FET y de las JONS

The Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS, Traditionalist Spanish Phalanx and of the Councils of the National Syndicalist Offensive) was the sole legal party of the Francoist regime in Spain. It emerged in 1937 from the merger of the Carlist Party with the Falange Española de las JONS and was dissolved in 1977 by Adolfo Suárez's transitional government.

Falange Española Tradicionalista
y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista
National ChiefFrancisco Franco
Founded19 April 1937
Dissolved7 April 1977
Preceded byCarlist Party
Falange Española de las JONS
HeadquartersMadrid, Spain
NewspaperDiario Arriba
Student wingSindicato Español Universitario
Youth wingFrente de Juventudes
Women's wingSección Femenina
Paramilitary wingCamisas Azules
Trade unionSindicato Vertical
IdeologyFrancoism
Political positionFar-right
ReligionRoman Catholicism
International affiliationEuropean Social Movement
Colours     Red      Yellow
(Spanish national colours)
Anthem"Cara al Sol"
("Facing the Sun")
Party flag
Bandera FE JONS

History

Spanish Civil War

With the eruption of the Civil War in July 1936, the Falange fought on the Nationalist faction against the Second Spanish Republic. Expanding rapidly from several thousand to several hundred thousand,[1] the Falange's male membership was accompanied by a female auxiliary, the Sección Femenina. Led by José Antonio's sister Pilar, this latter subsidiary organization claimed more than a half million members by the end of the war and provided nursing and support services for the Nationalist forces.[2]

The command of the party rested upon Manuel Hedilla as many of the first generation leaders were dead or incarcerated by the Republicans. Among them was Primo de Rivera, who was a government prisoner. As a result, he was referred to among the leadership as el Ausente, ("the Absent One"). After being sentenced to death on 18 November 1936, José Antonio Primo de Rivera was executed on 20 November 1936 (a date since known as 20-N in Spain) in a Republican prison, giving him martyr status among the Falangists. This conviction and sentence was possible because he had lost his parliamentary immunity after his party did not have enough votes during the last elections.

After Francisco Franco seized power on 19 April 1937, he merged the Falange with the Carlist Comunión Tradicionalista to form the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS (FET y de las JONS). All other parties supporting the Nationalists were disbanded, but former members of those parties were free to join the FET as individual members. The new party's official ideology was the Falangists' 27 puntos—reduced after the unification to 26, the article barring mergers being dropped. The merged party incorporated many Falangist symbols–the blue shirt, the yoked arrows, the red and black flag, and the anthem Cara al Sol among others.[3] Despite this, the party was in fact a wide-ranging nationalist coalition, closely controlled by Franco. Parts of the original Falange (including Hedilla) and many Carlists did not join the unified party. Franco had sought to control the Falange after a clash between Hedilla and his main critics within the group, the legitimistas of Agustín Aznar and Sancho Dávila y Fernández de Celis, that threatened to derail the Nationalist war effort.[4] Franco became jefe nacional and "Supreme Caudillo" of the FET. He was vested with "the most absolute authority," including the power to name his successor, and was only responsible to "God and history."[5]

None of the vanquished parties in the war suffered such a toll of deaths among their leaders as did the Falange. 60% of the pre-war Falange membership lost their lives in the war.

However, most of the property of all other parties and trade unions were assigned to the party. In 1938, all trade unions were unified under Falangist command.

Francoist Spain

After the war, the party was charged with developing an ideology for Franco's regime. This job became a cursus honorum for ambitious politicians—new converts, who were called camisas nuevas ("new shirts") in opposition to the more overtly populist and ideological "old shirts" from before the war.

Membership in the Falange/FET reached a peak of 932,000 in 1942.[6] Despite the official unification of the various Nationalist factions within the party in 1937, tensions continued between dedicated Falangists and other groups, particularly Carlists. Such tensions erupted in violence with the Begoña Incident of August 1942, when hardline Falangist activists attacked a Carlist religious gathering in Bilbao with grenades. The attack and the response of Carlist government ministers (most notably Varela and Galarza) led to a government crisis and caused Franco to dismiss several ministers. Ultimately, six Falangists were convicted of the attack and one, Juan Domínguez, was executed.[7]

By the middle of the Second World War, Franco and leading Falangists, while distancing themselves from the faltering European fascists, stressed the unique "Spanish Catholic authoritarianism" of the regime and the Falange. Instructions were issued in September 1943 that henceforth the Falange/FET would be referred to exclusively as a "movement" and not a "party".[8]

The Falange also developed youth organizations, with members known as Flechas and Pelayos, under the umbrella of the Spanish Youths Organization. Most of these young members wore red berets.

With improving relations with the United States, economic development and the rise of a group of relatively young technocrats within the government, the Falange continued to decline. In 1965, the SEU, the movement's student organization, was officially disbanded.[9] At the same time, the membership of the Falange as a whole was both shrinking and aging. In 1974, the average age of Falangists in Madrid was at least 55 years. The organization's relatively few new members came mostly from the conservative and devoutly Catholic areas of northern Spain.[10]

References

  1. ^ Payne 1987, p. 176.
  2. ^ Payne 1987, p. 187.
  3. ^ Payne 1981, p. 171-172.
  4. ^ Paul Preston, Franco, London: 1995, pp. 261-6
  5. ^ Payne 1987, p. 175.
  6. ^ Payne 1987, p. 238.
  7. ^ Payne 1987, p. 308-09.
  8. ^ Payne 1987, p. 322.
  9. ^ Payne 1987, p. 523.
  10. ^ Payne 1987, p. 527.

Bibliography

  • Payne, Stanley G. (1987). The Franco Regime, 1936–1975. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-11074-1.
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List of mayors of Madrid

The following is a list of mayors (alcaldes) of Madrid since 1800.

José Urbina, 1803–1805

José de Marquina Galindo, 1805–1808

Pedro de Mora y Lomas, 1808–1810

Dámaso de la Torre, 1810–1811

Manuel García de la Prada, 1811–1812

Juan Antonio Pico, 1812

Marqués de Iturvieta, 1812 and 1813

Conde de Villapaterna, 1812

Pedro Sainz de Baranda y Gorriti, 1812, 1813 and 1820

Magín Ferrer, 1812

Frutos Álvarez Benito, 1812

Conde de Moctezuma, 1814

Juan de Mata Garro Robles, marqués de las Hormazas 1814–1816

José Manuel de Arjona, 1816–1820

Rodrigo de Aranda, 1820–1822

Félix Ovalle, 1820

José Pío de Molina, 1820–1821, 1823

Conde de Clavijo, 1821

Conde de Goyeneche, 1821–1822

Marqués de Santa Cruz, 1822

Ramón Casella, 1822

Cayetano Rubio, 1822

Miguel Nájera, 1822

Arias Gonzalo de Mendoza, 1822–1823

Luis Beltrán de Leo, 1823

Joaquín Lorenzo Mozo, 1824

León de la Cámara Cano, 1824–1828

Tadeo Ignacio Gil, 1828–1830

Domingo María de Barrafón, 1830–1834

Marqués de Falces, 1834–1835

José María Galdeano, 1835

Marqués de Pontejos, 1835–1836

Juan Losaña, 1836

José María Basualdo, 1837

Juan Bautista del Llano, 1837

Victor López Molina, 1838

Manuel Ruiz Oganio, 1838

Tomás Fernández Vallejo, 1839

Luis Oseñalde, 1839

Salustiano Olózaga, 1840

Joaquín María Ferrer, 1840

Francisco Javier Ferro Mateo, 1840

Marqués de Peñaflorida, 1842–1845

Juan Álvarez Mendizálbal, 1843

Ignacio de Olea, 1843–1854

Jacinto Félix Doménech, 1843

Manuel de Larraín, 1843–1844

Marqués de Someruelos, 1844–1847

Manuel de Bárbara, 1844

Duque de Veragua, 1845–1846

José Laplana, 1846

Conde de Vistahermosa, 1847

Marqués de Santa Cruz, 1848–1851

Luis Piernas, 1851–1852

Conde de Quinto, 1852, 1853–1854

José Seco Baldor, 1854

Valentín Ferraz, 1855–1856

Jacobo Fitz-James Stuart, 15th Duke of Alba, 1857

Carlos Marfori y Callejas, 1857

José Osorio y Silva, Duque de Sesto 1857–1864

Duque de Tamames, 1864

Conde de Puñonrostro, 1864

Conde de Belascoáin, 1864–1865

José Ramón Osorio, 1865

Marqués de San Saturnino, 1865–1866

Marqués de Villaseca, 1866–1867

Marqués de Villamagna, 1867

Marqués Viudo de Villar, 1867–1868

Nicolás María Rivero, 1868–1870

Manuel María José de Galdo, 1870

Fernando Hidalgo Saavedra, 1870–1872

Marqués de Sardoal, 1872–1874

Carlos María Ponte, 1872

Simeón Avalos, 1872–1873

Pedro Menéndez Vega, 1873

Pedro Bernardo Uncasitas, 1873–1874

Francisco de Borja Queipo de Llano y Gayoso de los Cobos, VIII Conde de Toreno, 1874–1875

Conde de Heredia Spinola, 1875–1877

Marqués de Torneros, 1877–1881

José Abascal y Carredano, 1881–1883, 1885–1889

Marqués de Urquijo, 1883

Gonzalo de Saavedra y Cueto, 1884–1885

Alberto Bosch y Fustegueras, 1885, 1891–1892

Andrés Mellado, 1889–1890

Cayetano Sánchez Bustillo, 1890

Narciso García-Loygorri, Duque de Vistahermosa, 1890

Faustino Rodríguez San Pedro, 1890–1891

Marqués de Cubas, 1892

Nicolás de Peñalver y Zamora, conde de Peñalver 1892, 1895–1896, 1907–1909

Manuel de Mariátegui, 1st Count of San Bernardo, 1892–1893

Santiago Angulo, 1893–1894

Conde de Romanones, 1894–1895, 1897–1899

Conde de Montarco, 1896

Joaquín Sánchez de Toca, 1896–1897, 1907

Ventura García-Sancho, Marquis of Aguilar de Campoo, 1899–1900

Manuel Allendesalazar, 1900

Mariano Fernández de Henestrosa Mioño, duque de Santo Mauro (1900–1901)

Alberto Aguilera y Velasco (1901–1902)

Vicente Cabeza de Vaca y Fernández de Córdoba, marqués de Portazgo (1902–1903)

Salvador Bermúdez de Castro y O'Lawlor, marqués de Lema (1903– 1904)

Gonzalo de Figueroa y Torres, conde de Mejorada del Campo y marqués de Villamejor (1904–1905)

Eduardo Vincenti (1905–1906)

Alberto Aguilera y Velasco (1906–1907)

Eduardo Dato e Iradier (1907–1907)

Joaquín Sánchez de Toca (1907–1907)

Nicolás de Peñalver y Zamora, conde de Peñalver (1907–1909)

Alberto Aguilera y Velasco (1909–1910)

José Francos Rodríguez (1910–1912)

Joaquín Ruiz Jiménez (1912–1913)

Eduardo Vincenti (1913–1913)

Luis Marichalar y Monreal, vizconde de Eza (1913–1914)

Carlos Prats y Rodríguez de Llano (1914–1915)

José del Prado y Palacios (1915–1915)

Joaquín Ruiz Jiménez (1915–1916)

Martín Rosales Martel, duque de Almodóvar del Valle (1916–1917)

Luis Silvela Casado (1917–1917)

José Francos Rodríguez (1917–1918)

Luis Silvela Casado (1918–1918)

Luis Garrido Juaristi (1918–1920)

Ramón Rivero de Miranda, conde de Limpias (1920–1921)

Alfredo Serrano Jover (1921–1921)

Álvaro de Figueroa y Alonso Martínez, marqués de Villabrágima (1921–1922)

José María Garay, conde del Valle Suchil (1922–1922)

Joaquín Ruiz Jiménez (1922–1923)

Faustino Nicoli (1923–1923)

Alberto Alcocer y Ribacoba (1923–1924)

Conde de Vallellano (1924–1925)

José del Prado Palacio (1925–1927)

Emilio Antón (1927–1927)

Manuel Semprún y Pombo(1927–1927)

Rafael Carlos Gordon Arístegui, conde de Mirasol, (1927–1927)

José María de Aristizábal Manchón (1927–1930)

José María de Hoyos y Vinent de la Torre O'Neill, marqués de Hoyos (1930–1931)

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