The goal of FTAM is to combine into a single protocol both file transfer, similar in concept to the Internet FTP, as well as remote access to open files, similar to NFS. However, like the other OSI protocols, FTAM has not been widely adopted, and the TCP/IP based Internet has become the dominant global network.
The FTAM protocol was used in the German banking sector to transfer clearing information. The Banking Communication Standard (BCS) over FTAM access (short BCS-FTAM) was standardized in the DFÜ-Abkommen (EDI-agreement) enacted in Germany on 15 March 1995. The BCS-FTAM transmission protocol was supposed to be replaced by the Electronic Banking Internet Communication Standard (EBICS) in 2010. The obligatory support for BCS over FTAM was ceased in December 2010.
|International standard||ISO 8571-4:1988|
ISO 8571, Information processing systems — Open Systems Interconnection — File Transfer, Access and Management, is split into five parts:
An application layer is an abstraction layer that specifies the shared communications protocols and interface methods used by hosts in a communications network. The application layer abstraction is used in both of the standard models of computer networking: the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) and the OSI model. Although both models use the same term for their respective highest level layer, the detailed definitions and purposes are different.
In TCP/IP, the application layer contains the communications protocols and interface methods used in process-to-process communications across an Internet Protocol (IP) computer network. The application layer only standardizes communication and depends upon the underlying transport layer protocols to establish host-to-host data transfer channels and manage the data exchange in a client-server or peer-to-peer networking model. Though the TCP/IP application layer does not describe specific rules or data formats that applications must consider when communicating, the original specification (in RFC 1123) does rely on and recommend the robustness principle for application design.In the OSI model, the definition of the application layer is narrower in scope. The OSI model defines the application layer as the user interface responsible for displaying received information to the user. In contrast, the Internet Protocol Suite does not concern itself with such detail. OSI also explicitly distinguishes additional functionality below the application layer, but above the transport layer at two additional levels: the session layer, and the presentation layer. OSI specifies a strict modular separation of functionality at these layers and provides protocol implementations for each layer.Comparison of file transfer protocols
This article lists communication protocols that are designed for file transfer over a telecommunications network.
Protocols for shared file systems—such as 9P and the Network File System—are beyond the scope of this article, as are file synchronization protocols.Distributed Data Management Architecture
Distributed Data Management Architecture (DDM) is IBM's open, published software architecture for creating, managing and accessing data on a remote computer. DDM was initially designed to support record-oriented files; it was extended to support hierarchical directories, stream-oriented files, queues, and system command processing; it was further extended to be the base of IBM's Distributed Relational Database Architecture (DRDA); and finally, it was extended to support data description and conversion. Defined in the period from 1980 to 1993, DDM specifies necessary components, messages, and protocols, all based on the principles of object-orientation. DDM is not, in itself, a piece of software; the implementation of DDM takes the form of client and server products. As an open architecture, products can implement subsets of DDM architecture and products can extend DDM to meet additional requirements. Taken together, DDM products implement a distributed file system.Electronic Banking Internet Communication Standard
The Electronic Banking Internet Communication Standard (EBICS) is a German transmission protocol developed by the German Banking Industry Committee for sending payment information between banks over the internet. It grew out of the earlier BCS-FTAM protocol that was developed in 1995, with the aim of being able to use internet connections and TCP/IP. It is mandated for use by German banks and has also been adopted by France and Switzerland.EBICS supports Single Euro Payments Area SEPA as the standard can be used as the secure communication channel to initiate SEPA Direct Debits and SEPA Credit Transfers using the internet. SEPA concentrates on standardisation of clearing protocols in the inter-bank networks. The SEPA-Clearing guidelines do not supplant any national clearing transmission protocols. Theoretically the national banking transmission standards could be prolonged for decades.File Transfer Protocol
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.
FTP is built on a client-server model architecture using separate control and data connections between the client and the server. FTP users may authenticate themselves with a clear-text sign-in protocol, normally in the form of a username and password, but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it. For secure transmission that protects the username and password, and encrypts the content, FTP is often secured with SSL/TLS (FTPS) or replaced with SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP).
The first FTP client applications were command-line programs developed before operating systems had graphical user interfaces, and are still shipped with most Windows, Unix, and Linux operating systems. Many FTP clients and automation utilities have since been developed for desktops, servers, mobile devices, and hardware, and FTP has been incorporated into productivity applications, such as HTML editors.ISO Development Environment
The ISODE software (pronounced eye-soo-dee-eee), more formally the ISO Development Environment, was an implementation of the OSI upper layer protocols, from transport layer to application layer, which was used in the Internet research community to experiment with implementation and deployment of OSI during the late 1980s and early 1990s.
The ISODE software was initially a public domain / open source implementation, led by Marshall Rose. Following version 6.0, Marshall handed the lead over to Colin Robbins and Julian Onions, who coordinated the 7.0 and 8.0 releases. Version 8.0 was the final public domain release, made on June 19, 1992. The Open Source version is still available, even if only for historic interest. The software was ported to a wide set of Unix and Linux variants.OSI model
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original version of the model defined seven layers.
A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while it calls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that comprise the contents of that path. Two instances at the same layer are visualized as connected by a horizontal connection in that layer.
The model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection project at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).OSI protocols
The Open Systems Interconnection protocols are a family of information exchange standards developed jointly by the ISO and the ITU-T. The standardization process began in 1977.
While the seven-layer OSI model is often used as a reference for teaching and documentation, the protocols originally conceived for the model did not gain popularity, and only X.400, X.500, and IS-IS have achieved lasting impact. The goal of an open-standard protocol suite instead has been met by the Internet protocol suite, maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).Outline of the United Nations
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the United Nations:
United Nations – international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. The UN was founded in 1945 after World War II to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between countries, and to provide a platform for dialogue. It contains multiple subsidiary organizations to carry out its missions.Presentation layer
In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the presentation layer is layer 6 and serves as the data translator for the network. It is sometimes called the syntax layer.
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