Face

The face is the front of an animal's head that features three of the head's sense organs, the eyes, nose, and mouth, and through which animals express many of their emotions.[1][2] The face is crucial for human identity, and damage such as scarring or developmental deformities affects the psyche adversely.[1]

Face
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Ventrolateral aspect of the face with skin removed, showing muscles of the face.
Details
Identifiers
LatinFacies, facia
MeSHD005145
TAA01.1.00.006
FMA24728
Anatomical terminology

Structure

The front of the human head is called the face. It includes several distinct areas,[3] of which the main features are:

Facial appearance is vital for human recognition and communication. Facial muscles in humans allow expression of emotions.

The face is itself a highly sensitive region of the human body and its expression may change when the brain is stimulated by any of the many human senses, such as touch, temperature, smell, taste, hearing, movement, hunger, or visual stimuli.[4]

Shape

Braus 1921 369
The nasal cartilages are important in defining the shape of the nose.
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The muscles of the face are important when engaging in facial expressions.
Blausen 0393 FacialBones 01
Skeletal anatomy of the face

The face is the feature which best distinguishes a person. Specialized regions of the human brain, such as the fusiform face area (FFA), enable facial recognition; when these are damaged, it may be impossible to recognize faces even of intimate family members. The pattern of specific organs, such as the eyes, or of parts of them, is used in biometric identification to uniquely identify individuals.

The shape of the face is influenced by the bone-structure of the skull, and each face is unique through the anatomical variation present in the bones of the viscerocranium (and neurocranium).[1] The bones involved in shaping the face are mainly the maxilla, mandible, nasal bone and zygomatic bone. Also important are various soft tissues, such as fat, hair and skin (of which color may vary).[1]

The face changes over time, and features common in children or babies, such as prominent buccal fat-pads disappear over time, their role in the infant being to stabilize the cheeks during suckling. While the buccal fat-pads often diminish in size, the prominence of bones increase with age as they grow and develop.[1]

Facial shape is an important determinant of beauty, particularly facial symmetry.

Anthropogenie; oder, Entwickelungs-geschichte des Menschen (1910) (19181312270)
Human face development, by Haeckel
Characters and Caricaturas by William Hogarth
Various face profiles as caricatures, by William Hogarth
Sabaa Nissan Militiaman
A man's face
Face of SpooSpa
A woman's face

Function

Emotion

Faces are essential to expressing emotion, consciously or unconsciously. A frown denotes disapproval; a smile usually means someone is pleased. Being able to read emotion in another's face is "the fundamental basis for empathy and the ability to interpret a person’s reactions and predict the probability of ensuing behaviors". One study used the Multimodal Emotion Recognition Test[5] to attempt to determine how to measure emotion. This research aimed at using a measuring device to accomplish what people do so easily everyday: read emotion in a face.[6]

The muscles of the face play a prominent role in the expression of emotion,[1] and vary among different individuals, giving rise to additional diversity in expression and facial features.[7]

Braus 1921 379
Variations of the risorius, triangularis and zygomaticus muscles.

People are also relatively good at determining if a smile is real or fake. A recent study looked at individuals judging forced and genuine smiles. While young and elderly participants equally could tell the difference for smiling young people, the "older adult participants outperformed young adult participants in distinguishing between posed and spontaneous smiles".[8] This suggests that with experience and age, we become more accurate at perceiving true emotions across various age groups.

Perception and recognition of faces

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The face perception mechanisms of the brain, such as the fusiform face area, can produce facial pareidolias such as this famous rock formation on Mars

Gestalt psychologists theorize that a face is not merely a set of facial features, but is rather something meaningful in its form. This is consistent with the Gestalt theory that an image is seen in its entirety, not by its individual parts. According to Gary L. Allen, people adapted to respond more to faces during evolution as the natural result of being a social species. Allen suggests that the purpose of recognizing faces has its roots in the "parent-infant attraction, a quick and low-effort means by which parents and infants form an internal representation of each other, reducing the likelihood that the parent will abandon his or her offspring because of recognition failure".[9] Allen's work takes a psychological perspective that combines evolutionary theories with Gestalt psychology.

Biological perspective

Research has indicated that certain areas of the brain respond particularly well to faces. The fusiform face area, within the fusiform gyrus, is activated by faces, and it is activated differently for shy and social people. A study confirmed that "when viewing images of strangers, shy adults exhibited significantly less activation in the fusiform gyri than did social adults".[10] Furthermore, particular areas respond more to a face that is considered attractive, as seen in another study: "Facial beauty evokes a widely distributed neural network involving perceptual, decision-making and reward circuits. In those experiments, the perceptual response across FFA and LOC remained present even when subjects were not attending explicitly to facial beauty".[11]

Society and culture

Facial surgery

Cosmetic surgery can be used to alter the appearance of the facial features.[12] Maxillofacial surgery may also be used in cases of facial trauma, injury to the face and skin diseases. Severely disfigured individuals have recently received full face transplants and partial transplants of skin and muscle tissue.[13]

Caricatures

Caricatures often exaggerate facial features to make a face more easily recognized in association with a pronounced portion of the face of the individual in question—for example, a caricature of Osama bin Laden might focus on his facial hair and nose; a caricature of George W. Bush might enlarge his ears to the size of an elephant's; a caricature of Jay Leno may pronounce his head and chin; and a caricature of Mick Jagger might enlarge his lips. Exaggeration of memorable features helps people to recognize others when presented in a caricature form.[14]

Metaphor

By extension, anything which is the forward or world-facing part of a system which has internal structure is considered its "face", like the façade of a building. For example, a public relations or press officer might be called the "face" of the organization he or she represents. "Face" is also used metaphorically in a sociological context to refer to reputation or standing in society, particularly Chinese society,[15] and is spoken of as a resource which can be won or lost. Because of the association with individuality, the anonymous person is sometimes referred to as "faceless".

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Moore, Keith L.; Dalley, Arthur F.; Agur, Anne M. R. (2010). Moore's clinical anatomy. United States of America: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 843–980. ISBN 978-1-60547-652-0.
  2. ^ "Year of Discovery, Faceless and Brainless Fish". 2011-12-29. Retrieved December 11, 2013.
  3. ^ Face | Define Face at Dictionary.com. Dictionary.reference.com. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
  4. ^ Anatomy of the Face and Head Underlying Facial Expression Archived 2007-11-29 at the Wayback Machine. Face-and-emotion.com. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
  5. ^ Multimodal Emotion Recognition Test (MERT) | Swiss Center for Affective Sciences Archived 2011-09-03 at the Wayback Machine. Affective-sciences.org. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
  6. ^ Bänziger, T.; Grandjean, D. & Scherer, K. R. (2009). "Emotion recognition from expressions in face, voice, and body: The Multimodal Emotion Recognition Test (MERT)" (PDF). Emotion. 9 (5): 691–704. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.455.8892. doi:10.1037/a0017088. PMID 19803591.
  7. ^ Braus, Hermann (1921). Anatomie des Menschen: ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte. p. 777.
  8. ^ Murphy, N. A.; Lehrfeld, J. M. & Isaacowitz, D. M. (2010). "Recognition of posed and spontaneous dynamic smiles in young and older adults". Psychology and Aging. 25 (4): 811–821. doi:10.1037/a0019888. PMC 3011054. PMID 20718538.
  9. ^ Allen, Gary L.; Peterson, Mary A.; Rhodes, Gillian (2006). "Review: Seeking a Common Gestalt Approach to the Perception of Faces, Objects, and Scenes". American Journal of Psychology. 119 (2): 311–19. doi:10.2307/20445341. JSTOR 20445341.
  10. ^ Beaton, E. A., Schmidt, L. A., Schulkin, J., Antony, M. M., Swinson, R. P. & Hall, G. B. (2009). "Different fusiform activity to stranger and personally familiar faces in shy and social adults". Social Neuroscience. 4 (4): 308–316. doi:10.1080/17470910902801021. PMID 19322727.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Chatterjee, A.; Thomas, A.; Smith, S. E. & Aguirre, G. K. (2009). "The neural response to facial attractiveness". Neuropsychology. 23 (2): 135–143. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.576.5894. doi:10.1037/a0014430. PMID 19254086.
  12. ^ Plastic and Cosmetic Surgery: MedlinePlus. Nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
  13. ^ Face Transplant Surgery at Brigham and Women's Hospital
  14. ^ information about caricatures Archived 2007-08-26 at the Wayback Machine. Edu.dudley.gov.uk. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
  15. ^ Ho, David Yau-fai (January 1976). "On the Concept of Face". American Journal of Sociology. 81 (4): 867–84. doi:10.1086/226145. JSTOR 2777600.: "The concept of face is, of course, Chinese in origin".
Blackface

Blackface is a form of theatrical make-up used predominantly by non-black performers to represent a caricature of a black person. The practice gained popularity during the 19th century and contributed to the spread of racial stereotypes such as the "happy-go-lucky darky on the plantation" or the "dandified coon". By the middle of the century, blackface minstrel shows had become a distinctive American artform, translating formal works such as opera into popular terms for a general audience. Early in the 20th century, blackface branched off from the minstrel show and became a form in its own right. In the United States, blackface had largely fallen out of favor by the turn of the 21st century, and is now generally considered offensive and disrespectful, though the practice continues in other countries.

Body painting

Body painting is a form of body art where artwork is painted directly onto the human skin. Unlike tattoos and other forms of body art, body painting is temporary, lasting several hours or sometimes up to a few weeks (in the case of mehndi or "henna tattoos" about two weeks). Body painting that is limited to the face is known as "face painting". Body painting is also referred to as (a form of) "temporary tattoo". Large scale or full-body painting is more commonly referred to as body painting, while smaller or more detailed work can sometimes be referred to as temporary tattoos.

Brad Marchand

Bradley Kevin Marchand (, ; born May 11, 1988) is a Canadian professional ice hockey left wing who currently plays for the Boston Bruins of the National Hockey League (NHL). Marchand was selected by the Bruins in the third round, 71st overall, at the 2006 NHL Entry Draft. During his time with Boston, he won the Stanley Cup in 2011 and was named to the 2017 and 2018 NHL All-Star Game.

Marchand played major junior hockey in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League (QMJHL) prior to his NHL career.

Burqa

A burqa or burka (Arabic: برقع ‎), also known as a chadaree (Pashto: چادري‎) in Afghanistan or a paranja (Russian: паранджа́; Tatar: пәрәнҗә) in Central Asia, is an enveloping outer garment worn by women in some Islamic traditions to cover themselves in public, which covers the body and the face.

The term burqa is sometimes conflated with niqab. In more precise usage, niqab is a face veil that leaves the eyes uncovered, while a burqa covers the entire body from the top of the head to the ground, with only a mesh screen allowing the wearer to see in front of her. The burqa is also not to be confused with the hijab, a garment which typically covers the hair, neck and all or part of the chest, but not the face.

The burqa and other types of face veils have been attested since pre-Islamic times, in particular among Pashtun and Arab women. Face veiling has not been regarded as a religious requirement by most Islamic scholars, past or present. However, some scholars, especially those belonging to the Salafi movement, view it as obligatory for women in the presence of non-related (mahram) males. Women may wear the burqa for a number of reasons, including compulsion, as was the case in Afghanistan during Taliban rule.

There are currently 14 nations that have banned the burqa, including Austria, Denmark, France, Belgium, Tajikistan, Latvia, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Chad, the Republic of the Congo, Gabon, the Netherlands, Morocco and Sri Lanka.

Cubic crystal system

In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube. This is one of the most common and simplest shapes found in crystals and minerals.

There are three main varieties of these crystals:

Primitive cubic (abbreviated cP and alternatively called simple cubic)

Body-centered cubic (abbreviated cI or bcc)

Face-centered cubic (abbreviated cF or fcc, and alternatively called cubic close-packed or ccp)Each is subdivided into other variants listed below. Note that although the unit cell in these crystals is conventionally taken to be a cube, the primitive unit cell often is not.

Dam

A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but also provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture, and navigability. Hydropower is often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can also be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees (also known as dikes) are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. The earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan, dating to 3,000 BC.

The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, and before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities. The first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, Obdam, that is already mentioned in 1120. The word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, meaning "grave" or "grave hill". So the word should be understood as "dike from dug out earth". The names of more than 40 places (with minor changes) from the Middle Dutch era (1150–1500 CE) such as Amsterdam (founded as 'Amstelredam' in the late 12th century) and Rotterdam, also bear testimony to the use of the word in Middle Dutch at that time.

Emoticon

An emoticon (, i-MOHT-i-kon, rarely pronounced ), short for "emotion icon", also known simply as an emote, is a pictorial representation of a facial expression using characters—usually punctuation marks, numbers, and letters—to express a person's feelings or mood, or as a time-saving method. The first ASCII emoticons, :-) and :-(, were written by Scott Fahlman in 1982, but emoticons actually originated on the PLATO IV computer system in 1972.In Western countries, emoticons are usually written at a right angle to the direction of the text. Users from Japan popularized a kind of emoticon called kaomoji (顔文字; lit. 顔(kao)=face, 文字(moji)=character(s)), utilizing the Katakana character set, that can be understood without tilting one's head to the left. This style arose on ASCII NET of Japan in 1986.As SMS and the internet became widespread in the late 1990s, emoticons became increasingly popular and were commonly used on text messages, internet forums and e-mails. Emoticons have played a significant role in communication through technology, and some devices and applications have provided stylized pictures that do not use text punctuation. They offer another range of "tone" and feeling through texting that portrays specific emotions through facial gestures while in the midst of text-based cyber communication.

Facade

A facade (also façade; (listen)) is generally one exterior side of a building, usually the front. It is a foreign loan word from the French façade, which means "frontage" or "face".

In architecture, the facade of a building is often the most important aspect from a design standpoint, as it sets the tone for the rest of the building. From the engineering perspective of a building, the facade is also of great importance due to its impact on energy efficiency. For historical facades, many local zoning regulations or other laws greatly restrict or even forbid their alteration.

Face (professional wrestling)

In professional wrestling, a face (babyface) is a heroic or a "good guy" wrestler, booked (scripted) by the promotion with the aim of being cheered by fans. Traditionally, they wrestle within the rules and avoid cheating (in contrast to the villains who use illegal moves and call in additional wrestlers to do their work for them) while behaving positively towards the referee and the audience. Such characters are also referred to as "blue-eyes" in British wrestling and técnicos in lucha libre. The face character is portrayed as a hero relative to the heel wrestlers, who are analogous to villains. Not everything a face wrestler does must be heroic: faces need only to be clapped or cheered by the audience to be effective characters.

The vast majority of wrestling storylines involving faces place a face against a heel, although more elaborate set-ups (such as two faces being manipulated by a nefarious outside party into fighting) often happen as well. In the world of lucha libre wrestling, most técnicos are generally known for using moves requiring technical skill, particularly aerial maneuvers and wearing outfits using bright colors with positive associations (such as solid white). This is contrasted with most villainous rudos that are generally of them known for being brawlers, using physical moves that emphasize brute strength or size while often having outfits akin to demons or other nasty characters.

Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. It was identified in 1897 by the Italian scientist Camillo Golgi and named after him in 1898.Part of the endomembrane system in the cytoplasm, the Golgi apparatus packages proteins into membrane-bound vesicles inside the cell before the vesicles are sent to their destination. The Golgi apparatus resides at the intersection of the secretory, lysosomal, and endocytic pathways. It is of particular importance in processing proteins for secretion, containing a set of glycosylation enzymes that attach various sugar monomers to proteins as the proteins move through the apparatus.

Helen of Troy

In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy (Ancient Greek: Ἑλένη Helénē, pronounced [helénɛː]), also known as Helen of Sparta, was said to have been the most beautiful woman in the world. She was married to King Menelaus of Sparta but was abducted by Prince Paris of Troy after the goddess Aphrodite promised her to him in the Judgement of Paris. This resulted in the Trojan War when the Achaeans set out to reclaim her. She was believed to have been the daughter of Zeus and Leda, and was the sister of Clytemnestra, Castor and Polydeuces, Philonoe, Phoebe and Timandra.

Elements of her putative biography come from classical authors such as Aristophanes, Cicero, Euripides, and Homer (in both the Iliad and the Odyssey). Her story reappears in Book II of Virgil's Aeneid. In her youth, she was abducted by Theseus. A competition between her suitors for her hand in marriage saw Menelaus emerge victorious. An oath sworn by all the suitors (known as the Oath of Tyndareus) required all of them to provide military assistance to the winning suitor, whomever he might be, if she were ever stolen from him; the obligations of the oath precipitated the Trojan War. When she married Menelaus she was still very young; whether her subsequent departure with Paris was an abduction or an elopement is ambiguous (probably deliberately so).

The legends of Helen in Troy are contradictory: Homer depicts her as a wistful, even sorrowful figure, who came to regret her choice and wished to be reunited with Menelaus. Other accounts have a treacherous Helen who simulated Bacchic rites and rejoiced in the carnage she caused. Ultimately, Paris was killed in action, and in Homer's account Helen was reunited with Menelaus, though other versions of the legend recount her ascending to Olympus instead. A cult associated with her developed in Hellenistic Laconia, both at Sparta and elsewhere; at Therapne she shared a shrine with Menelaus. She was also worshiped in Attica and on Rhodes.

Her beauty inspired artists of all times to represent her, frequently as the personification of ideal human beauty. Images of Helen start appearing in the 7th century BCE. In classical Greece, her abduction by Paris – or escape with him – was a popular motif. In medieval illustrations, this event was frequently portrayed as a seduction, whereas in Renaissance paintings it was usually depicted as a "rape" (i. e. abduction) by Paris. Christopher Marlowe's lines from his tragedy Doctor Faustus (1604) are frequently cited: "Was this the face that launched a thousand ships / And burnt the topless towers of Ilium?"

Hijab

A hijab (; Arabic: حجاب‎ ḥijāb, pronounced [ħɪˈdʒaːb] or Egyptian Arabic: [ħeˈɡæːb]) in common English usage is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest. The term can refer to any head, face, or body covering worn by Muslim women that conforms to Islamic standards of modesty. Hijab can also refer to the seclusion of women from men in the public sphere, or it may denote a metaphysical dimension, for example referring to "the veil which separates man or the world from God." People usually talk about "the hijab" rather than "a hijab", as evidenced by this article.

In the Qur'an, hadith, and other classical Arabic texts the term khimār (Arabic: خمار‎) was used to denote a headscarf, and ḥijāb was used to denote a partition, a curtain, or was used generally for the Islamic rules of modesty and dress for both males and females.In its traditional form, it is worn by women to maintain modesty and privacy from unrelated males. According to the Encyclopedia of Islam and Muslim World, modesty in the Quran concerns both men's and women's "gaze, gait, garments, and genitalia." The Qur'an instructs Muslim women to dress modestly. Some Islamic legal systems define this type of modest clothing as covering everything except the face, hands up to wrists, and feet. These guidelines are found in texts of hadith and fiqh developed after the revelation of the Qur'an but, according to some, are derived from the verses (ayahs) referencing hijab in the Qur'an. Some believe that the Qur'an itself does not mandate that women wear hijab.In the Qur'an, the term hijab refers to a partition or curtain in the literal or metaphorical sense. The verse where it is used literally is commonly understood to refer to the curtain separating visitors to Muhammad's house from his wives' lodgings. This had led some to argue that the mandate of the Qur'an to wear hijab applied to the wives of Muhammad, and not women generally.In recent times, wearing hijab in public has been required by law in Saudi Arabia (for Muslims), Iran and the Indonesian province of Aceh. Other countries, both in Europe and in the Muslim world, have passed laws banning some or all types of hijab in public or in certain types of locales. Women in different parts of the world have also experienced unofficial pressure to wear or not wear hijab.

Lil Wayne

Dwayne Michael Carter Jr. (born September 27, 1982), known professionally as Lil Wayne, is an American rapper, singer, songwriter, record executive, entrepreneur, and actor. His career began in 1995, at the age of 12, when he was discovered by Birdman and joined Cash Money Records as the youngest member of the label, and half of the duo The B.G.'z, alongside fellow New Orleans-based rapper B.G. The duo then joined the southern hip hop group Hot Boys, with Cash Money label-mates Juvenile and Turk, in 1997, which foresaw the release of their debut album, Get It How U Live!, that same year. The group became popular following the release of the platinum-selling album Guerrilla Warfare (1999) and the 1999 single "Bling Bling". For many years, Lil Wayne was the flagship artist of Cash Money Records, before ending his long-tenured deal with the company in June 2018.Lil Wayne's solo debut album Tha Block Is Hot (1999) was certified platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). His subsequent albums, Lights Out (2000) and 500 Degreez (2002), went on to be certified gold. Lil Wayne reached higher popularity with his fourth album Tha Carter (2004), as well as with his appearance on the song "Soldier" with Destiny's Child that same year. The album was followed by Tha Carter II (2005), as well as several mixtapes and collaborations throughout 2006 and 2007. Lil Wayne gained more prominence with his sixth album Tha Carter III (2008), which became his most successful album to date, with first-week sales of over one million copies in the United States. The album won the Grammy Award for Best Rap Album and includes the singles "Lollipop", "A Milli" and "Got Money".

Following the success of Tha Carter III, Wayne decided to record a rock-esque album titled Rebirth. The album, released in 2010, was certified gold by the RIAA, despite a generally negative critical response. In March 2010, Lil Wayne began serving an 8-month jail sentence in New York after being convicted of criminal possession of a weapon stemming from an incident in July 2007. His eighth studio album I Am Not a Human Being (2010) was released during his incarceration, while his 2011 album Tha Carter IV was released following his release. Tha Carter IV sold 964,000 copies in its first week in the United States, and includes the singles "6 Foot 7 Foot", "How to Love" and "She Will". On September 27, 2012, Lil Wayne became the first male artist to surpass Elvis Presley with the most entries on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, with 109 songs.His twelfth studio album, Tha Carter V, was released in 2018 after multiple delays. It sold 140,000 copies in its first week and went on to be certified platinum. Lil Wayne has sold over 100 million records worldwide, including more than 15 million albums and 37 million digital tracks in the United States, making him one of the best-selling artists of all time. Lil Wayne also currently serves as the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of his own label imprint, Young Money Entertainment.

MF Doom

Daniel Dumile ( DOO-mil-ay; born January 9, 1971), better known by his stage name MF Doom (stylized as MF DOOM), is an English-born, US-based rapper, songwriter and record producer from Long Island, New York. Best known for his "super villain" stage persona and unique lyrics, Dumile has taken on several stage names in his career. He has appeared in several collaborative projects such as Madvillain (with Madlib), Danger Doom (with Danger Mouse), Doomstarks (with Ghostface Killah), JJ Doom (with Jneiro Jarel), NehruvianDoom (with Bishop Nehru), and Czarface Meets Metal Face (with Czarface).

Oral and maxillofacial surgery

Oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS or OMS) specializes in surgery of the face, mouth, and jaws. It is an internationally recognized surgical specialty. OMFS is a specialty of dentistry in North America, Central America, South America, Australia, New Zealand, Asia, and Scandinavia (Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway). After a full degree in dentistry, the dental specialty residency of oral and maxillofacial surgery may or may not include a full degree in medicine. In countries such as the UK and most of Europe, it is recognized as a specialty of medicine and a degree in medicine or both degrees in medicine and dentistry are compulsory.

Poker Face (Lady Gaga song)

"Poker Face" is a song by American singer Lady Gaga from her debut studio album, The Fame (2008). It was released on September 26, 2008 as the album's second single. "Poker Face" is a synth-pop song in the key of G♯ minor, following in the footsteps of her previous single "Just Dance", but with a darker musical tone. The main idea behind the song is bisexuality and was a tribute by Gaga to her rock and roll boyfriends. The song's lyrics feature various sexual innuendos.

"Poker Face" was acclaimed by most critics, who praised the song's robotic hook and chorus. The song attained worldwide success, topping the charts in 20 countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and many European countries. "Poker Face" is the best-selling single of 2009 worldwide, with over 9.5 million in sales that year. It is one of the best-selling singles of all time, having sold over 14 million copies. The accompanying music video for the song portrays Gaga singing it in various costumes and playing strip poker in a getaway villa.

Gaga performed the song on the eighth season of the television show American Idol, besides multiple other television appearances, as well as the 52nd Annual Grammy Awards, all of her concert tours, and the Super Bowl LI halftime show. "Poker Face" was nominated for both Song of the Year and Record of the Year at the 52nd Grammy Awards, and won the Award for Best Dance Recording.

Smiley

A smiley (sometimes called a happy face or smiley face) is a stylized representation of a smiling humanoid face that is a part of popular culture worldwide. The classic form designed by Harvey Ball in 1963 comprises a yellow circle with two black dots representing eyes and a black arc representing the mouth () On the Internet and in other plain text communication channels, the emoticon form (sometimes also called the smiley-face emoticon) has traditionally been most popular, typically employing a colon and a right parenthesis to form sequences such as :-), :), or (: that resemble a smiling face when viewed after rotation through 90 degrees. "Smiley" is also sometimes used as a generic term for any emoticon. The smiley has been referenced in nearly all areas of Western culture including music, movies, and art. The smiley has also been associated with late 1980s and early 1990s rave culture.The plural form "smilies" is commonly used, but the variant spelling "smilie" is not as common as the "y" spelling.

The Who

The Who are an English rock band formed in London in 1964. Their classic line-up consisted of lead singer Roger Daltrey, guitarist and singer Pete Townshend, bass guitarist John Entwistle and drummer Keith Moon. They are considered one of the most influential rock bands of the 20th century, selling over 100 million records worldwide.

The Who developed from an earlier group, the Detours, and established themselves as part of the pop art and mod movements, featuring auto-destructive art by destroying guitars and drums on stage. Their first single as the Who, "I Can't Explain", reached the UK top ten, followed by a string of singles including "My Generation", "Substitute" and "Happy Jack". In 1967, they performed at the Monterey Pop Festival and released the US top ten single "I Can See for Miles", while touring extensively. The group's fourth album, 1969's rock opera Tommy, included the single "Pinball Wizard" and was a critical and commercial success. Live appearances at Woodstock and the Isle of Wight Festival, along with the live album Live at Leeds, cemented their reputation as a respected rock act. With their success came increased pressure on lead songwriter Townshend, and the follow-up to Tommy, Lifehouse, was abandoned. Songs from the project made up 1971's Who's Next, which included the hit "Won't Get Fooled Again". The group released the album Quadrophenia in 1973 as a celebration of their mod roots, and oversaw the film adaptation of Tommy in 1975. They continued to tour to large audiences before semi-retiring from live performances at the end of 1976. The release of Who Are You in 1978 was overshadowed by the death of Moon shortly after.

Kenney Jones replaced Moon and the group resumed activity, releasing a film adaptation of Quadrophenia and the retrospective documentary The Kids Are Alright. After Townshend became weary of touring, the group split in 1983. The Who occasionally re-formed for live appearances such as Live Aid in 1985, a 25th anniversary tour in 1989 and a tour of Quadrophenia in 1996–1997. They resumed regular touring in 1999, with drummer Zak Starkey. After Entwistle's death in 2002, plans for a new album were delayed. Townshend and Daltrey continued as the Who, releasing Endless Wire in 2006, and continue to play live regularly, with Starkey, bassists Pino Palladino (2006–2017) and Jon Button (2017–present), and guitarist Simon Townshend (Pete's brother) serving as touring players. A tour with a complete symphony orchestra, along with a planned studio album, are both scheduled for 2019.

The Who's major contributions to rock music include the development of the Marshall stack, large PA systems, use of the synthesizer, Entwistle and Moon's lead playing styles, Townshend's feedback and power chord guitar technique, and the development of the rock opera. They are cited as an influence by hard rock, punk rock and mod bands, and their songs still receive regular exposure.

Two-Face

Two-Face (Harvey Dent) is a fictional supervillain appearing in comic books published by DC Comics, commonly as an adversary of the superhero Batman. The character was created by Bob Kane and Bill Finger and first appeared in Detective Comics #66 (August 1942). As one of Batman's most enduring enemies, Two-Face belongs to the collective of adversaries that make up Batman's rogues gallery.

Once an upstanding Gotham City District Attorney, Harvey Dent is hideously scarred on the left side of his face after mob boss Sal Maroni throws acidic chemicals at him during a court trial. He subsequently goes insane and adopts the "Two-Face" persona, becoming a criminal obsessed with duality and the conflict between good and evil. In later years, writers have portrayed Two-Face's obsession with chance and fate as the result of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and dissociative identity disorder. He obsessively makes all important decisions by flipping his former lucky charm, a two-headed coin which was damaged on one side by the acid as well. The modern version is established as having once been a personal friend and ally of James Gordon and Batman.The character has been featured in various media adaptations, such as feature films, television series and video games. Two-Face has been voiced by Richard Moll in the DC animated universe, Troy Baker in the Batman: Arkham series, Billy Dee Williams in The Lego Batman Movie, and William Shatner in Batman vs. Two-Face. His live-action portrayals include Billy Dee Williams in Batman (as Harvey Dent only), Tommy Lee Jones in Batman Forever, Aaron Eckhart in The Dark Knight, and Nicholas D'Agosto in the television series Gotham. In 2009, Two-Face was ranked #12 on IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time.

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