In oceanic biogeochemistry, the f-ratio is the fraction of total primary production fuelled by nitrate (as opposed to that fuelled by other nitrogen compounds such as ammonium). The ratio was originally defined by Richard Eppley and Bruce Peterson in one of the first papers estimating global oceanic production. This fraction was originally believed significant because it appeared to directly relate to the sinking (export) flux of organic marine snow from the surface ocean by the biological pump. However, this interpretation relied on the assumption of a strong depth-partitioning of a parallel process, nitrification, that more recent measurements has questioned.
Gravitational sinking of organisms (or the remains of organisms) transfers carbon from the surface waters of the ocean to its deep interior. This process is known as the biological pump, and quantifying it is of interest to scientists because it is an important aspect of the Earth's carbon cycle. Essentially, this is because carbon transported to the deep ocean is isolated from the atmosphere, allowing the ocean to act as a reservoir of carbon. This biological mechanism is accompanied by a physico-chemical mechanism known as the solubility pump which also acts to transfer carbon to the ocean's deep interior.
Measuring the flux of sinking material (so-called marine snow) is usually done by deploying sediment traps which intercept and store material as it sinks down the water column. However, this is a relatively difficult process, since traps can be awkward to deploy or recover, and they must be left in situ over a long period to integrate the sinking flux. Furthermore, they are known to experience biases and to integrate horizontal as well as vertical fluxes because of water currents. For this reason, scientists are interested in ocean properties that can be more easily measured, and that act as a proxy for the sinking flux. The f-ratio is one such proxy.
Bio-available nitrogen occurs in the ocean in several forms, including simple ionic forms such as nitrate (NO3−), nitrite (NO2−) and ammonium (NH4+), and more complex organic forms such as urea ((NH2)2CO). These forms are used by autotrophic phytoplankton to synthesise organic molecules such as amino acids (the building blocks of proteins). Grazing of phytoplankton by zooplankton and larger organisms transfers this organic nitrogen up the food chain and throughout the marine food-web.
When nitrogenous organic molecules are ultimately metabolised by organisms, they are returned to the water column as ammonium (or more complex molecules that are then metabolised to ammonium). This is known as regeneration, since the ammonium can be used by phytoplankton, and again enter the food-web. Primary production fuelled by ammonium in this way is thus referred to as regenerated production.
Crucially, this process is believed to only occur in the absence of light (or as some other function of depth). In the ocean, this leads to a vertical separation of nitrification from primary production, and confines it to the aphotic zone. This leads to the situation whereby any nitrate in the water column must be from the aphotic zone, and must have originated from organic material transported there by sinking. Primary production fuelled by nitrate is, therefore, making use of a "fresh" nutrient source rather than a regenerated one. Production by nitrate is thus referred to as new production.
The figure at the head of this section illustrates this. Nitrate and ammonium are taken up by primary producers, processed through the food-web, and then regenerated as ammonium. Some of this return flux is released into the surface ocean (where it is available again for uptake), while some is returned at depth. The ammonium returned at depth is nitrified to nitrate, and ultimately mixed or upwelled into the surface ocean to repeat the cycle.
Consequently, the significance of new production lies in its connection to sinking material. At equilibrium, the export flux of organic material sinking into the aphotic zone is balanced by the upward flux of nitrate. By measuring how much nitrate is consumed by primary production, relative to that of regenerated ammonium, one should be able to estimate the export flux indirectly.
As an aside, the f-ratio can also reveal important aspects of local ecosystem function. High f-ratio values are typically associated with productive ecosystems dominated by large, eukaryotic phytoplankton (such as diatoms) that are grazed by large zooplankton (and, in turn, by larger organisms such as fish). By contrast, low f-ratio values are generally associated with low biomass, oligotrophic food webs consisting of small, prokaryotic phytoplankton (such as Prochlorococcus) which are kept in check by microzooplankton.
A fundamental assumption in this interpretation of the f-ratio is the spatial separation of primary production and nitrification. Indeed, in their original paper, Eppley & Peterson noted that: "To relate new production to export requires that nitrification in the euphotic zone be negligible". However, subsequent observational work on the distribution of nitrification has found that nitrification can occur at shallower depths, and even within the photic zone.
As the adjacent diagram shows, if ammonium is indeed nitrified to nitrate in the ocean's surface waters it essentially "short circuits" the deep pathway of nitrate. In practice, this would lead to an overestimation of new production and a higher f-ratio, since some of the ostensibly new production would actually be fuelled by recently nitrified nitrate that had never left the surface ocean. After including nitrification measurements in its parameterisation, an ecosystem model of the oligotrophic subtropical gyre region (specifically the BATS site) found that, on an annual basis, around 40% of surface nitrate was recently nitrified (rising to almost 90% during summer). A further study synthesising geographically diverse nitrification measurements found high variability but no relationship with depth, and applied this in a global-scale model to estimate that up to a half of surface nitrate is supplied by surface nitrification rather than upwelling.
Although measurements of the rate of nitrification are still relatively rare, they do suggest that the f-ratio is not as straightforward a proxy for the biological pump as was once thought. For this reason, some workers have proposed distinguishing between the f-ratio and the ratio of particulate export to primary production, which they term the pe-ratio. While quantitatively different than the f-ratio, the pe-ratio shows similar qualitative variation between high productivity/high biomass/high export regimes and low productivity/low biomass/low export regimes.
In addition, a further process that potentially complicates the use of the f-ratio to estimate "new" and "regenerated" production is dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). In low oxygen environments, such as oxygen minimum zones and seafloor sediments, chemoorganoheterotrophic microbes use nitrate as an electron acceptor for respiration, reducing it to nitrite, then to ammonium. Since, like nitrification, DNRA alters the balance in the availability of nitrate and ammonium, it has the potential to introduce inaccuracy to the calculated f-ratio. However, as DNRA's occurrence is limited to anaerobic situations, its importance is less widespread than nitrification, although it can occur in association with primary producers.
Air–fuel ratio (AFR) is the mass ratio of air to a solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel present in a combustion process. The combustion may take place in a controlled manner such as in an internal combustion engine or industrial furnace, or may result in an explosion (e.g., a dust explosion, gas or vapour explosion or in a thermobaric weapon).
The air-fuel ratio determines whether a mixture is combustible at all, how much energy is being released, and how much unwanted pollutants are produced in the reaction. Typically a range of fuel to air ratios exists, outside of which ignition will not occur. These are known as the lower and upper explosive limits.
In an internal combustion engine or industrial furnace, the air-fuel ratio is an important measure for anti-pollution and performance-tuning reasons. If exactly enough air is provided to completely burn all of the fuel, the ratio is known as the stoichiometric mixture, often abbreviated to stoich. Ratios lower than stoichiometric are considered "rich". Rich mixtures are less efficient, but may produce more power and burn cooler. Ratios higher than stoichiometric are considered "lean." Lean mixtures are more efficient but may cause higher temperatures, which can lead to the formation of nitrogen oxides. Some engines are designed with features to allow lean-burn. For precise air-fuel ratio calculations, the oxygen content of combustion air should be specified because of different air density due to different altitude or intake air temperature, possible dilution by ambient water vapor, or enrichment by oxygen additions.Ammonium
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula NH+4. It is formed by the protonation of ammonia (NH3). Ammonium is also a general name for positively charged or protonated substituted amines and quaternary ammonium cations (NR+4), where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic groups (indicated by R).Benthos
Benthos is the community of organisms that live on, in, or near the seabed, river, lake, or stream bottom, also known as the benthic zone. This community lives in or near marine or freshwater sedimentary environments, from tidal pools along the foreshore, out to the continental shelf, and then down to the abyssal depths.
Many organisms adapted to deep-water pressure cannot survive in the upperparts of the water column. The pressure difference can be very significant (approximately one atmosphere for each 10 metres of water depth).Because light is absorbed before it can reach deep ocean-water, the energy source for deep benthic ecosystems is often organic matter from higher up in the water column that drifts down to the depths. This dead and decaying matter sustains the benthic food chain; most organisms in the benthic zone are scavengers or detritivores.
The term benthos, coined by Haeckel in 1891, comes from the Greek noun βένθος "depth of the sea". Benthos is used in freshwater biology to refer to organisms at the bottom of freshwater bodies of water, such as lakes, rivers, and streams. There is also a redundant synonym, benthon.Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium
Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), also known as nitrate/nitrite ammonification, is the result of anaerobic respiration by chemoorganoheterotrophic microbes using nitrate (NO3−) as an electron acceptor for respiration. In anaerobic conditions microbes which undertake DNRA oxidise organic matter and use nitrate (rather than oxygen) as an electron acceptor, reducing it to nitrite, then ammonium (NO3−→NO2−→NH4+).Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium is more common in prokaryotes but may also occur in eukaryotic microorganisms. DNRA is a component of the terrestrial and oceanic nitrogen cycle. Unlike denitrification, it acts to conserve bioavailable nitrogen in the system, producing soluble ammonium rather than unreactive dinitrogen gas.Exposing to the right
In digital photography, exposing to the right (ETTR) is the technique of adjusting the exposure of an image as high as possible at base ISO (without causing unwanted saturation) to collect the maximum amount of light and thus get the optimum performance out of the digital image sensor.The name derives from the resulting image histogram which, according to this technique, should be placed close to the right of its display. Advantages include greater tonal range in dark areas, greater signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), fuller use of the colour gamut and greater latitude during post-production.
The direction of the adjustment relative to the camera's meter reading depends on the dynamic range (or contrast ratio) of the scene. Typically, with low-contrast scenes, an increase in exposure over that indicated by the camera's meter will be required. When attempting a single-exposure of a high dynamic-range scene, a reduction in exposure from the meter's reading may be needed. In the final analysis, however, the camera's meter is irrelevant to ETTR since the ETTR exposure is established, not by a meter reading, but by the camera's exposure indicators, the histogram and/or the highlight-clipping indicators (blinkies/zebras).
ETTR images requiring increased exposure may appear to be overexposed (too bright) when taken and must be correctly processed (normalized) to produce a photograph as envisaged. Care must be taken to avoid clipping within any colour channel, other than acceptable areas such as specular highlights.
The principle is also applied in film photography in order to maximize the negative's latitude and density and achieve richer blacks when the image is printed slightly down.F-distribution
In probability theory and statistics, the F-distribution, also known as Snedecor's F distribution or the Fisher–Snedecor distribution (after Ronald Fisher and George W. Snedecor) is a continuous probability distribution that arises frequently as the null distribution of a test statistic, most notably in the analysis of variance (ANOVA), e.g., F-test.F-number
The f-number of an optical system (such as a camera lens) is the ratio of the system's focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil. It is a dimensionless number that is a quantitative measure of lens speed, and an important concept in photography. It is also known as the focal ratio, f-ratio, or f-stop. It is the reciprocal of the relative aperture. The f-number is commonly indicated using a hooked f with the format f/N, where N is the f-number.F-ratio (disambiguation)
F-ratio or f-ratio may refer to:
f-number, f-ratio, or focal ratio, the ratio of the focal length of an optical system to the diameter of its entrance pupil
f-ratio, in oceanography, which relates recycled and total primary production in the surface ocean
The F-ratio used in statistics, which relates the variances of independent samples; see F-distributionHorowitz index
The Horowitz index (synonyms: oxygenation after Horowitz, Horowitz quotient, P/F ratio) is a ratio used to assess lung function in patients, particularly those on ventilators. It is useful for evaluating the extent of damage to the lungs. The simple abbreviation as oxygenation can lead to confusion with other conceptualizations of oxygenation index.
The Horowitz index is defined as the ratio of partial pressure of oxygen in blood (PaO2), in millimeters of mercury, and the fraction of oxygen in the inhaled air (FIO2).
In healthy lungs the Horowitz index depends on age and usually falls between 350 and 450. A value below 300 is indicative of a moderately severe lung injury. A value below 200 as a criterion for a severe injury.
The Horowitz index plays a major role in the diagnosis of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). 3 severities of ARDS are categorized based on the degree of hypoxemia using the Horowitz index, according to the Berlin definition.Mauchly's sphericity test
Mauchly's sphericity test or Mauchly's W is a statistical test used to validate a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA).NASA Infrared Telescope Facility
The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (NASA IRTF) is a 3-meter (9.8 ft) telescope optimized for use in infrared astronomy and located at the Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii. It was first built to support the Voyager missions and is now the US national facility for infrared astronomy, providing continued support to planetary, solar neighborhood, and deep space applications. The IRTF is operated by the University of Hawaii under a cooperative agreement with NASA. According to the IRTF's time allocation rules, at least 50% of the observing time is devoted to planetary science.Productivity (ecology)
In ecology, productivity refers to the rate of generation of biomass in an ecosystem. It is usually expressed in units of mass per unit surface (or volume) per unit time, for instance grams per square metre per day (g m−2 d−1). The mass unit may relate to dry matter or to the mass of carbon generated. Productivity of autotrophs such as plants is called primary productivity, while that of heterotrophs such as animals is called secondary productivity.Pseudoreplication
Pseudoreplication is the process of artificially inflating the number of samples or replicates. As a result, statistical tests performed on the data are rendered invalid. Pseudoreplication is originally defined as a special case of inadequate specification of random factors where both random and fixed factors are present.
The problem of inadequate specification arises when treatments are assigned to units that are subsampled and the treatment F-ratio in an analysis of variance (ANOVA) table is formed with respect to the residual mean square rather than with respect to the among unit mean square. The F-ratio relative to the within unit mean square is vulnerable to the confounding of treatment and unit effects, especially when experimental unit number is small (e.g. four tank units, two tanks treated, two not treated, several subsamples per tank). The problem is eliminated by forming the F-ratio relative to the correct mean square in the ANOVA table (tank by treatment MS in the example above), where this is possible. The problem is addressed by the use of mixed models.Hurlbert reported "pseudoreplication" in 48% of the studies he examined, that used inferential statistics. Several studies examining scientific papers published up to 2016 similarly found about half of the papers were suspected of pseudoreplication. When time and resources limit the number of experimental units, and unit effects cannot be eliminated statistically by testing over the unit variance, it is important to use other sources of information to evaluate the degree to which an F-ratio is confounded by unit effects.RD-120
The RD-120 (GRAU Index 11D123) is a liquid upper stage rocket engine burning RG-1 (refined kerosene) and LOX in an oxidizer rich staged combustion cycle with an O/F ratio of 2.6. It is used in the second stage of the Zenit family of launch vehicles. It has a single, fixed combustion chamber and thus on the Zenit it is paired with the RD-8 vernier engine. The engine has been developed from 1976 to 1985 by NPO Energomash with V.P. Radovsky leading the development. It is manufactured by Yuzhmash in Ukraine along with most of the rocket.It should not be confused with the RD-0120, which is a discontinued LOX/hydrogen rocket engine that was used in the Soviet Energia launch system.Rocket propellant
Rocket propellant is the reaction mass of a rocket. This reaction mass is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust. The energy required can either come from the propellants themselves, as with a chemical rocket, or from an external source, as with ion engines.In the extreme case of nuclear pulse propulsion, the proposed propellant consists of many small nuclear explosives, with the resulting shock wave pushing the rocket forward.S400 (rocket engine)
The S400 is a family of pressure fed liquid propelled rocket engines manufactured by ArianeGroup (former Airbus DS) at the Orbital Propulsion Centre in Lampoldshausen, Germany.
They burn MMH and MON as propellant, have a thrust range between 340 newtons (76 lbf) and 450 newtons (100 lbf) and can vary the O/F ratio between 1.50 and 1.80. The chamber and throat are made of a platinum alloy, it uses double cone vortex injectors and uses both film and radiative cooling. The S400 engines are used as primary apogee engines for telecommunication satellite platforms such as the Spacebus of Thales Alenia Space as well as space exploration missions such as Venus Express, ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter or Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer.The family has had an extensive history on the commercial telecommunication market. Its first launch was aboard the Symphonie 1 in 1974. This was the first commercial three-axis stabilized communications satellite in geostationary orbit with a bipropellant rocket propulsion system. It also was the first European communications satellite system.
This family of engines have displayed a remarkable competitiveness, still winning many designs (for 2015, it is expected to fly on Sicral 2, ARSAT-2, Hispasat AG1 and MSG-4.Sediment trap
Sediment traps are instruments used in oceanography to measure the quantity of sinking particulate organic (and inorganic) material in aquatic systems, usually oceans. This flux of material is the product of biological and ecological processes typically within the surface euphotic zone, and is of interest to scientists studying the role of the biological pump in the carbon cycle.Sediments traps normally consist of an upward-facing funnel that directs sinking marine snow towards a mechanism for collection and preservation. Typically, traps operate over an extended period of time (weeks to months) and their collection mechanisms may consist of a series of sampling vessels that are cycled through to allow the trap to record the changes in sinking flux with time (for instance, across a seasonal cycle). Preservation of collected material is necessary because of these long deployments, and prevents sample decomposition and its consumption by zooplankton "swimmers".
Traps are often moored at a specific depth in the water column (usually below the euphotic zone or mixed layer) in a particular location, but some are so-called Lagrangian traps that drift with the surrounding ocean currents (though they may remain at a fixed depth). These latter traps travel with the biological systems that they study, while moored traps are subject to variability introduced by different systems (or states of systems) "passing by". However, because of their fixed location moored traps are straightforward to recover for analysis of their measurements. Lagrangian traps must surface at a pre-determined time, and report their position (usually via satellite) in order to be recovered.Sustainable gardening
Sustainable gardening includes the more specific sustainable landscapes, sustainable landscape design, sustainable landscaping, sustainable landscape architecture, resulting in sustainable sites. It comprises a disparate group of horticultural interests that can share the aims and objectives associated with the international post-1980s sustainable development and sustainability programs developed to address the fact that humans are now using natural biophysical resources faster than they can be replenished by nature.Included within this compass are those home gardeners, and members of the landscape and nursery industries, and municipal authorities, that integrate environmental, social, and economic factors to create a more sustainable future.
Organic gardening and the use of native plants are integral to sustainable gardening.Zooplankton
Zooplankton (, ) are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton (cf. phytoplankton). Plankton are organisms drifting in oceans, seas, and bodies of fresh water. The word zooplankton is derived from the Greek zoon (ζῴον), meaning "animal", and planktos (πλαγκτός), meaning "wanderer" or "drifter". Individual zooplankton are usually microscopic, but some (such as jellyfish) are larger and visible to the naked eye.