Fabian Ware

Major General Sir Fabian Arthur Goulstone Ware, KCVO, KBE, CB, CMG (17 June 1869 – 28 April 1949) was the founder of the Imperial War Graves Commission, now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Born in Clifton, Bristol, he graduated from the University of Paris in 1894, and traveled to the Transvaal Colony where, as a member of Milner's Kindergarten, he became Director of Education. Ware next became editor of the Morning Post, being fired in 1911 after several controversies. When the First World War started in August 1914, Ware attempted to join the British Army but was rejected because he was too old, and so with the assistance of Lord Milner, he obtained command of a mobile ambulance unit provided by the British Red Cross Society. He ended the war as a major general, and was mentioned in despatches twice. During the war, he founded the Imperial War Graves Commission.

Sir Fabian Ware
Fabian Ware
Major General Fabian Ware in October 1916
Born17 June 1869
Clifton, Bristol
Died28 April 1949 (aged 79)
Amberley, Gloucestershire
AllegianceUnited Kingdom
Service/branchBritish Army
RankMajor General
Battles/warsFirst World War
AwardsKnight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order
Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Companion of the Order of the Bath
Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George
Mentioned in Despatches (2)
Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour (France)
Croix de guerre (France)
Commander of the Order of the Crown (Belgium)

Early life

Ware was born in Clifton, Bristol on 17 June 1869,[1] to Charles Ware and Amy Carew née Goulstone.[2] He was privately tutored until his father died when he was 18. Ware then taught in private schools to pay for attending the Universities of London and Paris, graduating as a Bachelier-es-Sciences at the latter in 1894. He then spent several years as an assistant schoolmaster at the Bradford Grammar School and several other secondary schools, and as an occasional examiner for the Civil Service Commission and Inspector of Schools for the Board of Education.[3][4][5] In 1895, he married Anna Margaret,[2] with who he would have a daughter and a son.[6]

In 1899 he started writing articles for the Morning Post. He became the representative of the Education Committee of the Royal British Commission at the Exposition Universelle of 1900. He was then appointed as Assistant Director of Education in the Transvaal, where two years later he was promoted to Acting Director of Education for the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony. Shortly afterwards he was made Director of Education on the Transvaal Legislative Council under Viscount Milner, and became member of the Transvaal Legislative Council.[3][5][7] Under Ware, the number of children in education in the Transvaal doubled in less than four years.[8]

In 1905, he was offered the editorship of the Morning Post. Ware aimed to make the paper "the authority on all colonial questions."[9] When Lord Glenesk made him editor, the Morning Post had no offices, working instead in wooden sheds.[10] He began expanding the paper by hiring Richard Jebb, who then hired many other correspondents. The two began reorienting the paper towards focusing on the British Dominions, a move they incorrectly felt would increase circulation, though it did increase advertising revenue.[11]

After the First Moroccan Crisis in 1905, Ware campaigned heavily for war with Germany. He later wrote that "we threw the whole weight of the Morning Post against war with Germany." Ware supported social reform and tariff reform.[10] Ware was disliked by some members of the papers staff,[11] and after disagreeing with prominent members of the Conservative Party over tariff reform, endorsing Richard Jebb (costing the newspaper readership) and a failed fundraising campaign to buy the United Kingdom an airship, he was forced out of editorship in 1911.[2][10] Ware next planned to form an independent weekly paper with funding from the countries in the British Empire, proposing (with E. E. A. Duvernet) creating a "United Empire Publishing Co." The project did not succeed.[12] After leaving the Morning Post, he became a consultant for Rio Tinto Limited, negotiating with France.[1][2][13]

First World War

Sir Fabian Ware 1869-1949 Founder of the Imperial War Graves Commission lived here 1911-1919
Blue plaque marking Ware's residence at 14 Wyndham Place, Marylebone

When the First World War started in August 1914, the Royal Automobile Club under Arthur Stanley began assisting the war effort with the creation of the Royal Automobile Club Volunteer Force.[14] On 12 September 1914, several members of the club volunteered their services to the British Red Cross. As a result, the Red Cross established the Motor Ambulance Department.[15] Ware (who had been rejected from serving in the British Army because he was too old), with the assistance of Lord Milner, obtained command of a mobile ambulance unit.[1] Though one of several such units in France, Ware's unit in Northern France was operated under a "quasi-autonomous command" with much independence being afforded by the joint finance committee of St John Ambulance and the Red Cross (he was given his own operating budget for three month spans).[16]

The original object of the unit was to "search for British wounded and missing in the district which had been overrun by the Germans during the retreat from Mons, and to convey them back to the British lines or to a British base." However, by early October 1914, the unit had begun extensively working with the French, and by mid-October, it had added a mobile light hospital and medical staff. When the unit was disbanded, it had dealt with 12,000 casualties.[17]

Ware was struck by the lack of an official mechanism for marking and recording the graves of those killed. Encouraged by Nevil Macready, he founded an organisation to do this, and in 1915 both he and his organisation were transferred from the Red Cross to the Army.[1] By October 1915, the new Graves Registration Commission had over 31,000 graves registered, and 50,000 by May 1916.[2][18] During the war he served as Director of Graves Registration and Enquiries at the War Office.[19]

As the war continued, Ware and others became concerned about the fate of the graves in the post-war period. Following a suggestion by the British Army, the government appointed the National Committee for the Care of Soldiers' Graves in January 1916, with Edward, Prince of Wales agreeing to serve as president.[20] The National Committee for the Care of Soldiers' Graves was created with the intention of taking over the work of the Directorate of Graves Registration and Enquiries after the war. The government felt that it was more appropriate to entrust the work to a specially appointed body rather than to any existing government department.[21]

By early 1917, a number of members of the committee believed a formal imperial organisation would be needed to care for the graves. With the help of Edward, Prince of Wales, Ware submitted a memorandum to the Imperial War Conference in 1917 suggesting that an imperial organisation be constituted.[21][22] The suggestion was accepted and on 21 May 1917 the Imperial War Graves Commission was established by Royal Charter, with the Prince of Wales serving as president, Secretary of State for War Lord Derby as chairman and Ware as vice-chairman.[23][22] The Commission's undertakings began in earnest at the end of the First World War. Once land for cemeteries and memorials had been guaranteed, the enormous task of recording the details of the dead could begin. By 1918, some 587,000 graves had been identified and a further 559,000 casualties were registered as having no known grave.[24]

For his work in the war, Ware was mentioned in despatches twice and made a Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1920.[1][19]

Post-war

In 1922, Ware was made a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order.[25] He published an account of the work of the commission in 1937 called The Immortal Heritage.[26] The outbreak of the Second World War saw him appointed Director of Graves Registration and Enquiries at the War Office, whilst continuing in his role as Vice-Chairman of the Commission.[2][27]

Memorial to Fabian Ware in Gloucester Cathedral
Memorial to Fabian Ware in Gloucester Cathedral

Ware died on 28 April 1949 in Barnwood House Hospital, Gloucester, and was buried in Holy Trinity Churchyard, Amberley on 2 May. His grave has a CWGC-style headstone.[2] There are also memorial tablets to him in the Warrior's Chapel at Westminster Abbey and in Gloucester Cathedral.[28][29] The road 'Boulevard Fabian Ware' in Bayeux, the location of Bayeux War Cemetery, is named in honour of Fabian Ware.[30]

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c d e "Major General Sir Fabian Ware". Ministry of Defence Veterans Agency. Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "Ware, Sir Fabian Arthur Goulstone". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/36741. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  3. ^ a b "Sir Fabian Arthur Gouldstone Ware". Commonwealth War Graves Commission archives.
  4. ^ The School World. Macmillan and Company. 1917. p. 94.
  5. ^ a b Crane 2013, p. 17.
  6. ^ Byrne, Eugene (18 March 2014). "Solution for war dead". The Post.
  7. ^ Stamp, Gavin (2010-08-06). The Memorial to the Missing of the Somme. Profile Books. ISBN 978-1847650603.
  8. ^ Crane 2013, p. 21.
  9. ^ Potter 2003, p. 113.
  10. ^ a b c Crane 2013, pp. 22–26.
  11. ^ a b Potter 2003, pp. 113–117.
  12. ^ Potter, Simon James; Potter, Simon J. (2003). News and the British World: The Emergence of an Imperial Press System, 1876–1922. Clarendon. ISBN 9780199265121.
  13. ^ Russell, Eugenia; Russell, Quentin (2015-08-31). Watford and South West Herts in the Great War. Pen and Sword. ISBN 9781473866072.
  14. ^ Hall, Brian N. (2017-06-07). Communications and British Operations on the Western Front, 1914–1918. Cambridge University Press. p. 110. ISBN 9781107170551.
  15. ^ "British Red Cross Transport during the First World War" (PDF). www.redcross.org.uk. British Red Cross Society. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 November 2017. Retrieved 14 October 2016.
  16. ^ Crane 2013, pp. 31–32.
  17. ^ Crane 2013, p. 33.
  18. ^ "Records". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Archived from the original on 7 August 2006. Retrieved 17 September 2006.
  19. ^ a b "No. 31790". The London Gazette. 20 February 1920. p. 2159.
  20. ^ Summers 2007, pp. 15–16.
  21. ^ a b "WO 32/9433 – Text of Memorandum put before the Imperial War Conference in April 1917". The Catalogue. The National Archives. Retrieved 15 December 2009.
  22. ^ a b Summers 2007, p. 16.
  23. ^ Peaslee 1974, p. 300.
  24. ^ "History of CWGC". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Archived from the original on 3 August 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
  25. ^ "No. 13815". The Edinburgh Gazette. 23 May 1922. p. 900.
  26. ^ Ware, Fabian (1937). The Immortal Heritage. An account of the work and policy of the Imperial War Graves Commission during twenty years 1917–1937 (1 ed.). Cambridge: University Press. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
  27. ^ Miller, Nick (2017-04-24). "War graves serve as a reminder of the cost of conflict". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2018-12-02.
  28. ^ "Fabian Ware". Westminster Abbey. Retrieved 2018-12-02.
  29. ^ "Records". CWGC. Retrieved 2018-12-02.
  30. ^ Holmes, Richard (1992). Fatal avenue: a traveller's history of the battlefields of Northern France and Flanders, 1346–1945. Jonathan Cape. p. 368.

References

  • Crane, David (2013). Empires of the Dead: How One Man's Vision Led to the Creation of WWI'S War Graves. London: William Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-745665-9.
  • Peaslee, Amos Jenkins (1974). International Governmental Organizations. 2 (3rd ed.). London: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 978-90-247-1601-2.
  • Potter, Simon James (2003). News and the British World: The Emergence of an Imperial Press System, 1876–1922. Clarendon. ISBN 9780199265121.
  • Summers, Julie (2007). Remembered: The History of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. London: Merrell. ISBN 978-1-85894-374-9.
Media offices
Preceded by
Spenser Wilkinson
Editor of the Morning Post
1905–1911
Succeeded by
Howell Gwynne
Arras Flying Services Memorial

The Arras Flying Services Memorial Commonwealth War Graves Commission war memorial in the Faubourg d'Amiens Cemetery, Arras, France. The memorial commemorates nearly 1,000 airmen from forces of the Commonwealth who were killed on the Western Front during World War I and who have no known grave. The memorial was designed by Edwin Lutyens, sculpted by William Reid Dick and unveiled by Hugh Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard, Marshal of the Royal Air Force on 31 July 1932.

Atherton War Cemetery

Atherton War Cemetery is a heritage-listed cemetery at the corner of Kennedy Highway and Rockley Road, Atherton, Tablelands Region, Queensland, Australia. It was built in 1942. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 19 November 2010.

Bayeux war cemetery

The Bayeux War Cemetery is the largest Second World War cemetery of Commonwealth soldiers in France, located in Bayeux, Normandy. The cemetery contains 4,648 burials, mostly of the Invasion of Normandy. Opposite this cemetery stands the Bayeux Memorial which commemorates more than 1,800 casualties of the Commonwealth forces who died in Normandy and have no known grave.The cemetery grounds were assigned to the United Kingdom in perpetuity by France in recognition of the sacrifices made by the British Empire in the defence and liberation of France during the war. In addition to the Commonwealth burials, there are 466 graves of German soldiers.

The cemetery contains the Cross of Sacrifice or War Cross, designed by Sir Reginald Blomfield for the Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC).

Queen Elizabeth II and President of France Jacques Chirac attended ceremonies at the cemetery on 6 June 2004, marking the 60th anniversary of the D-Day invasion.Queen Elizabeth II and President of France François Hollande attended ceremonies at the cemetery on 6 June 2014, marking the 70th anniversary of the D-Day invasion.

Commonwealth War Graves Commission

The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) is an intergovernmental organisation of six independent member states whose principal function is to mark, record and maintain the graves and places of commemoration of Commonwealth of Nations military service members who died in the two World Wars. The Commission is also responsible for commemorating Commonwealth civilians who died as a result of enemy action during World War II. The Commission was founded by Sir Fabian Ware and constituted through Royal Charter in 1917 named the Imperial War Graves Commission. The change to the present name took place in 1960.The Commission, as part of its mandate, is responsible for commemorating all Commonwealth war dead individually and equally. To this end, the war dead are commemorated by name on a headstone, at an identified site of a burial, or on a memorial. War dead are commemorated uniformly and equally, irrespective of military or civil rank, race or creed.

The Commission is currently responsible for the continued commemoration of 1.7 million deceased Commonwealth military service members in 153 countries. Since its inception, the Commission has constructed approximately 2,500 war cemeteries and numerous memorials. The Commission is currently responsible for the care of war dead at over 23,000 separate burial sites and the maintenance of more than 200 memorials worldwide. In addition to commemorating Commonwealth military service members, the Commission maintains, under arrangement with applicable governments, over 40,000 non-Commonwealth war graves and over 25,000 non-war military and civilian graves. The Commission operates through the continued financial support of the member states: United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India and South Africa. The current President of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission is Prince Edward, Duke of Kent.

Cross of Sacrifice

The Cross of Sacrifice is a Commonwealth war memorial designed in 1918 by Sir Reginald Blomfield for the Imperial War Graves Commission (now the Commonwealth War Graves Commission). It is present in Commonwealth war cemeteries containing 40 or more graves. Its shape is an elongated Latin cross with proportions more typical of the Celtic cross, with the shaft and crossarm octagonal in section. It ranges in height from 18 to 24 feet (5.5 to 7.3 m). A bronze longsword, blade down, is affixed to the front of the cross (and sometimes to the back as well). It is usually mounted on an octagonal base. It may be freestanding or incorporated into other cemetery features. The Cross of Sacrifice is widely praised, widely imitated, and the archetypal British war memorial. It is the most imitated of Commonwealth war memorials, and duplicates and imitations have been used around the world.

George Pilcher (MP)

George Pilcher (26 February 1882 - 8 December 1962) was a British journalist and politician, who served as the Conservative MP for Penryn and Falmouth in 1924-29, and as a member of the Indian Central Legislative Assembly in 1924.

H. A. Gwynne

Howell Arthur Keir Gwynne, CH (1865–1950) was a British author, newspaper editor of the London Morning Post from 1911 to 1937. The owner was Lilias, Countess Bathurst (1871–1965), a.k.a. Lady Bathurst, wife of Seymour Henry Bathurst, 7th Earl Bathurst (1864–1943). The Bathursts sold the paper in 1924.

Early in his career, Gwynne was part of the group of journalists and writers including also Rudyard Kipling, Perceval Landon, Julian Ralph and F.W. Buxton who helped start a newspaper, The Friend, for Lord Roberts for the British troops in Bloemfontein, the newly captured capital of the Orange Free State during the Boer War. Later, "[l]ike many another elderly Conservative in the nineteen-twenties [Kipling]'s reacted at the news of events in Ireland, Egypt, India, by moving further to the right in politics." Gwynne's Post "continued to fight its rearguard action, and [Kipling] continued to urge Gwynne to take stronger stands." Kipling "was for years closely associated with the editorial policy of the Post and on terms of friendship with Lady Bathurst ..., [and] spent many week-ends at Cirencester." Gwynne's relationship with Kipling continued close throughout the latter's life—he was a pallbearer at Kipling's 1936 burial in Poet's Corner at Westminster Abbey.

List of ships named on the Tower Hill Memorial

The Tower Hill Memorial in London is a pair of Commonwealth War Graves Commission memorials commemorating 36,087 civilian merchant seamen who were lost at sea in the First and Second World Wars.

During the First World War, 3,305 merchant ships were sunk with a total of around 17,000 crew and personnel lost. In the Second World War, 4,786 merchant ships were sunk with a total of around 32,000 crew and personnel lost. Not all these ship losses are named on this memorial, as some ships were sunk or captured with no casualties. Similarly, some of those named on the memorial died in incidents or battles where the ship was not lost.

The dead are listed by the ships they served on. Although many of the ships listed on the memorial were sunk, the loss of the ship is not necessary for it to be listed—the memorial commemorates members of the British Merchant Navy who died as a result of enemy action and who have no known grave. Those with known graves are not commemorated here, nor are the missing that served in other organisations (such as the gunners manning defensively equipped merchant ships), or those listed on other memorials to missing merchant seafarers (such as the memorials to the missing of the Indian Merchant Navy). Crew members lost when hospital ships were targeted are included here (see list of hospital ships sunk in World War I and list of hospital ships sunk in World War II). As well as cargo ships, a number of ocean liners were chartered or requisitioned and used to transport troops and cargo during the war.

It is possible for a ship to be listed under different names, such as MV Domala which is listed for 17 of the 108 casualties sustained on 2 March 1940, but is also listed as SS Empire Attendant after it was repaired, rebuilt, and renamed before being torpedoed on 15 July 1942 with the loss of all hands (the 50 crew listed on this memorial and 9 DEMS gunners). Similarly, the listings for SS Inanda and SS Empire Explorer refer to the same ship, repaired, renamed and later sunk.

There are 24 sections of name panels on the First World War memorial and 132 name panels on the Second World War memorial, with the ships of the mercantile marine (later merchant navy) and fishing fleets listed separately. The largest losses of merchant seamen in single shipwrecks commemorated on these memorials are RMS Lusitania in the First World War and SS Ceramic in the Second World War.

Memorial tablets to the British Empire dead of the First World War

Between 1923 and 1936, the Imperial War Graves Commission erected a series of memorial tablets in French and Belgian cathedrals to commemorate the British Empire dead of the First World War. The tablets were erected in towns in which British Army or Empire troops had been quartered.

The prototype Commission memorial tablet, placed in Amiens Cathedral in 1923 alongside tablets previously erected to other Empire troops, was dedicated to the 600,000 dead of Britain and Ireland. The subsequent design of the Commission's tablet brought together the British Royal Coat of Arms with those of India and the imperial dominions: South Africa, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and Newfoundland. The tablet's inscription, written by Rudyard Kipling, referred to the "million dead" of the Empire. Produced by Reginald Hallward to a design by architect H. P. Cart de Lafontaine, the tablets were erected in twenty-eight cathedrals and churches, twenty-three in France and five in Belgium, with the bilingual inscriptions in each country in English and French, and English and Latin respectively. They were unveiled by a range of dignitaries, including members of the royal family, diplomats, politicians, and British Army generals who had commanded troops on the Western Front.

A tablet of the same design, but with an inscription referring to the dead buried in the "lands of our Allies", was unveiled in Westminster Abbey in 1926 and later installed in what became St George's Chapel. Replicas or copies of the Westminster Abbey tablet were distributed to churches or cathedrals in Hamilton and Vancouver in Canada, and in Baghdad in Iraq. Copies or reproductions are located at the museum at Delville Wood in France, in Fremantle, Australia, and in Liverpool, UK. Versions of the prototype Amiens tablet and the standard tablet used in France are held at the headquarters of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission in Maidenhead, UK.

Memorials to the Missing

Memorials to the Missing is a radio play from the BBC Radio 4 Afternoon Play strand on the establishment of the Imperial War Graves Commission, first broadcast early in 2008 and repeated on 30 October 2008. It was written by Stephen Wyatt and directed by Martin Jenkins. It won the 2008 Tinniswood Award for Best Original Radio Drama Script at the Sony Radio Academy Awards.

Milner's Kindergarten

Milner's Kindergarten is an informal reference to a group of Britons who served in the South African Civil Service under High Commissioner Alfred, Lord Milner, between the Second Boer War and the founding of the Union of South Africa. They were in favour of the South African union and, ultimately, an imperial federation of the British Empire itself. On Milner's retirement, most continued in the service under William Waldegrave Palmer, 2nd Earl of Selborne, who was Milner's successor. Many of these men themselves attained public prominence after their South African experience, hence the 'kindergarten' tag. The group would often meet at Stonehouse, Sir Herbert Baker's private residence in Parktown.

Other key members were:

Sir Patrick Duncan – Governor General of South Africa, 1937–1943

Philip Henry Kerr, 11th Marquess of Lothian – British Ambassador to the United States of America, 1939–1940

Robert Henry Brand, 1st Baron Brand – managing director of Lazard Brothers till 1944 – according to Carroll Quigley, the leader from 1955 to 1963.

Lionel Curtis – Royal Institute of International Affairs founder

Richard "Dick" Feetham – lawyer, later chairman of the Irish Boundary Commission and eventually Judge of Appeal in South Africa.

George Geoffrey Dawson – editor of The Times, 1912–1917

John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir – novelist and Governor General of Canada, 1935–1940

Sir Dougal Orme Malcolm (1877–1955), colonial administrator and company director

William Lionel Hichens (1874–1940), public servant and industrialist

John Dove (1872–1934), journalist, editor of The Round Table

Arthur Frederick Basil Williams

Lord Basil Temple Blackwood

Hugh A. Wyndham

Sir George V. Fiddes

Sir John Hanbury-Williams

Maine Swete Osmond Walrond (1870–1927), Private Secretary to Lord Milner, and, via the Lyons family, relative of Philip Henry Kerr, 11th Marquess of Lothian, another member.

Sir Fabian Ware

William Flavelle MonypennyMany of these men continued to associate formally after their South African service through their founding of The Round Table Journal, which was established to promote Imperial Federation. Patrick Duncan's obituary in the journal's September 1943 edition, may best describe their ethos:

Duncan became the doyen of the band of brothers, Milner's young men, who were nicknamed ... The Kindergarten, then in the first flush of youthful enthusiasm. It is a fast aging and dwindling band now; but it has played a part in the Union of South Africa colonies, and it is responsible for the foundation and conduct of The Round Table. For forty years and more, so far as the vicissitudes of life have allowed, it has kept together; and always, while looking up to Lord Milner and to his successor in South Africa, the late Lord Selborne, as its political Chief, has revered Patrick Duncan as the Captain of the band.

Spenser Wilkinson

Henry Spenser Wilkinson (1 May 1853 in Hulme, Manchester – 31 January 1937 in Oxford) was the first Chichele Professor of Military History at Oxford University. While he was an English writer known primarily for his work on military subjects, he had wide interests. Earlier in his career he was the drama critic for London's Morning Post.

Stanley Military Cemetery

Stanley Military Cemetery (Chinese: 赤柱軍人墳場) is a cemetery located near St. Stephen's Beach in Stanley, Hong Kong. Along with the larger Hong Kong (Happy Valley) Cemetery, it is one of two military cemeteries of the early colonial era, used for the burials of the members of the garrison and their families between 1841 and 1866. There were no further burials here until World War II (1939–1945).

The cemetery is roughly triangular in shape and stands on ground rising sharply from the road side. It is approached by a flight of steps leading up to the Cross of Sacrifice with steep grassy slopes on either side.

Stone of Remembrance

The Stone of Remembrance was designed by the British architect Sir Edwin Lutyens for the Imperial War Graves Commission (IWGC). It was designed to commemorate the dead of World War I, to be used in IWGC war cemeteries containing 1000 or more graves, or at memorial sites commemorating more than 1000 war dead. Hundreds were erected following World War I, and it has since been used in cemeteries containing the Commonwealth dead of World War II as well. It is intended to commemorate those "of all faiths and none", and has been described as one of Lutyens' "most important and powerful works", with a "brooding, sentinel-like presence wherever used".

The King's Pilgrimage

"The King's Pilgrimage" is a poem and book about the journey made by King George V in May 1922 to visit the World War I cemeteries and memorials being constructed at the time in France and Belgium by the Imperial War Graves Commission. This journey was part of the wider pilgrimage movement that saw tens of thousands of bereaved relatives from the United Kingdom and the Empire visit the battlefields of the Great War in the years that followed the Armistice. The poem was written by the British author and poet Rudyard Kipling, while the text in the book is attributed to the Australian journalist and author Frank Fox. Aspects of the pilgrimage were also described by Kipling within the short story "The Debt" (1930).

The Morning Post

The Morning Post was a conservative daily newspaper published in London from 1772 to 1937, when it was acquired by The Daily Telegraph.

Tower Hill Memorial

The Tower Hill Memorial is a pair of Commonwealth War Graves Commission memorials in Trinity Square, on Tower Hill in London, England. The memorials, one for the First World War and one for the Second, commemorate civilian merchant sailors and fishermen who were killed as a result of enemy action and have no known grave. The first, the Mercantile Marine War Memorial, was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and unveiled in 1928; the second, the Merchant Seamen's Memorial, was designed by Sir Edward Maufe and unveiled in 1955. A third memorial, commemorating merchant sailors who were killed in the 1982 Falklands War, was added to the site in 2005.

The first memorial was commissioned in light of the heavy losses sustained by merchant shipping in the First World War – over 17,000 lives were lost and some 3,300 British and Empire-registered commercial vessels sunk as a result of enemy action. The Imperial War Graves Commission (IWGC) commissioned Lutyens, who initially designed a massive arch on the banks of the River Thames, but this was rejected by the authorities, to Lutyens' disdain. A compromise was struck, as a result of which the memorial was constructed in Trinity Square Gardens on Tower Hill, a site further from the river but with a long maritime history. The site was crown land, meaning a special Act of Parliament was required. Queen Mary unveiled the memorial on 12 December 1928 at a ceremony broadcast live on the radio, her first use of the medium. The memorial is a vaulted corridor reminiscent of a Doric temple and similar to Lutyens' structures in cemeteries on the Western Front. The walls are clad with bronze panels which bear the names of the missing.

Merchant shipping losses in the Second World War were significantly higher than in the first and the IWGC commissioned a second memorial on the same site, intended to complement the first. Maufe designed a sunken garden, accessed by steps behind the original memorial, the walls of which were again clad with bronze panels with the names of the missing. At regular intervals between the panels are relief sculptures (by Charles Wheeler) representing the seven seas. Wheeler also sculpted two sentries, a Merchant Navy sailor and officer, which stand at the top of the steps. The new memorial was unveiled by Queen Elizabeth II in November 1955, after which relatives of those named on it were invited to lay flowers.

The memorials to the world wars are both listed buildings—the Mercantile Marine Memorial is grade I and part of a national collection of Lutyens' war memorials, and Maufe's Merchant Seamen's Memorial is listed at grade II*. The Falklands War memorial is unlisted.

Villers–Bretonneux Australian National Memorial

The Australian National Memorial, Villers-Bretonneux is the main memorial to Australian military personnel killed on the Western Front during World War I. It is located on the Route Villiers-Bretonneux (D 23), between the towns of Fouilloy and Villers-Bretonneux, in the Somme département, France. The memorial lists 10,773 names of soldiers of the Australian Imperial Force with no known grave who were killed between 1916, when Australian forces arrived in France and Belgium, and the end of the war. The location was chosen to commemorate the role played by Australian soldiers in the Second Battle of Villers-Bretonneux (24–27 April 1918).

Designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens, the memorial consists of a tower within the Villers-Bretonneux Military Cemetery, which also includes a Cross of Sacrifice. The tower is surrounded by walls and panels on which the names of the missing dead are listed. The main inscription is in both French and English, on either side of the entrance to the tower. The memorial and cemetery are maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.

Ware (surname)

Ware is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Andre Ware, American football quarterback

Bruce A. Ware, American theological academic

Charles Eliot Ware (1814–1887), American physician

Charles Pickard Ware (1849–1921), American educator and folk music transcriber

Charles R. Ware, American naval officer

Charlie Ware (1900-1984), Irish hurler

Charlie Ware (1933-2013), Irish hurler

Caroline F. Ware, American historian and social scientist

Chris Ware, American cartoonist

Christopher Lee Ware, Male fashionista, scarf designer, creator of EAD

David S. Ware, American jazz saxophonist

DeMarcus Ware, American football player

Ed Ware, American district attorney

Edwin O. Ware, Sr., American clergyman and college founder

Fabian Ware, founder of British Imperial War Graves Commission

George Ware, American dendrologist

Harold Ware, American communist

Henry Ware (disambiguation), multiple people

Herta Ware, American actress and activist

Isaac Ware (1704-1766), English architect and translator of Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio

James Ware (disambiguation), multiple people

Jeff Ware (disambiguation), multiple people

Jeremy Ware, Canadian baseball player

Jessie Ware (born 1984), British singer

John Ware (cowboy), American-Canadian cowboy

John H. Ware, III, a US Representative from Pennsylvania

Jylan Ware (born 1993), American football player

Kallistos Ware, Bishop of Diokleia and Orthodox theologian

Keith L. Ware, U.S. Army Major General killed in Vietnam.

Kevin Ware (born 1993), American basketball player

Lancelot Ware, British barrister and MENSA founder

Leon Ware (1940–2017), American soul musician

Marilyn Ware (1943-2017), American diplomat

Martha Ware (1917-2009), American jurist and politician

Martyn Ware, British electronic musician

Mary Lee Ware (1858–1937), American philanthropist

Matt Ware, American football player

Michael Ware, Australian journalist

Mike Ware (ice hockey), Canadian ice hockey player

Mike Ware (photographer), chemist and alternative-process photographer

Nicholas Ware, American politician

Opoku Ware I, Ashanti King

Opoku Ware II, Ashanti King

Onzlee Ware, American politician from Virginia

Paul Ware, English footballer

Rick Ware, American racing driver

Riley Ware, American football player

Scott Ware, American football player

Sidney William Ware, Scottish soldier

Taylor Ware, American singer and yodeler

Teyon Ware, American amateur wrestler

Theron Ware, fictional character from The Damnation of Theron Ware

Tim Ware, American musician

Tom Mauchahty-Ware, Native American musician

Tommy Ware (1885–1915), English footballer

Wallace Ware, a pseudonym used by novelist and screenwriter David Karp

Wilbur Ware, American jazz bassist

William Ware, American novelist

William Robert Ware, American architect

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