Facing the Flag

Facing the Flag or For the Flag (French: Face au drapeau) is an 1896 patriotic novel by Jules Verne. The book is part of the Voyages Extraordinaires (Extraordinary Voyages) series.

Like The Begum's Millions, which Verne published in 1879, it has the theme of France and the entire world threatened by a super-weapon (what would now be called a weapon of mass destruction) with the threat finally overcome through the force of French patriotism.

It can be considered one of the first books dealing with problems which were to become paramount half a century after its publication in World War II and the Cold War: brilliant scientists discovering new weapons of great destructive power, whose full utilization might literally destroy the world; the competition between superpowers to obtain overwhelming stockpiles of such weapons; and, efforts of other nations to join the nuclear club.

Facing the Flag
HetzelFaceAuDrapeau
AuthorJules Verne
Original titleFace au drapeau
TranslatorCashel Hoey
IllustratorLéon Benett
CountryFrance
LanguageFrench
SeriesThe Extraordinary Voyages #42
GenreAdventure novel
PublisherPierre-Jules Hetzel
Publication date
1896
Published in English
1897
Media typePrint (Hardback)
Preceded byPropeller Island 
Followed byClovis Dardentor 

Plot summary

Thomas Roch, a brilliant French inventor, has designed the Fulgurator, a weapon so powerful that "the state which acquired it would become absolute master of earth and ocean." However, unable to sell his unproven idea to France or any other government, Roch begins to lose his sanity, becoming bitter, megalomaniacal and paranoid. The United States Government reacts by tucking him away at a luxurious asylum in New Bern, North Carolina, where he is visited by one "Count d'Artigas"—actually Ker Karraje, a notorious pirate of Malagasy origin. His heterogeneous crew is drawn from "escaped convicts, military and naval deserters, and the scum of Europe."

Karraje and his crew lead double lives. Karraje goes around openly, under the alias of "Count d'Artigas", a pleasure loving, slightly eccentric but eminently respectable member of nobility. He is a regular visitor to the ports of the East Coast aboard his schooner Ebba. To outward appearances, Ebba has no other means of propulsion than its sails, but in fact it is pulled by an underwater tug. By this means, Karraje and his crew can pull up to becalmed sailing vessels without raising suspicion and board them without warning. They then rob and massacre the crews, scuttling the ships, adding to the statistics of "unexplained disappearances".

Karraje hears of Roch and his invention, takes them both seriously, and decides to gain possession of them. Actually, his aim is rather modest. He has no intention to seize mastery over the world, but just to make his hide-out impregnable. He and his men successfully kidnap Roch from his American asylum, and then bring him to their hide-out—the desolate island of Back Cup in the Bermudas. Here a wide cavern, accessible only by submerged submarine, has been made into a well-equipped pirate base. It has its own electrical power plant, and is completely unknown to the rest of the world.

During the kidnapping, however, Karraje orders his men to also take along Gaydon, Roch's attendant for the past fifteen months. The reader knows (and, as is later shown, Karraje is also aware) that Gaydon is actually Simon Hart, a French engineer and explosives expert. Hart had decided "to perform the menial and exacting duties of an insane man's attendant" in the hope of learning Roch's secret and, thereby, saving it for France, actuated by "a spirit of the purest and noblest patriotism."

Hart is kept imprisoned at the pirate base, though in quite comfortable conditions. He can only watch in dismay as the pirate chief easily manages what four governments in succession have failed to do: win Roch over. Roch is given "many rolls of dollar bills and banknotes, and handfuls of English, French, American and German gold coins" with which to fill his pockets. Further, Roch is formally informed that the entire secret cavern and all in it are henceforward his property, and egged on to "defend his property" against the world which has wronged him so badly. Soon, the inventor is busy constructing his fearsome weapon, happily unaware that he is nothing but a glorified prisoner in the pirate's hands.

The paranoid Roch does, however, keep to himself the secret of the detonator or "Deflagrator", a liquid without which the explosive is merely an inert powder. By holding fast to that last secret, Roch unwittingly preserves the life of his ex-keeper Gaydon/Simon Hart. Karraje suspects, wrongly, that Hart knows much more of Roch's secrets than he is willing to let on. It serves the purposes of the pirate chief, a completely ruthless killer, to let Hart live. The pirate engineer Serko, Hart's "colleague," hopes to win him over in prolonged friendly conversations. Hart's reticence is misunderstood as proof that he has something to hide.

The pirates underestimate Hart, giving him a practically free run of their hide-out, since the only way out is via submarine. But after carefully studying the currents, Hart succeeds in secretly sending out a message in a metal keg, giving the full details of Karraje's operations and his impending acquisition of the Fulgurator.

The message gets through to the British authorities at their nearby naval base in Bermuda, and the British Navy sends a submarine, HMS Sword, to find Hart. The submarine's crew makes contact with Hart, and take him and Roch on board, but the Sword is discovered, attacked and sunk by the pirates in a direct underwater submarine vs. submarine battle. The unconscious Hart and Roch are extracted from the sunken British sub by pirate divers, leaving the entire British crew to perish. Hart manages to convince the pirates that he had been kidnapped by the British sailors and had nothing to do with their "visit." He resumes his role as a tolerated prisoner with a free run of the pirate base.

Meanwhile, Roch's weapon is completed and becomes operational. A hastily gathered international naval task force approaches the island, consisting of five warships dispatched by the world's five largest powers.

The weapon, operated personally by Roch himself, works fully as advertised. Roch has no compunction in using it on British or American ships, and the first cruiser to approach the island is easily destroyed with only a handful of its crew surviving. Undaunted, the next ship approaches the shore, and the moment comes towards which the entire book was leading and from which its title was drawn: "A flag unfurls to the breeze. It is the Tricolour, whose blue, white and red sections stand out luminously against the sky. Ah! What is this? Thomas Roch is fascinated at the sight of his national emblem. Slowly he lowers his arm as the flag flutters up to the mast-head. Then he draws back and covers his eyes with his hand. Heavens above! All sentiment of patriotism is not then dead in his ulcerated heart, seeing that it beats at the sight of his country's flag!"

Having at the moment of truth, rediscovered his patriotism, Roch refuses to fire on his country's ship. He struggles with the pirates who try to seize his phial and the Deflagrator. During the struggle Roch resorts to blowing up himself, his weapon, and the pirates along with the entire island. The single survivor of the cataclysm is Simon Hart, whose unconscious body with the diary at his side is found by the landing French sailors.

Hart is eventually revived, to be amply rewarded for his dedication to his country. He proudly bears witness to Thomas Roch's last-minute change of heart and self-sacrifice. French patriotism is the moral and material victor.

Response

Following publication of the book, Verne was sued by the chemist Eugène Turpin, inventor of the explosive Melinite, who recognized himself in the character of Roch and was not amused. Turpin had tried to sell his invention to the French government, which in 1885 refused it, though later purchasing it (it was extensively used in the First World War); but Turpin had never gone mad, nor did he ever offer his invention to any but the Government of France, so he had some justified grievance. Verne was successfully defended by Raymond Poincaré, later president of France. A letter to Verne's brother Paul seems to suggest, however, that after all Turpin was indeed the model for Roch. The character of Roch and his revolutionary powerful explosive might also have been inspired by the real-life Alfred Nobel who invented dynamite and later reportedly regretted having introduced such a destructive force into the world.[1][2]

Politics

The book was written and published when France was in the throes of the Dreyfus Affair, Frenchmen were deeply divided over whether or not the Jewish officer Alfred Dreyfus was guilty of treason and espionage on behalf of the hated Germany (and over more fundamental issues bound up with the Dreyfus case). Verne is known to have initially supported the right-wing anti-Dreyfusards.

The question whether or not Verne was an anti-semite is hotly debated; while Walter A. McDougall finds "no overt evidence of anti-Semitism on Verne's part,"[3] Brian Taves and Jean-Michel Margot note that his Off on a Comet contains "unflattering Shylock-style stereotypes."[4] Be that as it may, Verne certainly was a nationalist caught up in the mindset of revanchism, to whom the idea of a French army officer, Jewish or not, spying for Germany would be the greatest of anathemas; and initially Verne, like most French people, believed Dreyfus to be guilty. However, in 1899 Verne came to support a judicial review of the Dreyfus case.[1]

While Roch cannot be said to represent Dreyfus in any concrete way, the theme of an apparent traitor, who in the end proves to be a self-sacrificing patriot, may be connected to the change of heart which Verne (and many readers) underwent about Dreyfus.

Legacy

Film historian Thomas C. Renzi considers Roch the archetype of the "mad scientist," the thriller fiction stock character of a monomaniac whose warped genius endangers the world. If so, much of 20th-century thriller fiction, including such films as Thunderball and Barbarella, may be considered direct descendants of Facing the Flag.[5]

In 1958, Czech director Karel Zeman used the novel as the basis for his 1958 film Vynález zkázy (a.k.a. The Deadly Invention and The Fabulous World of Jules Verne). The film, which made considerable use of the steel engravings in the original editions of Verne's novels, won the Grand Prix at the International Film Festival at Expo 58 in Brussels.[6]

And, to a lesser extent, this novel also inspired the climactic scene, at Vulcania, in the 1954 Walt Disney film 20,000 Leagues Under The Sea (adapted from Verne's better known novel of the same name)..

In 2012 French comics artist Goux adapted the novel into a comic book, Le Fulgurateur Roch. [7]

References

  1. ^ a b Butcher, William. "A Chronology of Jules Verne". Jules Verne Collection. Zvi Har’El. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  2. ^ Pérez, Ariel; Garmt de Vries; Jean-Michel Margot. "Jules Verne FAQ". Jules Verne Collection. Zvi Har’El. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  3. ^ McDougall, Walter (September 2001). "Journey to the Center of Jules Verne… and Us". Watch on the West: A Newsletter of FPRI's Center for the Study of America and the West. 2 (4). Archived from the original on 8 August 2006. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  4. ^ Taves, Brian; Jean-Michel Margot (November 1997). "Books in Review: An Ordinary Treatment of the Voyages Extraordinaires". Science-Fiction Studies. XXIV (73). Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  5. ^ Evans, Arthur B. (November 1999). "An Exercise in Creative Genealogy". Science Fiction Studies. 26 (79). Retrieved 24 August 2012.
  6. ^ Pišťanek, Peter (2009-09-17). "Karel Zeman Génius animovaného filmu". SME. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  7. ^ https://www.lambiek.net/artists/g/goux.htm

External links

Captain Stingaree

Captain Stingaree is a fictional supervillain in the DC Comics universe, and a minor foe of the Batman. He first appeared in Detective Comics #460 (June 1976), and was created by Bob Rozakis, Michael Uslan and Ernie Chan.

Diabolito

Diabolito or Little Devil (died July 1823) was a 19th-century Cuban pirate. One of the more violent of the era, he engaged the United States Navy and was one of the main fugitives pursued during later American naval expeditions in the Caribbean during the 1820s.

Emanuel Wynn

Emanuel Wynn was a French pirate of the 18th century, and is often considered the first pirate to fly the Jolly Roger.

Fancy (ship)

Fancy was Henry Every's ship, and was commanded by him between May 1694 to late 1695, when he retired from piracy and the fate of Fancy becomes unknown.

George Lowther (pirate)

George Lowther (died 1723) was an 18th-century English pirate who, although little is known of his life, was active in the Caribbean and Atlantic. One of his lieutenants was Edward Low.

HMS Sword

HMS Sword is a fictional experimental submarine of the British Royal Navy in Jules Verne's 1896 novel Facing the Flag.

As described by Verne, Sword was a "submersible boat of only twelve tons", carrying a crew of four and commanded by a lieutenant. Her screw was worked by a couple of dynamos fitted with accumulators that needed to be charged in port, and which enabled her to cruise for only one or two days. She was divided into three watertight compartments. The aft one contained the accumulators and machinery. The middle, occupied by the pilot, was surmounted by a periscope fitted with lenticular portholes through which an electric search-lamp lighted the way through the water. The forward compartment was used for passengers.

In the 1890s, Sword was in the Port of St. George at the Bahamas when authorities found the pirate Ker Karraje had established himself in a cavern, accessible only by submarine, on the desolate neighboring island of Back Cup. Karraje had with him the French inventor, Thomas Roch, who agreed to give a powerful new explosive to the pirate. The news had arrived through a message placed in a keg by the engineer, Simon Hart, held captive in the pirate stronghold.

Sword, under Lt Devon, was sent to penetrate the stronghold and take Roch and Hart aboard. This Devon and his men did, but before they could get away they were discovered by the bigger pirate submarine and sunk. The British crew perished while Roch and Hart were recovered by pirate divers, to take part in the cataclysmic end of the story. Verne conceived submarine fighting as mainly ramming.

The book was written when Verne was well-disposed towards the British (his attitude fluctuated). Lt Devon is a noble and heroic officer, the equal of naval heroes in books by British writers.

The Royal Navy did, in 1943, give the name "Sword" to a surface ship being laid out at Newport News, Virginia, to be delivered to Britain as part of lend-lease. However, before it was completed the deal was off and the ship was delivered to the United States Navy, commissioned in 1944 as USS Rushmore. She had a long and distinguished career.

Hendrick Lucifer

Hendrick Jacobszoon Lucifer (1583–1627) was a Dutch-born pirate.Hendrick's last name, Lucifer, referred to a lighting stick, not to the fallen angel Lucifer, and was most likely used as a nickname due to his use of fire and smoke to surprise enemies.

Liang Daoming

Liang Daoming (Chinese: 梁道明; pinyin: Liáng Dàomíng; Cantonese Yale: Lèuhng Douh-mìng) was an abscondee of the Chinese Ming Dynasty who became king of Palembang in Srivijaya. He hailed from Guangdong province and was of Cantonese descent. According to the Ming records, he had thousands of followers and a sizable military contingent in Palembang. Liang Daoming's rule over Palembang was acknowledged by the Ming emperor and protected by Zheng He's armada (1403-1424).

List of privateers

A privateer was a private person or private warship authorized by a country's government by letters of marque to attack foreign shipping. Privateers were an accepted part of naval warfare from the 16th to the 19th centuries, authorised by all significant naval powers.

Notable privateers included:

Victual Brothers or Vitalians or Likedeelers 1360–1401

Gödeke Michels (leader of the Likedeelers) 1360–1401

Klaus Störtebeker, Wismar, (leader of the Likedeelers), 1360–1401

Didrik Pining, German, c. 1428–1491

Paul Beneke, German, born in Hanseatic City of Danzig, Pomerelia c. 1440s–1490s

Kemal Reis, Turkish, c. 1451–1511

Oruç Reis (Barbarossa), Turkish, c. 1474–1518

Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, Turkish, 1478–1546

Turgut Reis (Dragut), Turkish, c. 1485–1565

Timoji, Hindu, 1496–1513

Murat Reis the Older, Turkish, c. 1506–1609

Sir Francis Drake, English, c. 1540–1596

Sir George Somers, English 1554–1610

Captain Christopher Newport, English, c. 1561–1617

Magnus Heinason, Faroese, c. 1568–1578 privateer in Dutch service under the Dutch revolt and 1580s, and privateer and merchant in Danish service on the Faroe Islands c. 1578–1589

Piet Hein, Dutch, 1577–1629

Alonso de Contreras, Spanish, 1582–1641, privateer against the Turks under the banner of the Order of Malta and later commanded Spanish ships

James Erisey, English, 1585–1590s

Peter Easton, England/Newfoundland, c. 1611–1614

Sir Henry Morgan, Welsh, 1635–1688

Jean Bart, French, 1651–1702

William Dampier, English, 1652–1715

Nicolas Baeteman, Dunkirker 1659–1720

Alexander Dalzeel, Scotland, c. 1662–1715

René Duguay-Trouin, French, 1673–1736

Kanhoji Angre, Maratha, 1698–1729

Lars Gathenhielm, Swedish, 1710–1718

Ingela Gathenhielm, Swedish, 1710/18–1721

Fortunatus Wright, English of Liverpool, 1712–1757

David Hawley, colonial United States, 1741–1807

Jonathan Haraden, colonial United States, 1744–1803

William Death, English, 1756

Alexander Godfrey, colonial Nova Scotia, 1756–1803

Jose Campuzano-Polanco, colonial Santo Domingo, 1689-1760

Etienne Pellot, aka "the Basque Fox", French, 1765–1856

Noah Stoddard, United States, 1755-1850

Robert Surcouf, French, 1773–1827

David McCullough, colonial United States, 1777-1778

Jean Gaspard Vence, French, –1783

Joseph Barss, Colonial Nova Scotia, 1776–1824

Jean Lafitte 1776–1854, French Louisiana hero in the Gulf of Mexico

John Ordronaux (privateer), United States, 1778–1841

Ephraim Sturdivant, United States, 1782–1868

Hipólito Bouchard, Argentina, 1783–1843

Louisa, ship, of Philadelphia United States, 1800s during Quasi-War with the French

Otway Burns, North Carolina, United States 1775–1850

No purchase, no pay

"No purchase, no pay" (or "no prey, no pay") was a phrase used by pirates and privateers, of the 17th century in particular, to describe the conditions under which participants were expected to join expeditions or raids. The phrase describes a remuneration arrangement similar to a commission.

Pierre le Grand (pirate)

Pierre Le Grand (French: Peter the Great) was a French buccaneer of the 17th century. He is known to history only from one source, Alexandre Exquemelin's Buccaneers of America, and may be imaginary.

Secret of Cerulean Sand

Secret of Cerulean Sand (パタパタ飛行船の冒険, Patapata Hikōsen no Bōken) is a 26-episode anime television series. The main character is a 15-year-old English girl named Jane Buxton, who dreams of building a flying machine. The series documents her journey through the Near East to find her brother. It is set in the late 19th century where impossible technologies such as landships and "floating liquid" exist side by side in a steampunk world.

The series is loosely based on two works by Jules Verne; his posthumous 1919 novel The Barsac Mission (L’Étonnante Aventure de la mission Barsac, consisting of two volumes—Book 1, Into the Niger Bend, and Book 2, City in the Sahara) as well as his 1896 novel Facing the Flag (Face au drapeau).

Silver (Andrew Motion novel)

Silver: Return to Treasure Island, is a novel by former British Poet Laureate Andrew Motion, published by Jonathan Cape on 15 March 2012. The book follows Jim Hawkins, son of the character of the same name in Robert Louis Stevenson's 1883 novel Treasure Island, as he and Nat, daughter of Long John Silver, also a character in Treasure Island, return to the island visited by their fathers to claim abandoned bar silver.

Space pirate

Space pirates are a type of stock character from science fiction.

The Angel's Command

The Angel's Command is a 2003 novel by Brian Jacques, author of the popular children's series Redwall, and the sequel to Castaways of the Flying Dutchman. It follows the adventures of an immortal boy and his dog as they face pirates and other dangers from the high seas to the mountains.

The Begum's Fortune

The Begum's Fortune (French: Les Cinq cents millions de la Bégum), also published as The Begum's Millions, is an 1879 novel by Jules Verne, with some utopian elements and other elements that seem clearly dystopian. It is remarkable as the first published book in which Verne was cautionary, and somewhat pessimistic about the development of science and technology.

As came out long after the book's publication, it is actually based on a manuscript by Paschal Grousset, a Corsican revolutionary who had participated in the Paris Commune and was at the time living in exile in the United States and London. It was bought by Pierre-Jules Hetzel, the publisher of most of Verne’s books. The attribution of plot elements between Grousset's original text and Verne's work on it has not been completely defined. Later, Verne worked similarly on two more books by Grousset and published them under his name, before the revolutionary finally got a pardon and was able to return to France and resume publication in his own name.

The book first appeared in a hasty and poorly done English translation soon after its publication in French—one of the bad translations considered to have damaged Verne's reputation in the English-speaking world. W. H. G. Kingston was near death and deeply in debt at the time. His wife, Mrs. A. K. Kingston, who did the translation for him, was certainly otherwise preoccupied than with the accuracy of the text and may have had to rely on outside help. in 2005 a new translation from the French was made by Stanford Luce and published by Wesleyan University.

I. O. Evans in his introduction to his "Fitzroy Edition" of The Begum's Fortune suggested a connection between the creation of artificial satellites in this novel and the publication of The Brick Moon by Edward Everett Hale in 1879.

The Fabulous World of Jules Verne

The Fabulous World of Jules Verne (Czech: Vynález zkázy, lit. 'destructive/deadly invention') is a 1958 Czechoslovak black-and-white science fiction adventure film directed by Karel Zeman and produced by Zdeněk Novák, that stars Lubor Tokoš, Arnošt Navrátil and Miloslav Holub. Based on several works by Jules Verne, primarily his 1896 novel Facing the Flag (with which the film shares its Czech title), the film evokes the original illustrations for Verne's works by combining live actors with various forms of animation.

The film made its North American debut in 1961 through Warner Bros. Pictures, dubbed into English and retitled The Fabulous World of Jules Verne. Soon after, it was distributed to 72 countries around the world, where it received widespread attention. It is considered the most successful Czech film ever made.A 35 mm film print of the original Czech version with English subtitles was shown at film festivals internationally during the 2000s, and had the on-screen English title A Deadly Invention. In 2014 to 2015 a digital restoration was made which included the reinsertion of a cut scene not included in the film since previews in 1958, and now both the Czech version with English subtitles and the English-dubbed version are available restored in high-definition video internationally under the title Invention for Destruction.

Timeline of piracy

This is a timeline of the history of piracy.

1600s: 1600 - 1601 - 1602 - 1603 - 1604 - 1605 - 1606 - 1607 - 1608 - 1609

1610s: 1610 - 1611 - 1612 - 1613 - 1614 - 1615 - 1616 - 1617 - 1618 - 1619

1620s: 1620 - 1621 - 1622 - 1623 - 1624 - 1625 - 1626 - 1627 - 1628 - 1629

1630s: 1630 - 1631 - 1632 - 1633 - 1634 - 1635 - 1636 - 1637 - 1638 - 1639

1640s: 1640 - 1641 - 1642 - 1643 - 1644 - 1645 - 1646 - 1647 - 1648 - 1649

1650s: 1650 - 1651 - 1652 - 1653 - 1654 - 1655 - 1656 - 1657 - 1658 - 1659

1660s: 1660 - 1661 - 1662 - 1663 - 1664 - 1665 - 1666 - 1667 - 1668 - 1669

1670s: 1670 - 1671 - 1672 - 1673 - 1674 - 1675 - 1676 - 1677 - 1678 - 1679

1680s: 1680 - 1681 - 1682 - 1683 - 1684 - 1685 - 1686 - 1687 - 1688 - 1689

1690s: 1690 - 1691 - 1692 - 1693 - 1694 - 1695 - 1696 - 1697 - 1698 - 1699

1700s: 1700 - 1701 - 1702 - 1703 - 1704 - 1705 - 1706 - 1707 - 1708 - 1709

1710s: 1710 - 1711 - 1712 - 1713 - 1714 - 1715 - 1716 - 1717 - 1718 - 1719

1720s: 1720 - 1721 - 1722 - 1723 - 1724 - 1725 - 1726 - 1727 - 1728 - 1729

1730s: 1730 - 1731 - 1732 - 1733 - 1734 - 1735 - 1736 - 1737 - 1738 - 1739

1740s: 1740 - 1741 - 1742 - 1743 - 1744 - 1745 - 1746 - 1747 - 1748 - 1749

1750s: 1750 - 1751 - 1752 - 1753 - 1754 - 1755 - 1756 - 1757 - 1758 - 1759

1760s: 1760 - 1761 - 1762 - 1763 - 1764 - 1765 - 1766 - 1767 - 1768 - 1769

1770s: 1770 - 1771 - 1772 - 1773 - 1774 - 1775 - 1776 - 1777 - 1778 - 1779

1780s: 1780 - 1781 - 1782 - 1783 - 1784 - 1785 - 1786 - 1787 - 1788 - 1789

1790s: 1790 - 1791 - 1792 - 1793 - 1794 - 1795 - 1796 - 1797 - 1798 - 1799

1800s: 1800 - 1801 - 1802 - 1803 - 1804 - 1805 - 1806 - 1807 - 1808 - 1809

1810s: 1810 - 1811 - 1812 - 1813 - 1814 - 1815 - 1816 - 1817 - 1818 - 1819

1820s: 1820 - 1821 - 1822 - 1823 - 1824 - 1825 - 1826 - 1827 - 1828 - 1829

1830s: 1830 - 1831 - 1832 - 1833 - 1834 - 1835 - 1836 - 1837 - 1838 - 1839

1840s: 1840 - 1841 - 1842 - 1843 - 1844 - 1845 - 1846 - 1847 - 1848 - 1849

1850s: 1850 - 1851 - 1852 - 1853 - 1854 - 1855 - 1856 - 1857 - 1858 - 1859

1860s: 1860 - 1861 - 1862 - 1863 - 1864 - 1865 - 1866 - 1867 - 1868 - 1869

1870s: 1870 - 1871 - 1872 - 1873 - 1874 - 1875 - 1876 - 1877 - 1878 - 1879

1880s: 1880 - 1881 - 1882 - 1883 - 1884 - 1885 - 1886 - 1887 - 1888 - 1889

1890s: 1890 - 1891 - 1892 - 1893 - 1894 - 1895 - 1896 - 1897 - 1898 - 1899

1900s: 1900 - 1901 - 1902 - 1903 - 1904 - 1905 - 1906 - 1907 - 1908 - 1909

1910s: 1910 - 1911 - 1912 - 1913 - 1914 - 1915 - 1916 - 1917 - 1918 - 1919

1920s: 1920 - 1921 - 1922 - 1923 - 1924 - 1925 - 1926 - 1927 - 1928 - 1929

1930s: 1930 - 1931 - 1932 - 1933 - 1934 - 1935 - 1936 - 1937 - 1938 - 1939

1940s: 1940 - 1941 - 1942 - 1943 - 1944 - 1945 - 1946 - 1947 - 1948 - 1949

1950s: 1950 - 1951 - 1952 - 1953 - 1954 - 1955 - 1956 - 1957 - 1958 - 1959

1960s: 1960 - 1961 - 1962 - 1963 - 1964 - 1965 - 1966 - 1967 - 1968 - 1969

1970s: 1970 - 1971 - 1972 - 1973 - 1974 - 1975 - 1976 - 1977 - 1978 - 1979

1980s: 1980 - 1981 - 1982 - 1983 - 1984 - 1985 - 1986 - 1987 - 1988 - 1989

1990s: 1990 - 1991 - 1992 - 1993 - 1994 - 1995 - 1996 - 1997 - 1998 - 1999

2000s: 2000 - 2001 - 2002 - 2003 - 2004 - 2005 - 2006 - 2007 - 2008 - 2009

2010s: 2010 - 2011 - 2012 - 2013 - 2014 - 2015 - 2016 - 2017

Tom Ayrton

Tom Ayrton is a fictional character who appears in two novels by French author Jules Verne. He is first introduced as a major character in the novel In Search of the Castaways (1867–1868). He then reappears in a later novel, The Mysterious Island (1874), in which his fate, left unknown at the ending of the previous novel, is resolved, and during the course of which his character undergoes change and achieves a redemption.

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