The FIM-92 Stinger is a Man-Portable Air-Defense System (MANPADS) that operates as an infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM). It can be adapted to fire from a wide variety of ground vehicles and helicopters (as an AAM). Developed in the United States, it entered service in 1981 and is used by the militaries of the United States and 29 other countries. It is principally manufactured by Raytheon Missile Systems and is produced under license by EADS in Germany and by Roketsan in Turkey with 70,000 missiles produced.
US Marine aims Stinger missile while embarked on the USS Boxer
|Type||Man-portable surface-to-air missile|
|Place of origin||United States|
|Used by||See Operators|
|Wars||Falklands War, Soviet–Afghan War, Iran–Iraq War Angolan Civil War, Sri Lankan Civil War, Chadian–Libyan conflict, Tajikistani Civil War, Kargil War, Yugoslav Wars, Invasion of Grenada, Second Chechen War, War in Afghanistan, Iraq War, Syrian Civil War, Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017)|
|Manufacturer||Raytheon Missile Systems|
|Variants||FIM-92A, FIM-92B, FIM-92C, FIM-92D, FIM-92G|
|Specifications (FIM-92 Stinger)|
|Weight||33.5 lb, 15.19 kg|
|Length||59.8 in (1.52 m)|
|Diameter||2.76 in (70.1mm)|
|Effective firing range||15,750 feet|
|Warhead||High explosive annular blast fragmentation|
|Warhead weight||3 kg (6.6 lb)|
|Engine||Solid-fuel rocket motor|
|MANPADS, M6 Linebacker, Multi-Mission Launcher, Eurocopter Tiger, AN/TWQ-1 Avenger, MQ-1 Predator, AH-64 Apache, T-129 ATAK|
Light to carry and easy to operate, the FIM-92 Stinger is a passive surface-to-air missile that can be shoulder-fired by a single operator (although standard military procedure calls for two operators, spotter and gunner). The FIM-92B missile can also be fired from the M-1097 Avenger and the M6 Linebacker. The missile is also capable of being deployed from a Humvee Stinger rack, and can be used by airborne troops. A helicopter launched version exists called Air-to-Air Stinger (ATAS).
The missile is 5.0 ft (1.52 m) long and 2.8 in (70 mm) in diameter with 3.9 in (100 mm) fins. The missile itself weighs 22 lb (10.1 kg), while the missile with its launch tube and integral sight, fitted with a gripstock and IFF antenna, weighs approximately 34 lb (15.2 kg). The Stinger is launched by a small ejection motor that pushes it a safe distance from the operator before engaging the main two-stage solid-fuel sustainer, which accelerates it to a maximum speed of Mach 2.54 (750 m/s). The warhead is a 6.6 lb (3 kg) penetrating hit-to-kill annular blast fragmentation type with an impact fuze and a self-destruct timer.
To fire the missile, a BCU (Battery Coolant Unit) is inserted into the gripstock. This device consists of a supply of liquid argon which is injected into the seeker to cool it to operating temperature, and a thermal battery which provides power for target acquisition: a single BCU provides power and coolant for roughly 45 seconds, after which another must be inserted if the missile has not been fired. The BCUs are somewhat sensitive to abuse, and have a limited shelf life due to the pressurised liquid argon leaking. The IFF system receives power from a rechargeable battery which is part of the IFF interrogator box which plugs into the base of the gripstock's pistol grip. Guidance to the target is initially through proportional navigation, then switches to another mode that directs the missile towards the target airframe instead of its exhaust plume.
There are three main variants in use: the Stinger basic, STINGER-Passive Optical Seeker Technique (POST), and STINGER-Reprogrammable Microprocessor (RMP). These correspond to the FIM-92A, FIM-92B, and FIM-92C and later variants respectively.
The POST has a dual-detector seeker: IR and UV. This allows it to distinguish targets from countermeasures much better than the Redeye and FIM-92A, which have IR-only. While modern flares can have an IR signature that is closely matched to the launching aircraft's engine exhaust, there is a readily distinguishable difference in UV signature between flares and jet engines. The Stinger-RMP is so-called because of its ability to load a new set of software via ROM chip inserted in the grip at the depot. If this download to the missile fails during power-up, basic functionality runs off the on-board ROM. The four-processor RMP has 4 KB of RAM for each processor. Since the downloaded code runs from RAM, there is little space to spare, particularly for processors dedicated to seeker input processing and target analysis.
Initial work on the missile was begun by General Dynamics in 1967 as the FM-43 Redeye II. Production of the Redeye II ran from 1969 to 1982 where some 85,000 were in circulation. It was accepted for further development by the U.S. Army in 1971 and designated FIM-92; the Stinger appellation was chosen in 1972. Because of technical difficulties that dogged testing, the first shoulder launch was not until mid-1975. Production of the FIM-92A began in 1978 to replace the FIM-43 Redeye. An improved Stinger with a new seeker, the FIM-92B, was produced from 1983 alongside the FIM-92A. Production of both the A and B types ended in 1987 with around 16,000 missiles produced.
The replacement FIM-92C had been developed from 1984 and production began in 1987. The first examples were delivered to front-line units in 1989. C-type missiles were fitted with a reprogrammable electronics system to allow for upgrades. The missiles which received a counter-measures upgrade were designated D and later upgrades to the D were designated G.
The FIM-92E or Block I was developed from 1992 and delivered from 1995 (certain sources state that the FIM-92D is also part of the Block I development). The main changes were again in the sensor and the software, improving the missile's performance against smaller and low-signature targets. A software upgrade in 2001 was designated F. Block II development began in 1996 using a new focal plane array sensor to improve the missile's effectiveness in "high clutter" environments and increase the engagement range to about 25,000 feet (7,600 m). Production was scheduled for 2004, but Jane's reports that this may be on hold.
Since 1984 the Stinger has been issued to many U.S. Navy warships for point defense, particularly in Middle Eastern waters, with a three-man team that can perform other duties when not conducting Stinger training or maintenance. Until it was decommissioned in September 1993, the U.S. Navy had at least one Stinger Gunnery Detachment attached to Beachmaster Unit Two in Little Creek Virginia. The sailors of this detachment would deploy to carrier battlegroups in teams of two to four sailors per ship as requested by Battle Group Commanders.
The Stinger's combat debut occurred during the Falklands War fought between the United Kingdom and Argentina. At the onset of the conflict soldiers of the British Army's Special Air Service had been clandestinely equipped with six missiles, although they had received little instruction in their use. The sole SAS trooper who had received training on the system, and was due to train other troops, was killed in a helicopter crash on 19 May. Nonetheless, on 21 May 1982 an SAS soldier engaged and shot down an Argentine Pucará ground attack aircraft with a Stinger. On 30 May, at about 11.00 a.m., an Aerospatiale SA-330 Puma helicopter was brought down by another missile, also fired by the SAS, in the vicinity of Mount Kent. Six National Gendarmerie Special Forces were killed and eight more wounded. The main MANPADS used by both sides during the Falklands War was the Blowpipe missile.
In late 1985, several groups, such as Free the Eagle, began arguing the CIA was not doing enough to support the Mujahideen in the Soviet–Afghan War. Michael Pillsbury, Vincent Cannistraro, and others put enormous bureaucratic pressure on the CIA to provide the Stinger to the rebels. The idea was controversial because up to that point, the CIA had been operating with the pretense that the United States was not involved in the war directly, for various reasons. All weapons supplied up to that point were non-U.S. made weapons, like Type 56 rifles purchased from China, and AK-47 and AKM AK derivatives purchased from Egypt.
The final say-so came down to President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq of Pakistan, through whom the CIA had to pass all of its funding and weapons to the Mujahideen. President Zia constantly had to gauge how much he could "make the pot boil" in Afghanistan without provoking a Soviet invasion of his own country. According to George Crile III, U.S. Representative Charlie Wilson's relationship with Zia was instrumental in the final go-ahead for the Stinger introduction.
Wilson and his associates at first viewed the Stinger as "just adding another component to the lethal mix we were building." Their increasingly successful Afghanistan strategy, formed largely by Michael G. Vickers, was based on a broad mix of weapons, tactics, and logistics, not a 'silver bullet solution' of a single weapon. Furthermore, the previous attempts to provide MANPADs to the Mujahideen, namely the SA-7 and Blowpipe, hadn't worked very well.
Engineer Ghaffar, of Gulbuddin Hekmatyar's Hezb-i-Islami, brought down the first Hind gunship with a Stinger on September 25, 1986 near Jalalabad. As part of Operation Cyclone, the CIA eventually supplied nearly 500 Stingers (some sources claim 1,500–2,000) to the Mujahideen in Afghanistan, and 250 launchers.
The impact of the Stinger on the outcome of the war is contested, particularly in the translation between the impact on the tactical battlefield to the strategic level withdrawal, and the influence the first had on the second. Dr. Robert F. Baumann (of the Staff College at Fort Leavenworth) described its impact on "Soviet tactical operations" as "unmistakable". This opinion was shared by Yossef Bodansky. Soviet, and later, Russian, accounts give little significance to the Stinger for strategically ending the war.
According to the 1993 US US Air Defense Artillery Yearbook, the Mujahideen gunners used the supplied Stingers to score approximately 269 total aircraft kills in about 340 engagements, a 79-percent kill ratio. If this report is accurate, Stingers would be responsible for over half of the 451 Soviet aircraft losses in Afghanistan. But these statistics are based on Mujahedin self-reporting, which is of unknown reliability. Selig Harrison rejects such figures, quoting a Russian general who claims the United States "greatly exaggerated" Soviet and Afghan aircraft losses during the war. According to Soviet figures, in 1987-1988, only 35 aircraft and 63 helicopters were destroyed by all causes. The Pakistan Army fired twenty-eight Stingers at enemy aircraft without a single kill.
According to Crile, who includes information from Alexander Prokhanov, the Stinger was a "turning point". Milt Bearden saw it as a "force multiplier" and morale booster. Representative Charlie Wilson, the politician behind Operation Cyclone, described the first Stinger Mi-24 shootdowns in 1986 as one of the three crucial moments of his experience in the war, saying "we never really won a set-piece battle before September 26, and then we never lost one afterwards." He was given the first spent Stinger tube as a gift and kept it on his office wall. That launch tube is now on exhibit at the US Army Air Defense Artillery Museum, Fort Sill, OK.
Many Russian military analysts tend to be dismissive of the impact to the Stinger. According to Alan J. Kuperman, The stingers did make an impact at first but within a few months flares, beacons, and exhaust baffles were installed to disorient the missiles, along with night operation and terrain-hugging tactics to prevent the rebels from getting a clear shot. By 1988, Kuperman states, the mujahideen had all but stopped firing them. Another source (Jonathan Steele) states that Stingers forced Soviet helicopters and ground attack planes to bomb from higher altitudes with less accuracy, but did not bring down many more aircraft than Chinese heavy machine guns and other less sophisticated antiaircraft weaponry.
The last Stingers were supplied in 1988 after increasing reports of fighters selling them to Iran and thawing relations with Moscow. After the 1989 Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, the U.S. attempted to buy back the Stinger missiles, with a $55 million program launched in 1990 to buy back around 300 missiles (US$183,300 each). The U.S. government collected most of the Stingers it had delivered, but by 1996 around 600 were unaccounted for and some found their way into Croatia, Iran, Sri Lanka, Qatar, and North Korea. According to the CIA, already in August 1988 the U.S. had demanded from Qatar the return of Stinger missiles. Wilson later told CBS he "lived in terror" that a civilian airliner would be shot down by a Stinger, but he did not have misgivings about having provided Stingers to defeat the Soviets.
The Reagan administration provided 310 Stingers to Jonas Savimbi's UNITA movement in Angola between 1986 and 1989. As in Afghanistan, efforts to recover missiles after the end of hostilities proved incomplete. The battery of a Stinger lasts for four or five years, so any battery supplied in the 1980s would now be inoperative but during the Syrian Civil War, insurgents showed how easily they switched to different batteries, including widespread car batteries, as power sources for several MANPADS models.
The French army used 15 firing positions and 30 missiles purchased in 1983/83 for operations in Chad. The 35th Parachute Artillery Regiment made an unsuccessful fire during a Libyan bombardment on 10 September 1987 and shot down a Hercules transport aircraft on 7 July 1988.
The Chadian government received Stinger missiles from the United States, when Libya invaded the northern part of the African country. On 8 October 1987, a Libyan Su-22MK was shot down by a FIM-92A fired by Chadian forces. The pilot, Capt. Diya al-Din, ejected and was captured. He was later granted political asylum by the French government. During the recovery operation, a Libyan MiG-23MS was shot down by a FIM-92A.
Tajik Islamist opposition forces operating from Afghanistan during the 1992–97 Tajik civil war encountered a heavy air campaign launched by Russia and Uzbekistan to prop up the government in Dushanbe that included border and cross-border raids. During one of these operations, a Sukhoi Su-24M was shot down on 3 May 1993 with a Stinger fired by fundamentalists. Both Russian pilots were rescued.
Russian officials claimed several times that the Chechen militia and insurgents possessed US-made Stinger missiles. They attributed a few of their aerial losses to the American MANPADS. The presence of such missiles was confirmed by photo evidence even though their actual number and origin were not clear.
The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam also managed to acquire one or several Stingers, possibly from former Mujahideen stocks, and used at least one to down a Sri Lanka Air Force Mi-24 on November 10, 1997.
As of 2000, the U.S. inventory contains 13,400 missiles. The total cost of the program is $7,281,000,000. It is rumored that the United States Secret Service has Stinger missiles to defend the President, a notion that has never been dispelled; however, U.S. Secret Service plans favor moving the President to a safer place in the event of an attack rather than shooting down the plane, lest the missile (or the wreckage of the target aircraft) hit innocents.
During the 1980s, the Stinger was used to support different US-aligned guerrilla forces, notably the Afghan Mujahidins, the Chad government against the Libyan invasion and the Angolan UNITA. The Nicaraguan contras were not provided with Stingers due to the lack of fixed wing aircraft of the Sandinista government, as such the previous generation FIM-43 Redeye was considered adequate.
The AIM-92 Stinger or ATAS (Air To Air Stinger) is an air-to-air missile developed from the shoulder-launched FIM-92 Stinger system, for use on helicopters such as the AH-64 Apache, Eurocopter Tiger and also UAVs such as the MQ-1 Predator. The missile itself is identical to the shoulder-launched Stinger.AN/TWQ-1 Avenger
The Avenger Air Defense System, designated AN/TWQ-1 under the Joint Electronics Type Designation System, is an American self-propelled surface-to-air missile system which provides mobile, short-range air defense protection for ground units against cruise missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles, low-flying fixed-wing aircraft, and helicopters.The Avenger was originally developed for the United States Armed Forces and is currently used by the U.S. Army. The Avenger system was also used by the U.S. Marine Corps.Air Defense Artillery Branch
The Air Defense Artillery branch of the United States Army that specializes in anti-aircraft weapons (such as surface to air missiles). In the U.S. Army, these groups are composed of mainly air defense systems such as the Patriot Missile System, Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), and the Avenger Air Defense system which fires the FIM-92 Stinger missile. The Air Defense Artillery branch descended from Anti-Aircraft Artillery (part of the U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps until 1950, then part of the Artillery Branch) into a separate branch on 20 June 1968. On 1 December 1968, the ADA branch was authorized to wear modified Artillery insignia, crossed field guns with missile. The Branch Motto, "First To Fire", was adopted in 1986 by the attendees of the ADA Commanders' Conference at Fort Bliss. The motto refers to a speech given by General Jonathan Wainwright to veterans of the 200th Coast Artillery (Antiaircraft) stating they were the 'First to Fire' in World War II against the Empire of Japan.Air Force and Anti-Aircraft Defence of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Air Force of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian: Zračne snage Bosne i Hercegovine, Croatian: Zračne snage Bosne i Hercegovine, Serbian: Vazdušne snage Bosne i Hercegovine) is part of the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The headquarters is in Sarajevo. It maintains operating bases at Sarajevo International Airport, Banja Luka International Airport and Tuzla International Airport.Beechcraft MQM-107 Streaker
The MQM-107 Streaker is a reusable, turbojet powered, target towing drone primarily used by the United States Army and the United States Air Force for testing and training. The US Army uses the drone for testing various surface-to-air missile systems such as the FIM-92 Stinger and the MIM-104 Patriot. The USAF uses them in practice engagements for their air-to-air missiles like the AIM-9 Sidewinder and the AIM-120 AMRAAM.FIM-43 Redeye
The General Dynamics FIM-43 Redeye was a man-portable surface-to-air missile system. It used passive infrared homing to track its target. Production began in 1962 and — in anticipation of the Redeye II, which later became the FIM-92 Stinger — ended in the early 1970s (delivery of the last Redeye for the U.S. Army was completed in July 1971) after about 85,000 rounds had been built. The Redeye was withdrawn gradually between 1982 and 1995 as the Stinger was deployed, though it remained in service with various armed forces of the world until quite recently, being supplied via the Foreign Military Sales program. It was initially banned from being sold overseas, to avoid missiles falling into the hands of left-wing dissident groups and terrorist organizations. However, after the export ban was lifted, the weapon was never actually used by terrorists against civil aircraft, in contrast with other MANPADS.Kulmbach-class mine hunter
The Type 333 Kulmbach class is a class of five German Navy ships. Built as Type 343 Hameln class minesweepers, they have been upgraded to minehunters using Seefuchs expendable drones to detonate detected naval mines.List of Soviet aircraft losses during the Soviet–Afghan War
The following is a partial and unofficial list of helicopter and airplane crashes that occurred during the Soviet–Afghan War of 1979–89. In total, at least 333 helicopters and 118 jets crashed during the war. A leading cause of lost aircraft was due to the introduction of the FIM-92 Stinger, a Man-Portable Air-Defense System (MANPADS).List of anti-aircraft weapons
List of antiaircraft weapons. See also antiaircraft warfare.List of munitions used by the Israeli Air Force
This List of Munitions of the Israeli Air Force lists the missiles, bombs and related equipment in use by the Israeli Air Force since its formation.MIM-72 Chaparral
The MIM-72A/M48 Chaparral was an American self-propelled surface-to-air missile system based on the AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missile system. The launcher is based on the M113 family of vehicles. It entered service with the United States Army and the United States Marine Corps in 1969 and was phased out between 1990 and 1998. It was intended to be used along with the M163 VADS, the Vulcan ADS covering short-range short-time engagements, and the Chaparral for longer range use.Machbet
The Machbet (Hebrew: מחבט, meaning "racquet") is an Israeli upgrade of the M163 Hovet self-propelled automatic anti-aircraft gun, based in turn on the M113 armored personnel carrier. In addition to the 20 mm M61 Vulcan rotary cannon it is armed with four FIM-92 Stinger surface-to-air missile launch tubes. The Machbet comes equipped with an upgraded tracking system and can establish a datalink with an external radar. The vehicle carries 1,800 rounds of 20 mm ammunition and 8 Stinger missiles.
The Israeli Aircraft Industries (IAI) developed the Machbet in the mid 1990s. It had undergone testing in the IDF in 1997 and entered operational service in 1998 with the Israeli Airforce. The IAF was planning to convert all its Hovets to the newer Machbet configuration. Most of the Hovets have already been converted over to the Machbet.
The Machbet upgrade adds an enhanced suite of TV and FLIR target auto-tracking capability to the Hovet. A unit-level fire coordination and management capability is provided, as well as an interface to a sectorial air surveillance radar for the air targets picture. These all enable it to acquire approaching targets quicker, making the Machbet more effective than the its predecessor.
While the intended role of the Machbet is the shooting down of aircraft approaching at low altitudes, it has been also found useful in urban warfare and ground fire support in general.Man-portable air-defense system
Man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS or MPADS) are shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles (SLSAMs). They are typically guided weapons and are a threat to low-flying aircraft, especially helicopters.Misagh-2
The Misagh-2 is an Iranian man-portable infrared-guided surface-to-air missile. The Misagh-2 is the successor to the Misagh-1. Like its predecessor, the Misagh-2 is based on Chinese technology. Iran’s defense minister launched the domestic mass production of the Misagh-2 on 5 February 2006. This missile destroys its target within 5 second and has an operation temperature of -40°C to +60°C. Near the target its speed reaches 2.7 Mach.It is roughly comparable to the American FIM-92 Stinger or the Soviet SA-18 Grouse missiles.QW-1 Vanguard
The People's Republic of China-developed QW-1 Vanguard (Qian Wei in Chinese) is an all-aspect man-portable surface-to-air missile, from which a series of missiles were developed.RMP
RMP may refer to:
Radio Motor Patrol, a police car equipped with a radio
Rajshahi Metropolitan Police, the police force in Rajshahi, Bangladesh
RMP, IATA code for Rampart Airport, Alaska
Random match possibility, a measure used in population genetics
RateMyProfessors.com, a website for student ratings of college instructors
"Reprogrammable microprocessor", variant of the FIM-92 Stinger anti-aircraft missile
Resonant magnetic perturbations, a plasma physics technique used in tokamak fusion reactors
Resting membrane potential, electrical potential across a cell membrane
Reviews of Modern Physics, a journal published by the American Physical Society
Revolutionary Marxist Party, a political party in India (Kerala)
Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, an ancient Egyptian manuscript
Rifampicin, an antibiotic
Risk management plan, an element of project management
Royal Malaysian Police, Malaysian police force
Royal Military Police, British army police
Royal Melbourne Philharmonic, an Australian choir and orchestra
Russian Maoist Party, a Russian political party founded in 2000Raytheon Missile Systems
Raytheon Missile Systems Company is a subsidiary of Raytheon Company. Headquartered in Tucson, Arizona, its president is Dr. Taylor W. Lawrence. Formerly, known as Hughes Missile Systems Co. before being acquired by Raytheon Company.
David Leighton, a noted historian, documented the early history of the Hughes Missile Plant in two books. His monograph: The Falcon's Nest: The Hughes Missile Plant in Tucson, 1947-1960, which included the early history of Hughes Aircraft Co. and, his reference book: The History of the Hughes Missile Plant in Tucson, 1947–1960.The division's products include:
AGM-65 Maverick air-to-surface missile
AGM-88 HARM air-to-surface missile
AGM-129 ACM air-to-surface missile
AGM-154 Joint Standoff Weapon air-to-surface missile
AGM-176 Griffin air-to-surface missile
AIM-7 Sparrow air-to-air missile
RIM-7 Sea Sparrow naval surface-to-air missile
AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missile
AIM-54 Phoenix air-to-air missile
AIM-120 AMRAAM air-to-air missile
BGM-71 TOW anti-tank missile
BGM-109 Tomahawk cruise missile
Coyote unmanned aerial system
Extended Range Guided Munition 
Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle anti ICBM system
FGM-148 Javelin anti-tank missile
FIM-92 Stinger Man-Portable Air-Defense System surface-to-air missile
M982 Excalibur guided artillery round
MIM-23 Hawk surface-to-air missile
MIM-104 Patriot surface-to-air missile
Paveway laser-guided bomb
Phalanx CIWS naval anti-missile defense system
RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile naval surface-to-air missile
RIM-162 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missile naval surface-to-air missile
Standard Missile family of naval missiles
RIM-161 Standard Missile 3
RIM-174 Standard ERAM
SAM-N-2 LarkType 91 surface-to-air missile
The Type 91 surface-to-air missile (91式携帯地対空誘導弾, 91-shiki Keitai Chitaikū Yūdōdan) is a Japanese man-portable air-defense system. Its appearance is similar to the US-made FIM-92 Stinger anti-aircraft missile. It was created in order to replace its stock of American-made Stinger MANPADS, since the Type 91 has a better guidance system, which consist of both light and infrared system options. The Stinger, on the other hand, uses a passive infrared homing guidance system.In the ranks of the JSDF, the Type 91 is colloquially known as Hand Arrow. The Type 91 is sometimes mistaken as a Japanese-made version of the Stinger. The Type 91 is currently exclusively used by the JSDF and has not been exported overseas to date due to previous interpretations of post-war constitutional restrictions and the laws arising from them.
The Type 91 is officially treated as a 4th-generation MANPAD system.United States Army air defense
United States Army air defense relies on a range of ground launched missiles ranging from hand held to vehicle mounted systems. The Air Defense Artillery is the branch that specializes in anti-aircraft weapons (such as surface-to-air missiles). In the US Army, these groups are composed of mainly air defense systems such as the PATRIOT Missile System, Terminal High Altitude Air Defense, and the Avenger Air Defense system which fires the FIM-92 Stinger missile.
The Air Defense Artillery branch descended from the Anti-Aircraft Artillery (part of the Field Artillery) into a separate branch on 20 June 1968.