorrhiza (including Amanita muscaria, Suillellus luridus, and Hebeloma radicosum) may provide protection from P. cambivora in European chestnuts.

Shumen Plateau Nature Park

The Shumen Plateau Nature Park (Bulgarian: Природен парк Шуменско плато) is located in the Shumen Plateau of the northern province of Shumen of Bulgaria, the highest plateau of the Danubian Plain. The Park encloses the Bukaka Reserve Forest, which is known for indigenous Fagus sylvatica Fagus sylvatica (common beech) moesiaca (the Balkan beech) forest. This Park was declared a National Park in 1980 and a Nature Park in 2003 to conserve its ecosystems and floral and faunal biodiversity, and to preserve its tableland landscape together with many tourist sites such as the Shumen fortress, the Monument to 1300 Years of Bulgaria, cave monasteries, and surface and underground karst caves. The park has the first thematic educational trail in the Karst Nature Park, constructed as part of a project titled "Natural Park of Shumen Plateau" with funds provided by the EU Cohesion Fund and the Republic of Bulgaria; the trail is integral to the Operational Program "Environment 2007–2013".

Stigmella hemargyrella

Stigmella hemargyrella is a moth of the Nepticulidae family. It is found in most of Europe, except Iceland, Norway, Finland, Portugal and most of the Baltic region.

The moths (imago) are bivoltine flying from April to May and again from July to August and can be found resting on trunks. The wingspan is 5–6 mm.

The egg can be laid on either side of the leaf and the pale yellowish-white larva feed, within a mine on Fagus sylvatica and Fagus sylvatica orientalis. The mine is a sinuous gallery and at the early state is relatively narrow with a central line of dark frass. As the larva grow the mine becomes wider and in the middle portion the frass is arranged in a series of arcs or coils. The mine can cross the vein (compare Stigmella tityrella which rarely crosses the veins) and in the final stages of the mine the frass is more irregular and concentrated in the centre of the gallery.

Thymalus limbatus

Thymalus limbatus is a species of beetle in family Trogossitidae. It is found in the Palearctic It is an obligate Saproxylic species associated with Betula pendula, Fagus sylvatica , Fagus sylvatica , Tilia × europaea and Picea abies mostly under bark.It feeds on fungus or dead wood.

Weeping beech

The weeping beech, Fagus sylvatica 'Pendula', is a cultivar of the deciduous European beech.

True, or botanical nuts


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