Ezra

Ezra (/ˈɛzrə/; Hebrew: עזרא, ‘Ezrā;[1] fl. 480–440 BCE), also called Ezra the Scribe (עזרא הסופר, Ezra ha-Sofer) and Ezra the Priest in the Book of Ezra, was a Jewish scribe (sofer) and priest (kohen). In Greco-Latin Ezra is called Esdras (Greek: Ἔσδρας). According to the Hebrew Bible he was a descendant of Sraya (Ezra 7:1)[2] the last High Priest to serve in the First Temple (2 Kings 25:18), and a close relative of Joshua the first High Priest of the Second Temple (Ezra 3:2). He returned from Babylonian exile and reintroduced the Torah in Jerusalem (Ezra 7–10 and Neh 8). According to 1 Esdras, a Greek translation of the Book of Ezra still in use in Eastern Orthodoxy, he was also a High Priest. Rabbinic tradition holds that he was an ordinary member of the priesthood.[3]

Several traditions have developed over his place of burial. One tradition says that he is buried in al-Uzayr near Basra (Iraq), while another tradition alleges that he is buried in Tadif near Aleppo, in northern Syria.[4]

His name may be an abbreviation of עזריהו Azaryahu, "Yah helps". In the Greek Septuagint the name is rendered Ésdrās (Ἔσδρας), from which the Latin name Esdras comes.

The Book of Ezra describes how he led a group of Judean exiles living in Babylon to their home city of Jerusalem (Ezra 8.2–14) where he is said to have enforced observance of the Torah. He was described as exhorting the Israelite people to be sure to follow the Torah Law so as not to intermarry with people of particular different religions, a set of commandments described in the Pentateuch.[5][6]

Ezra, known as "Ezra the scribe" in Chazalic literature,[7] is a highly respected figure in Judaism.[8]

109.Ezra Reads the Law to the People
Ezra Reads the Law to the People, one of Gustave Doré's illustrations for La Grande Bible de Tours

In the Hebrew Bible

The canonical Book of Ezra and Book of Nehemiah are the oldest sources for the activity of Ezra,[6] whereas many of the other books ascribed to Ezra (First Esdras, 3–6 Ezra) are later literary works dependent on the canonical books of Ezra and Nehemiah.

The book of Ezra–Nehemiah was always written as one scroll.[9] In late medieval Christian bibles, the single book was divided in two, as First and Second Ezra; and this division became Jewish practice in the first printed Hebrew bibles.[10] Modern Hebrew Bibles call the two books Ezra and Nehemiah, as do other modern Bible translations. A few parts of the Book of Ezra (4:8 to 6:18 and 7:12–26) were written in Aramaic, and the majority in Hebrew, Ezra himself being skilled in both languages.[11] Ezra was living in Babylon when in the seventh year of Artaxerxes I, king of Persia (c. 457 BCE), the king sent him to Jerusalem to teach the laws of God to any who did not know them. Ezra led a large body of exiles back to Jerusalem, where he discovered that Jewish men had been marrying non-Jewish women. He tore his garments in despair and confessed the sins of Israel before God, then braved the opposition of some of his own countrymen to purify the community by enforcing the dissolution of the sinful marriages. Some years later Artaxerxes sent Nehemiah (a Jewish noble in his personal service) to Jerusalem as governor with the task of rebuilding the city walls. Once this task was completed Nehemiah had Ezra read the Law of Moses (the Torah) to the assembled Israelites, and the people and priests entered into a covenant to keep the law and separate themselves from all other peoples.

In later Second Temple period literature

1 Esdras

1 Esdras, probably from the late 2nd/early 1st centuries BCE, preserves a Greek text of Ezra and a part of Nehemiah distinctly different from that of Ezra–Nehemiah – in particular it eliminates Nehemiah from the story and gives some of his deeds to Ezra, as well as telling events in a different order. Scholars are divided on whether it is based on Ezra–Nehemiah, or reflects an earlier literary stage before the combination of Ezra and Nehemiah accounts.

Josephus

The first-century Jewish historian Josephus deals with Ezra in his Antiquities of the Jews. He uses the name Xerxes for Artaxerxes I reserving the name Artaxerxes for the later Artaxerxes II whom he identifies as the Ahasuerus of Esther, thus placing Ezra before the events of the book of Esther. Josephus's account of the deeds of Ezra derives entirely from 1 Esdras, which he cites as the 'Book of Ezra' in his numeration of the Hebrew bible. Contrariwise, Josephus does not appear to recognise Ezra-Nehemiah as a biblical book, does not quote from it, and relies entirely on other traditions in his account of the deeds of Nehemiah.

The apocalyptic Ezra traditions

The apocalyptic fourth book of Ezra (also sometimes called the 'second book of Esdras' or the 'third book of Esdras') was written c. CE 100, probably in Hebrew-Aramaic, but now survives in Latin, Slavonic and Ethiopic. It was one of the most important sources for Jewish theology at the end of the 1st century. In this book, Ezra has a seven part prophetic revelation, converses with an angel of God three times and has four visions. Ezra, thirty years into the Babylonian Exile (4 Ezra 3:1 / 2 Esdras 1:1), recounts the siege of Jerusalem and the destruction of Solomon's Temple.[5] This would place these revelations in the year 557 BCE, a full century before the date given in the canonical Ezra. The central theological themes are "the question of theodicy, God's justness in the face of the triumph of the heathens over the pious, the course of world history in terms of the teaching of the four kingdoms,[12] the function of the law, the eschatological judgment, the appearance on Earth of the heavenly Jerusalem, the Messianic Period, at the end of which the Messiah will die,[13] the end of this world and the coming of the next, and the Last Judgment."[5] Ezra restores the law that was destroyed with the burning of the Temple in Jerusalem. He dictates 24 books for the public (i.e. the Hebrew Bible) and another 70 for the wise alone (70 unnamed revelatory works).[14] At the end, he is taken up to heaven like Enoch and Elijah.[5] Ezra is seen as a new Moses in this book.[5]

There is also another work, thought to be influenced by this one, known as the Greek Apocalypse of Ezra.

Ezra in rabbinic literature

Schnorr von Carolsfeld Bibel in Bildern 1860 125
The return from exile is depicted in this woodcut for Die Bibel in Bildern, 1860, by Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld.

Traditionally Judaism credits Ezra with establishing the Great Assembly of scholars and prophets, the forerunner of the Sanhedrin, as the authority on matters of religious law. The Great Assembly is credited with establishing numerous features of contemporary traditional Judaism in something like their present form, including Torah reading, the Amidah, and celebration of the feast of Purim.[15]

In Rabbinic traditions, Ezra is metaphorically referred to as the "flowers that appear on the earth" signifying the springtime in the national history of Judaism. A disciple of Baruch ben Neriah, he favored study of the Law over the reconstruction of the Temple and thus because of his studies, he did not join the first party returning to Jerusalem in the reign of Cyrus. According to another opinion, he did not join the first party so as not to compete, even involuntarily, with Jeshua ben Jozadak for the office of chief priest.[15]

According to Jewish tradition, Ezra was the writer of the Books of Chronicles,[15][16] and is the same prophet known also as Malachi.[17] There is a slight controversy within rabbinic sources as to whether or not Ezra had served as Kohen Gadol.[18]

According to the Babylonian Talmud, Ezra the scribe is said to have enacted ten standing laws and orders,[19] which are as follows: 1) That the public come together to read from the scroll of the Law on Sabbath days during the time of the afternoon oblation (Minchah), because of those travelling merchants who loiter in the closed shops in the street corners, and who may have missed the biblical lections that were read during the weekdays;[20] 2) that the courts be opened throughout the Jewish townships on Mondays and Thursdays; 3) that women do not wait beyond Thursday to launder their clothes, because of the honor due to the Sabbath day; 4) that men would accustom themselves to eat [cooked] garlic on the eve of the Sabbath (believed to enhance love between a man and his wife); 5) that women would rise up early on Friday mornings to bake bread, so that a piece of bread will be available for the poor; 6) that Jewish women in every place be girded with a wide belt (waist band), whether from the front or from behind, out of modesty; 7) that Jewish women, during their menses, wash and comb their hair three days prior to their purification in a ritual bath; 8) that the travelling merchants make regular rounds into the Jewish townships because of the honor due to the daughters of Israel; 9) that Jewish women and/or girls, as a precautionary measure, be accustomed to conversing with one another while one of their party goes out to relieve herself in the outhouse; 10) that men who may have suffered a seminal emission (especially after accompanying with their wives) be required to immerse themselves in a ritual bath before being permitted to read from the scroll of the Law.

In the Syrian village of Tedef, a synagogue said to be the place where Ezra stopped over has been venerated by Jews for centuries. Another tradition locates his tomb near Basra, Iraq.

Ezra in Christian traditions

Early Christian writers occasionally cited Ezra as author of the apocalyptic books attributed to him. Clement of Alexandria in his Stromata referred to Ezra as an example of prophetic inspiration, quoting a section from 2 Esdras. Where early Christian writers refer to the 'Book of Ezra' it is always the text of 1 Esdras that is being cited. No early Christian writer cites the Book of Ezra as a record of the deeds of Ezra [21]

Ezra in Islam

In Islam he is known as Uzair (عُزَيْرٌ). He was mentioned in the Qur'an. Although he was not mentioned as one of the Prophets of Islam, he is considered as one of them by some Muslim scholars, based on Islamic traditions.[22][23] His tomb at Al-ʻUzair on the banks of the Tigris near Basra, Iraq, is a pilgrimage site for the local Marsh Arabs.[24][25] Many Islamic scholars and modern Western academics do not view Uzair as "Ezra"; for example Professor Gordon Darnell Newby associates Uzair with Enoch and Metatron. On this Timothy Winter (Abdal Hakim Murad) and Gordon Darnell Newby [2] associate Uzair again with Enoch (ancestor of Noah) and by extension Metatron the creator-angel or "lesser Yahweh".[3]

Academic view

Timeline

Scholars are divided over the chronological sequence of the activities of Ezra and Nehemiah. Ezra came to Jerusalem "in the seventh year of Artaxerxes the King".[26] The text does not specify whether the king in the passage refers to Artaxerxes I (465–424 BCE) or to Artaxerxes II (404–359 BCE).[27][28] Most scholars hold that Ezra lived during the rule of Artaxerxes I, though some have difficulties with this assumption:[6] Nehemiah and Ezra "seem to have no knowledge of each other; their missions do not overlap", however, in Nehemiah 12, both are leading processions on the wall as part of the wall dedication ceremony. So, they clearly were contemporaries working together in Jerusalem at the time the wall and the city of Jerusalem was rebuilt in contrast to the previously stated viewpoint.;."[29] These difficulties have led many scholars to assume that Ezra arrived in the seventh year of the rule of Artaxerxes II, i.e. some 50 years after Nehemiah. This assumption would imply that the biblical account is not chronological. The last group of scholars regard "the seventh year" as a scribal error and hold that the two men were contemporaries.[6][30]

Historicity

Tomb of Ezra
Site traditionally described as the tomb of Ezra at Al-Uzayr near Basra, Iraq.

Mary Joan Winn Leith in The Oxford History of the Biblical World believes that Ezra was a historical figure whose life was enhanced in the scripture and given a theological buildup.[31] Gosta W. Ahlstrom argues the inconsistencies of the biblical tradition are insufficient to say that Ezra, with his central position as the 'father of Judaism' in the Jewish tradition, has been a later literary invention.[32] Those who argue against the historicity of Ezra argue that the presentation style of Ezra as a leader and lawgiver resembles that of Moses. There are also similarities between Ezra the priest-scribe (but not high priest) and Nehemiah the secular governor on the one hand and Joshua and Zerubbabel on the other hand. The early 2nd-century BCE Jewish author Ben Sira praises Nehemiah, but makes no mention of Ezra.[31]

Richard Friedman argued in his book Who Wrote the Bible? (p. 232 1997 edition) that Ezra is the one who redacted the Torah, and in fact effectively produced the first Torah.[33] It has been argued that even if one does not accept the documentary hypothesis, Ezra was instrumental in the start of the process of bringing the Torah together.[34]

See also

References

  1. ^ "[God] helps" – Emil G. Hirsch, Isaac Broydé, "Ezra the Scribe", Jewish Encyclopedia (Online)
  2. ^ In Ezra he is described as the son of Seraya.
  3. ^ "1901 The Jewish Encyclopedia Complete vol. 5". Internet Archive. p. 231. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
  4. ^ Tawil, Hayim & Schneider, Bernard 2010, Crown of Aleppo: The Mystery of the Oldest Hebrew Bible Codex, Philadelphia, Jewish Publication Society 2010, p. 63 ISBN 9780827608955; Laniado, David, Li-Qedošim ašer ba-areṣ, Jerusalem 1980, p. 26 (Hebrew); Frenkel, Miriam, article: Atare pulḥan yehudiyyim be-ḥalab bi-yme ha-benayim ha-tikhoniyyim, published in: Harel (הראל), Yaron, Assis, Yom Ṭov & Frenkel, Miriam (eds.), Ereṣ u-mlo’ah: meḥqarim be-toledot qehillat aram ṣova (ḥalab) ve-tarbutah, vol. I, Ben-Zvi Institute: Jerusalem 2009, pp. 174–75 (Hebrew); Khatib, Muḥammad Zuhair, Rabṭ al-Sabāba al-yamanī.
  5. ^ a b c d e Liwak, Rüdiger; Schwemer, Anna Maria. "Ezra". Brill's New Pauly.
  6. ^ a b c d "Ezra". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online
  7. ^ Edward Kessler, Neil Wenborn, A Dictionary of Jewish-Christian Relations, Cambridge University Press, p. 398
  8. ^ The New Encyclopedia of Judaism, "Ezra"
  9. ^ Hugh G. M. Williamson, Ezra, Nehemiah, Word Biblical Commentary Vol. 16 (Dallas:Word, 1985), pp. xxi–lii.
  10. ^ Bogaert, Pierre-Maurice (2000). "Les livres d'Esdras et leur numérotation dans l'histoire du canon de la Bible latin". Revue Benedictine. 110: 5–26.
  11. ^ James H. Charlesworth – "Announcing a Dead Sea Scrolls Fragment of Nehemiah"The Institute for Judaism and Christian Origins – Retrieved 20 August 2011.
  12. ^ Daniel 2:1, Daniel 7:1, Daniel 8:1
  13. ^ 4 Ezra (Apocrypha), chapter 7, verse 29
  14. ^ Howard H. Cox, The Pentateuch: History Or Story?, p. 101
  15. ^ a b c Emil G. Hirsch, Isaac Broydé, "Ezra the Scribe", Jewish Encyclopedia (Online)
  16. ^ Babylonian Talmud (Baba Bathra 15a)
  17. ^ Introduction to the Aramaic Targum of Yonathan ben Uzziel on the Prophet Malachi (Minor Prophets); Yehoshua b. Ḳarḥa (Megillah 15a) .
  18. ^ HaQoton, Reb Chaim "Was Ezra a High Priest" also printed in the Jewish Bible Quarterly (July 2013); see also [1]
  19. ^ Babylonian Talmud (Baba Kama 82a); Jerusalem Talmud (Megillah 29a-b)
  20. ^ Maimonides, Mishne Torah (Hilchot Tefillah 12:1)
  21. ^ The Apocryphal Apocalypse: the reception of the second book of Esdras Alastair Hamilton – 1999 p. 22 "that were part of the canon.13 Although Clement of Alexandria, who was writing in the late second and early third century, showed more interest in 1 Esdras, he cited 2 Esdras in his Stromata, referring to Esdras as an example of prophetic inspiration..."
  22. ^ But the Qur'an 9:30 quotes Jews as saying that he is the "son of God" Ashraf, Shahid (2005). "Prophets 'Uzair, Zakariya and Yahya". Encyclopaedia of Holy Prophet and Companions (Google Books). Daryaganj, New Delhi: Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 199–200. ISBN 978-81-261-1940-0. Retrieved 20 November 2007.
  23. ^ Ibn Kathir. "'Uzair (Ezra)". Stories Of The Quran. Ali As-Sayed Al-Halawani (trans). Islambasics.com. Retrieved 21 November 2007.
  24. ^ Environmental and Cultural Terrorism – The Destruction of Iraqi Marshes and Their Revival: Some Personal Reflections
  25. ^ "Ezra's Tomb". Archived from the original on 2 April 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2010.
  26. ^ Ezra 7:7
  27. ^ Porter, J.R. (2000). The Illustrated Guide to the Bible. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. pp. 115–16. ISBN 978-0-7607-2278-7.
  28. ^ The dates of Nehemiah's and Ezra's respective missions, and their chronological relation to each other, are uncertain, because each mission is dated solely by a regnal year of an Achaemenian King Artaxerxes; and in either case we do not know for certain whether the Artaxerxes in question is Artaxerxes I (465–424 BCE) or Artaxerxes II (404–359 BCE). So we do not know whether the date of Ezra's mission was 458 BCE or 397 BCE' Arnold Toynbee, A Study of History, vol. 12 (1961) Oxford University Press, 1964 pp. 484–85 n.2
  29. ^ Winn Leith, Mary Joan (2001) [1998]. "Israel among the Nations: The Persian Period". In Michael David Coogan (ed.). The Oxford History of the Biblical World (Google Books). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. p. 281. ISBN 978-0-19-513937-2. LCCN 98016042. OCLC 44650958. Retrieved 13 December 2007.
  30. ^ John Boederman, The Cambridge Ancient History, 2002, p. 272
  31. ^ a b Winn Leith, Mary Joan (2001) [1998]. "Israel among the Nations: The Persian Period". In Michael David Coogan (ed.). The Oxford History of the Biblical World (Google Books). Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. p. 306. ISBN 978-0-19-513937-2. LCCN 98016042. OCLC 44650958. Retrieved 13 December 2007.
  32. ^ Gosta W. Ahlstrom, The History of Ancient Palestine, Fortress Press, p. 888
  33. ^ Who Wrote the Bible? (Harper San Francisco) (1987, new preface 1997) ISBN 978-0060630355
  34. ^ The Canonization of the Pentateuch: When and Why? (Part I)* Alexander Fantalkin/Oren Tal p.4 http://archaeology.tau.ac.il/arch_files/directory/zaw124-1-2_fantalkin-tal.pdf

Further reading

  • Bossman, D. (1979). "Ezra's Marriage Reform: Israel Redefined". Biblical Theology Bulletin. 9: 32–38. doi:10.1177/014610797900900105.
  • Bright, John (1981). A history of Israel (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Westminster Press. ISBN 978-0-664-21381-7.
  • Fensham, F. Charles (1983). The books of Ezra and Nehemiah. Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8028-2362-5.
  • LaSor, William Sanford; Hubbard, David Allan; Bush, Frederick William (1982). Old Testament survey. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-3556-7.
  • Williamson, H.G.M. (1987). Ezra and Nehemiah. Sheffield: JSOT for the Society for Old Testament Study. ISBN 978-1-85075-045-1.

External links

1 Esdras

1 Esdras (Greek: Ἔσδρας Αʹ), also First Esdras, Greek Esdras, Greek Ezra, or 3 Esdras, is an ancient Greek version of the biblical Book of Ezra in use among the early church, and many modern Christians with varying degrees of canonicity. First Esdras is substantially derived from Masoretic Ezra–Nehemiah, with the passages specific to the career of Nehemiah removed or re-attributed to Ezra, and some additional material.

As part of the Septuagint translation of the Old Testament, it is now regarded as canonical in the churches of the East, but apocryphal in the West; either presented in a separate section, or excluded altogether. First Esdras is found in Origen's Hexapla. The Greek Septuagint, the Old Latin bible and related bible versions include both Esdras Αʹ (English title: 1 Esdras) and Esdras Βʹ (Ezra–Nehemiah) as separate books.

There is scope for considerable confusion with references to 1 Esdras or First Esdras. For the first thousand years of Christian tradition (and as here) the name refers primarily to translations of the original Greek ‘Esdras A’. However, as First Esdras had been excluded from the Vulgate bible it ceased to be considered canonical in the Western Church; and so the Vulgate book of Ezra, translated from the Hebrew but corresponding to Greek 'Esdras B' was, from the 8th century onwards, occasionally split into two books, which were then denoted 1 Esdras and 2 Esdras respectively. Following the example of the Paris Vulgate Bible editions of the 13th century, and in what later became the usage of the Clementine Vulgate and the Anglican Articles of Religion, '1 Esdras' is applied consistently in late medieval bibles to the book corresponding to the modern Book of Ezra; while the modern Book of Nehemiah corresponds to '2 Esdras'. 1 Esdras here, is in the Clementine Vulgate called 3 Esdras. The 'Apocalypse of Ezra', an additional work associated with the name Ezra, is denoted '4 Esdras' in the Paris Bibles, the Clementine Vulgate and the Articles of Religion, but called '2 Esdras' in the King James Version and in most modern English bibles, as here. 1 Esdras continues to be accepted as canonical by Eastern Orthodoxy and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, with 2 Esdras varying in canonicity between particular denominations within the Eastern churches.Overwhelmingly, citations in early Christian writings claimed from the scriptural 'Book of Ezra'(without any qualification) are taken from 1 Esdras, and never from the 'Ezra' sections of Ezra–Nehemiah (Septuagint 'Esdras B') ; the majority of early citations being taken from the 1 Esdras section containing the 'Tale of the Three Guardsmen', which is interpreted as Christological prophecy.

2 Esdras

2 Esdras (also called 4 Esdras, Latin Esdras, or Latin Ezra) is the name of an apocalyptic book in many English versions of the Bible (see Naming conventions below). Its authorship is ascribed to Ezra, a scribe and priest of the 5th century BCE, although modern scholarship places its composition between 70 and 218 CE. It is reckoned among the apocrypha by Roman Catholics, Protestants, and most Eastern Orthodox Christians. 2 Esdras was excluded by Jerome from his Vulgate version of the Old Testament, but from the 9th century onwards the Latin text is sporadically found as an appendix to the Vulgate, inclusion becoming more general after the 13th century.

Abraham ibn Ezra

Abraham ben Meir Ibn Ezra (Hebrew: אַבְרָהָם אִבְּן עֶזְרָא or ראב"ע‎; Arabic: ابن عزرا‎; also known as Abenezra or simply Ibn Ezra, 1089–c.1167 ) was one of the most distinguished Jewish biblical commentators and philosophers of the Middle Ages. He was born in Tudela, Navarre, northern Spain, one of the oldest and most important Jewish communities in Navarre, but the location of his death is uncertain: and for long it had been assumed that he died at Calahorra.

Better Than Ezra

Better Than Ezra is an American alternative rock band based in New Orleans, Louisiana, and signed to The End Records. The band formed in 1988 in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The current band consists of Kevin Griffin (vocals and guitar), Tom Drummond (bass guitar), and Michael Jerome (drums). The band has released eight studio albums, most recently 2014's All Together Now. They are best known for their 1993 multi-platinum album Deluxe and the 1995 single "Good", which hit number 1 on the Billboard Modern Rock Tracks chart.

Book of Ezra

The Book of Ezra is a book of the Hebrew Bible; which formerly included the Book of Nehemiah in a single book, commonly distinguished in scholarship as Ezra–Nehemiah. The two became separated with the first printed rabbinic bibles of the early 16th century, following late medieval Latin Christian tradition. Its subject is the Return to Zion following the close of the Babylonian captivity, and it is divided into two parts, the first telling the story of the first return of exiles in the first year of Cyrus the Great (538 BC) and the completion and dedication of the new Temple in Jerusalem in the sixth year of Darius I (515 BC), the second telling of the subsequent mission of Ezra to Jerusalem and his struggle to purify the Jews from marriage with non-Jews. Together with the Book of Nehemiah, it represents the final chapter in the historical narrative of the Hebrew Bible.Ezra is written to fit a schematic pattern in which the God of Israel inspires a king of Persia to commission a leader from the Jewish community to carry out a mission; three successive leaders carry out three such missions, the first rebuilding the Temple, the second purifying the Jewish community, and the third sealing the holy city itself behind a wall. (This last mission, that of Nehemiah, is not part of the Book of Ezra.) The theological program of the book explains the many problems its chronological structure presents. It probably appeared in its earliest version around 399 BC, and continued to be revised and edited for several centuries before being accepted as scriptural in the early Christian era.

Book of Nehemiah

The Book of Nehemiah has been, since the 16th century, a separate book of the Hebrew Bible. Before that date, it had been included in the Book of Ezra; but in Latin Christian bibles from the 13th century onwards, the Vulgate Book of Ezra was divided into two texts, called respectively the First and Second books of Ezra; a separation that became canonised with the first printed bibles in Hebrew and Latin. Mid 16th century Reformed Protestant bible translations produced in Geneva were the first to introduce the name 'Book of Nehemiah' for the text formally called the 'Second book of Ezra'. Told largely in the form of a first-person memoir, it concerns the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem by Nehemiah, a Jew who is a high official at the Persian court, and the dedication of the city and its people to God's laws (Torah).

Ezra J. Warner (historian)

Ezra Joseph Warner III (July 4, 1910 – May 30, 1974) was a noted historian of the American Civil War. He was born in Lake Forest, Illinois and lived in La Jolla, California where he worked as an investment counselor. He was the son of Ezra J. Warner, Jr. and grandson of Ezra J Warner, who were wholesale grocery business executives in Chicago, Illinois. His father, Ezra J. Warner, Jr., was president & treasurer of wholesale grocery business Sprague, Warner & Company and vice president of the Chicago Orchestral Association. His mother was the former Marion Hall. He is buried in Lake Forest Cemetery in Lake Forest. His great uncle was Union General James M. Warner.Ezra J. Warner III is well known for his work in Civil War biography. His works included:

Warner, Ezra J. (1959). Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-0823-5.

Warner, Ezra J. (1964). Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-0822-7..

Warner, Ezra J. (1975). Biographical Register of the Confederate Congress. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8071-0092-9..

Ezra Klein

Ezra Klein (born 1984) is an American journalist, blogger, and political commentator who co-founded Vox, where he is currently editor-at-large. He was previously a blogger and columnist for The Washington Post and an associate editor of The American Prospect. He has served as a contributor to Bloomberg News and MSNBC.

At The Washington Post, he managed a branded blog, Wonkblog, which featured his writing and the writing of other policy reporters. Issues discussed in the blog included health care and budget policy. He wrote a primer on policy called Wonkbook, which was delivered by e-mail and on his blog each morning.

In January 2014, Klein left The Washington Post, and works for Vox Media as editor-at-large for their news website, Vox. Previously, he had co-founded the website along with Melissa Bell and Matthew Yglesias and served as its editor-in-chief.

Ezra Koenig

Ezra Michael Koenig (born April 8, 1984) is an American musician, singer-songwriter, record producer, playwright and radio personality. He is best known as the lead vocalist and guitarist of indie rock band Vampire Weekend. Additionally, Koenig is the creator of the Netflix animated comedy series Neo Yokio and also hosts the Apple Music radio talk show Time Crisis with Ezra Koenig. Time Crisis is airing its fourth season, as of 2019.

Over his career Koenig has received many accolades for his efforts including two Grammy Award nominations and one win for his work with Vampire Weekend, in 2010 and 2013 respectively. He was also nominated in 2016 for his production work on Beyoncé's album Lemonade.

Ezra Miller

Ezra Matthew Miller (born September 30, 1992) is an American actor. Miller's feature film debut was in Afterschool (2008). Miller starred as Kevin in the drama We Need to Talk About Kevin (2011) and co-starred in the film adaptation of The Perks of Being a Wallflower (2012). In 2015, Miller co-starred in the drama The Stanford Prison Experiment and the comedy Trainwreck. Miller played Credence Barebone in the Fantastic Beasts films Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them (2016) and Fantastic Beasts: The Crimes of Grindelwald (2018).

Miller portrayed Barry Allen / The Flash in the DC Extended Universe, first in a cameo in Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016) and in a cameo in Suicide Squad (2016), and later as a lead in Justice League (2017).

Ezra Pound

Ezra Weston Loomis Pound (30 October 1885 – 1 November 1972) was an expatriate American poet and critic, a major figure in the early modernist poetry movement, and a fascist sympathizer. His contribution to poetry began with his development of Imagism, a movement derived from classical Chinese and Japanese poetry, stressing clarity, precision, concision, and economy of language. His works include Ripostes (1912), Hugh Selwyn Mauberley (1920) and the unfinished 120-section epic, The Cantos (1917–1969).

Pound worked in London during the early 20th century as foreign editor of several American literary magazines, and helped discover and shape the work of contemporaries such as T. S. Eliot, James Joyce, Robert Frost and Ernest Hemingway. Angered by the carnage of World War I, Pound lost faith in Great Britain and blamed the war on usury and international capitalism. He moved to Italy in 1924 and throughout the 1930s and 1940s embraced Benito Mussolini's fascism, expressed support for Adolf Hitler, and wrote for publications owned by the British fascist Sir Oswald Mosley. During World War II, he was paid by the Italian government to make hundreds of radio broadcasts criticizing the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Jews, as a result of which he was arrested in 1945 by American forces in Italy on charges of treason. He spent months in detention in a U.S. military camp in Pisa, including three weeks in a 6-by-6-foot (1.8 by 1.8 m) outdoor steel cage, which he said triggered a mental breakdown: "when the raft broke and the waters went over me". The following year he was deemed unfit to stand trial, and incarcerated in St. Elizabeths psychiatric hospital in Washington, D.C., for over 12 years.Pound began work on sections of The Cantos while in custody in Italy. These parts were published as The Pisan Cantos (1948), for which he was awarded the Bollingen Prize in 1949 by the Library of Congress, leading to enormous controversy. Largely due to a campaign by his fellow writers, he was released from St. Elizabeths in 1958 and returned to live in Italy until his death. His political views ensure that his work remains as controversial now as it was during his lifetime; in 1933, Time magazine called him "a cat that walks by himself, tenaciously unhousebroken and very unsafe for children". Hemingway wrote: "The best of Pound's writing—and it is in the Cantos—will last as long as there is any literature."

Ezra Taft Benson

Ezra Taft Benson (August 4, 1899 – May 30, 1994) was an American farmer, government official, and religious leader who served as the 15th United States Secretary of Agriculture during both presidential terms of Dwight D. Eisenhower and as the 13th president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from 1985 until his death in 1994.

Ezra Townsend Cresson

Ezra Townsend Cresson, also Ezra Townsend senior (18 June 1838, Byberry – 19 April 1926, Swarthmore) was an American entomologist who specialised in Hymenoptera. He wrote Synopsis of the families and genera of the Hymenoptera of America, north of Mexico Philadelphia: Paul C. Stockhausen, Entomological printer (1887) and many other works. His son Ezra Townsend, Jr. (1876–1948) was also an entomologist but a specialist in Diptera.

Cresson also documented many new species including Nomada texana.

George Ezra

George Ezra Barnett (born 7 June 1993) is an English singer, songwriter and guitarist. After releasing two EPs, Did You Hear the Rain? in November 2013 and Cassy O' in March 2014, Ezra rose to prominence with the release of his hit single, "Budapest", which reached number one in several countries. His debut studio album, Wanted on Voyage, was released in June 2014, reaching number one in the UK and the top ten in seven other countries. It was also the third best-selling album of 2014 in the UK.His second studio album, Staying at Tamara's, was released in March 2018, and reached number one in the UK and the top ten in eight other countries. The second single from the album, "Paradise", reached number two in the UK, while the next single, "Shotgun", reached number one, becoming Ezra's first chart-topping single in the UK, Ireland, and Australia. In February 2019, he won the Brit Award for British Male Solo Artist.

Hebrew Bible

The Hebrew Bible, which is also called the Tanakh (; תָּנָ״ךְ, pronounced [taˈnaχ] or the [təˈnax]; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach) or sometimes the Mikra, is the canonical collection of Hebrew scriptures. These texts are almost exclusively in Biblical Hebrew, except for some Biblical Aramaic passages in the books of Daniel and Ezra. The Hebrew Bible is also the textual source for the Christian Old Testament. The form of this text that is authoritative for Rabbinic Judaism is known as the Masoretic Text (MT) and it consists of 24 books, while the translations divide essentially the same material into 39 books for the Protestant Bible.

Modern scholars seeking to understand the history of the Hebrew Bible use a range of sources, in addition to the Masoretic Text. These sources include early Greek (Septuagint) and Syriac (Peshitta) translations, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Dead Sea Scrolls and quotations from rabbinic manuscripts. Many of these sources may be older than the Masoretic Text and often differ from it. These differences have given rise to the theory that yet another text, an Urtext of the Hebrew Bible, once existed and is the source of the versions extant today. However, such an Urtext has never been found, and which of the three commonly known versions (Septuagint, Masoretic Text, Samaritan Pentateuch) is closest to the Urtext is not fully determined.

List of Star Wars Rebels episodes

Star Wars Rebels is an American 3D CGI animated television series produced by Lucasfilm and Lucasfilm Animation. Beginning fourteen years after Revenge of the Sith and five years before A New Hope, Rebels takes place during an era when the Galactic Empire is securing its grip on the galaxy. Imperial forces are hunting down the last of the Jedi Knights while a fledgling rebellion against the Empire is taking form.

The series was previewed throughout August 2014 with a set of shorts introducing the main characters before the television film pilot episode premiered on Disney Channel on October 3, 2014. The regular series premiered on Disney XD on October 13, 2014. The second season started on June 20, 2015, and the third season premiered on September 24, 2016. As of November 6, 2017, 75 episodes of Star Wars Rebels have aired. The two-part season three finale aired on March 25, 2017. On March 31, it was announced that the show would return for a fourth season. On April 15, executive producer Dave Filoni announced that the fourth season would also be the final season. On September 2, 2017, a second trailer for season four was released during a panel at Fan Expo in Canada, and the date for the season's premiere was announced as October 16, 2017.

Season 4 premiered on October 16, 2017, with the two-part episode "Heroes of Mandalore", and continued to air until November 13, 2017. The series picked up on February 19, 2018, after a winter break and preparations for the release of the film Star Wars: The Last Jedi. Disney XD then proceeded to release two episodes a week, before airing the final two episodes on March 5, 2018.

Nehemiah

Nehemiah is the central figure of the Book of Nehemiah, which describes his work in rebuilding Jerusalem during the Second Temple period. He was governor of Persian Judea under Artaxerxes I of Persia (465-424 BC). The name is pronounced or in English. It is in Hebrew נְחֶמְיָה, Nəḥemyāh, "Yah comforts".Most scholars believe Nehemiah was a real historical figure and that the Nehemiah Memoir, a name given by scholars to certain portions of the book written in the first person, is historically reliable.

Uzair

Uzair (Arabic: عزير‎, ʿUzayr) is a figure mentioned in the Quran, in the verse 9:30, which states that he was revered by the Jews as "the son of God". Uzair is most often identified with the biblical Ezra. Modern historians have described the reference as "enigmatic", since such views have not been found in Jewish sources. Islamic scholars have interpreted the Qur'anic reference in different ways, with some explaining that it alluded to a specific group of Jews.According to Ibn Kathir, Uzair lived between the times of King Solomon and the time of Zachariah, father of John the Baptist. Some Quranic commentators viewed Uzayr as a learned scholar who sought to teach the people the forgotten laws of God. He is sometimes identified as the protagonist in the Quranic story of the man who slept for a hundred years (2:259). Some Islamic scholars held Uzayr to be one of the prophets. However, Islamic tradition also reports that God expunged Uzayr from the list of prophets because he refused to believe in qadar (predestination). Ibn Hazm, al-Samaw'al and other scholars put forth the view that Uzair (or one of his disciples) falsified the Torah, and this claim became a common theme in Islamic polemics against the Bible. Many aspects of later Islamic narratives show similarity to Vision of Ezra, an apocryphal text which seems to have been partially known to Muslim readers.Classical Muslim scholars who were aware of Jewish and Christian denials of belief in the sonship of Ezra, explained that it was only one Jew or a small group of Jews who worshipped Uzayr, or that the verse refers to the extreme admiration of Jews for their doctors of law.Authors of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia viewed the Quranic reference as a "malevolent metaphor" for the reverence accorded to Ezra in Judaism. Some modern historians have favored the theory that a Jewish sect in Arabia venerated Ezra to the extent of deifying him. Gordon Darnell Newby has suggested that the Quranic expression may have reflected Ezra's possible designation as one of the Bene Elohim (lit. sons of God) by Jews of the Hejaz. Other scholars proposed emendations of the received spelling of the name, leading to readings ‘Uzayl (‘Azazel), ‘Azīz, or Azariah (Abednego).

Vox (website)

Vox is an American news and opinion website owned by Vox Media. The website was founded in April 2014 by Ezra Klein, Matt Yglesias and Melissa Bell, and is noted for its concept of explanatory journalism.

Extra-Quranic Prophets of Islam
In Stories of the Prophets
In Islamic tradition
In Quranic exegesis

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