Ezion-Geber

Ezion-Geber (Classical Hebrew: עֶצְיֹן גֶּבֶר, Etzyon Gever, also Asiongaber) was a city of Idumea, a biblical seaport on the northern extremity of the Gulf of Aqaba, in the area of modern Aqaba and Eilat.[1]

According to Targum Jonathan, the name means "city of the rooster" (כְּרַך תַּרְנְגוֹלָא).

Graia, On the Red Sea, Near Ezion-Geber, Port of King Solomon MET DP71226
Isle of Graia (Pharoan Island), Gulf of Aqaba, Near Ezion-Geber, Port of King Solomon

Biblical references

Ezion-Geber is mentioned six times in the Tanakh.[2] Ruins at Tell el-Kheleifeh were identified with Ezion-Geber by the German explorer F. Frank and later excavated by Nelson Glueck, who thought he had confirmed the identification, but a later re-evaluation dates them to a period between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE with occupation continuing possibly into the 4th century BCE.[3] According to the Book of Numbers Ezion-Geber was one of the first places where the Israelites camped after the Exodus from Egypt.[4]

The ships of Solomon and Hiram started from this port on their voyage to Ophir. It was the main port for Israel's commerce with the countries bordering on the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. According to Book of II Chronicles, Jehoshaphat, the King of Judah, joined with Ahaziah, the King of Israel, to make ships in Ezion-geber; but God disapproved of the alliance, and the ships were broken in the port.[5]

In 1 Kings 9:26 (King James Version) it says:

And king Solomon made a navy of ships in Eziongeber, which is beside Eloth, on the shore of the Red sea, in the land of Edom.
And Hiram sent in the navy his servants, shipmen that had knowledge of the sea, with the servants of Solomon.
And they came to Ophir, and fetched from thence gold, four hundred and twenty talents, and brought it to king Solomon.

References

  1. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, Asiongaber, accessed 7 November 2017
  2. ^ Numbers 33:35, Deuteronomy 2:8, 1 Kings 22:49, 2 Chronicles 8:17, 2 Chronicles 20:36. The general site of Ezion-Geber is indicated in 1 Kings 9:26
  3. ^ Pratico, Gary D. "Nelson Glueck's 1938-1940 Excavations at Tell el-Kheleifeh: A Reappraisal" Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 259 (Summer, 1985), pp.1-32
  4. ^ Numbers 33:35
  5. ^ 2 Chronicles 20:37

Coordinates: 29°32′39.89″N 34°58′55.44″E / 29.5444139°N 34.9820667°E

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Abronah

According to the Book of Numbers, Abronah (Hebrew: עַבְרֹנָה‎), sometimes Ebronah, is one of the places the Israelites stopped at during the Exodus from Egypt, before Ezion-Geber. In the book "Rivers in the Desert" Nelson Glueck reported it as Elats industrial city.Modern archaeologists like Juris Zahrins have linked it with a number of trade routes coming down to Elat from the Mountains of Lebanon and the Dead Sea bringing cedar wood, finely woven linen, bitumen, natron or salt, ben jamin or juniper oil from Lebanon, and coming up from Punt bringing frankincense and myrrh; all to be used in Egyptian mummification rituals at Karnack in return for the nub or Egyptian gold brought from Thebes by Hatshepsuts fleet.

Adurim

Adurim is a town mentioned in the Bible and the Apocrypha and related information. This town is listed by different sources as Adurim, Adoraim, Adora and Dora. During the Roman era, the city was inhabited by Esau's descendants. Today, the place corresponds with Dura, near Hebron.

Edom

Edom (; Edomite: 𐤀𐤃𐤌 ’Edām; Hebrew: אֱדוֹם ʼÉḏōm, lit.: "red"; Akkadian: 𒌑𒁺𒈠𒀀𒀀 Uduma; Syriac: ܐܕܘܡ‎) was an ancient kingdom in Transjordan located between Moab to the northeast, the Arabah to the west and the Arabian Desert to the south and east. Most of its former territory is now divided between Israel and Jordan. Edom appears in written sources relating to the late Bronze Age and to the Iron Age in the Levant, such as the Hebrew Bible and Egyptian and Mesopotamian records. In classical antiquity, the cognate name Idumea was used for a smaller area in the same general region.

Edom and Idumea are two related but distinct terms which are both related to a historically-contiguous population but two separate, if adjacent, territories which were occupied by the Edomites/Idumeans in different periods of their history. The Edomites first established a kingdom ("Edom") in the southern area of modern-day Jordan and later migrated into the southern parts of the Kingdom of Judah ("Idumea", or modern-day southern Israel/Negev) when Judah was first weakened and then destroyed by the Babylonians, in the 6th century BCE.

Edom is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and it is also mentioned in a list of the Egyptian pharaoh Seti I from c. 1215 BC as well as in the chronicle of a campaign by Ramesses III (r. 1186–1155 BC). The Edomites, who have been archaeologically identified, were a Semitic people who probably arrived in the region around the 14th century BCE. Archaeological investigation showed that the country flourished between the 13th and the 8th century BC and was destroyed after a period of decline in the 6th century BC by the Babylonians. After the loss of the kingdom, the Edomites were pushed westward towards southern Judah by nomadic tribes coming from the east; among them were the Nabataeans, who first appeared in the historical annals of the 4th century BC and already established their own kingdom in what used to be Edom, by the first half of the 2nd century BC. More recent excavations show that the process of Edomite settlement in the southern parts of the Kingdom of Judah and parts of the Negev down to Timna had started already before the destruction of the kingdom by Nebuchadnezzar II in 587/86 BCE, both by peaceful penetration and by military means and taking advantage of the already-weakened state of Judah.Once pushed out of their territory, the Edomites settled during the Persian period in an area comprising the southern hills of Judea down to the area north of Be'er Sheva. The people appear under a Greek form of their old name, as Idumeans or Idumaeans, and their new territory was called Idumea or Idumaea (Greek: Ἰδουμαία, Idoumaía; Latin: Idūmaea), a term that was used in New Testament times.

Eilot

Eilot (Hebrew: אֵילוֹת, Arabic: إيلوت‎) is the southernmost kibbutz in Israel. It is located in the Aravah valley, near the border with Jordan. Eilot is less than a kilometer north of Eilat, and just over 3 kilometers north of the Red Sea. It falls under the jurisdiction of Hevel Eilot Regional Council. In 2018 it had a population of 317.

Elath

Elath (Hebrew: אֵילַת, Modern: Elat, Tiberian: ʼÊláṯ; Latin: Aila; Ancient Greek: Ελά and Ἀηλά and Αἴλανα and Αϊλά), or Eloth, was an ancient city mentioned in several places in the Hebrew Bible on the northern tip of the Gulf of Aqaba. It was in the same vicinity as Ezion-Geber.

The name survived into the Roman period as Aela, adopted into Byzantine Greek as Aila and into Arabic as Aylah (the Arab settlement was built outside the ruins of the ancient city), later becoming Aqabat Aylah ("Aylah Ascent"), eventually shortened down to Aqaba.

The modern Israeli town of Eilat, established 1947, is named for the ancient city.

Eliezer

Eliezer (Hebrew: אֱלִיעֶזֶר, Modern: Eli'ezer, Tiberian: ʼĔlîʻézer, "Help/Court of El") was the name of at least three different individuals in the Bible.

Etzion

Etzion (Hebrew: עציון, lit. of the tree), also spelled Ezion, can refer to several places and topics relating to modern, ancient Israel and the West Bank:

Ezion-Geber, a biblical Idumaean and Israelite port on the Red Sea

Kfar Etzion, a kibbutz established in the early 20th century south of Jerusalem

Gush Etzion, an eponymous bloc surrounding the kibbutz

Gush Etzion Regional Council, a modern local government in that area

Kfar Etzion massacre, a Jordanian massacre of kibbutz members

Nir Etzion, a moshav established by survivors of the massacre

Har Etzion, a yeshiva founded during the bloc's reestablishment

Etzion Airbase, a former Israeli AFB in the Sinai Peninsula near the Red Sea (currently Taba International Airport)

Etzion, the codename for the Israeli Air Force base in Žatec, Czechoslovakia, in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War

Yehuda Etzion, an Israeli activist and member of the Jewish Underground

Yeshiva Etzion, a yeshiva located in Queens, NY, established in 2003 by Rabbi Avraham Gaon

Yeshivat Or Etzion, a Hesder Yeshiva, religious high school, and religious army preparation high school

Gush Etzion Convoy, one of many convoys sent by the Haganah to the four blockaded kibbutz im of Gush Etzion

Gush Etzion Junction ("Tzomet HaGush") also known as Gush Junction

Geber

Geber may refer to

Geber, alternative version of the name Jabir

Jabir ibn Hayyan (c. 721–815), Arab writer and early chemist

Pseudo-Geber, a 13th–14th century alchemy corpus attributed to Jabir ibn Hayyan

Jabir ibn Aflah (1100–1150), astronomer and mathematician

Geber (crater), a crater on the Moon

Nick Geber, England-born, American sports radio and television personality

Hiram I

Hiram I (Hebrew: חִירָם, "high-born"; Standard Hebrew Ḥiram, Tiberian vocalization Ḥîrām, Modern Arabic: حيرام, also called Hirom or Huram)

was the Phoenician king of Tyre according to the Hebrew Bible. His regnal years have been calculated by some as 980 to 947 BC, in succession to his father, Abibaal. Hiram was succeeded as king of Tyre by his son Baal-Eser I. Hiram is also mentioned in the writings of Menander of Ephesus (early 2nd century BC), as preserved in Josephus's Against Apion, which adds to the biblical account. According to Josephus, Hiram lived for 53 years and reigned 34.

Jacob Pinkerfield

Jacob Pinkerfeld, also spelled Pinkerfield (1897–1956) (Hebrew: יעקב פינקרפלד‎) was an Israeli archaeologist and architect.

Kadesh (biblical)

Kadesh or Qadesh (in classical Hebrew Hebrew: קָדֵשׁ, from the root קדש "holy") is a place-name that occurs several times in the Hebrew Bible, describing a site or sites located south of, or at the southern border of, Canaan and the Kingdom of Judah. Many modern academics hold that it was a single site, located at the modern 'Ain el-Qudeirat, while some academics and rabbinical authorities hold that there were two locations named Kadesh. A related term, either synonymous with Kadesh or referring to one of the two sites, is Kadesh (or Qadesh) Barnea. Various etymologies for Barnea have been proposed, including 'desert of wanderings,' but none have produced widespread agreement.The Bible mentions Kadesh and/or Kadesh Barnea in a number of episodes, making it an important site (or sites) in narratives concerning Israelite origins. Kadesh was the chief site of encampment for the Israelites during their wandering in the Zin Desert (Deuteronomy 1:46), as well as the place from which the Israelite spies were sent to Canaan (Numbers 13:1-26). The first failed attempt to capture Canaan was made from Kadesh (Numbers 14:40-45). Moses disobediently struck a rock that brought forth water at Kadesh (Numbers 20:11). Miriam (Numbers 20:1) and Aaron (Numbers 20:22-29) both died and were buried near a place named Kadesh. Moses sent envoys to the King of Edom from Kadesh (Numbers 20:14), asking for permission to let the Israelites use the King's Highway passing through his territory, which the Edomite king denied.

According to the Jewish historian Josephus, Kadesh (which he called Rekem) is identified with Petra, in Jordan.Kadesh Barnea is a key feature in the common biblical formula delineating the southern border of the Land of Israel (cf. Numbers 34:4, Joshua 15:3, Ezekiel 47:19 etc.) and thus its identification is key to understanding both the ideal and geopolitically realised borders of ancient Israel.

List of Hebrew place names

This is a list of traditional Hebrew place names. This list includes:

Places involved in the history (and beliefs) of Canaanite religion, Abrahamic religion and Hebrew culture and the (pre-Modern or directly associated Modern) Hebrew (and intelligible Canaanite) names given to them.

Places whose official names include a (Modern) Hebrew form.

Places whose names originate from the Hebrew language.All names are in the Hebrew alphabet with niqqud, and academically transliterated into Tiberian vocalization (of the Masoretic Text) and Standard Hebrew.

List of biblical names starting with E

This page includes a list of biblical proper names that start with E in English transcription. Some of the names are given with a proposed etymological meaning. For further information on the names included on the list, the reader may consult the sources listed below in the References and External Links.

A – B – C – D – E – F – G – H – I – J – K – L – M – N – O – P – Q – R – S – T – U – V – Y – Z

Ophir

Ophir (; Hebrew: אוֹפִיר, Modern: Ofir, Tiberian: ʼÔp̄îr) is a port or region mentioned in the Bible, famous for its wealth. King Solomon received a cargo from Ophir every three years,{1 Kings 10:22} which consisted of gold, silver, sandalwood, pearls, ivory, apes, and peacocks.

Port of Aqaba

The Port of Aqaba is the only port in Jordan, and is owned by Aqaba Development Corporation (ADC) and has 12 terminals operated by five operators:the Aqaba Company for port management and operation ; Aqaba Container Terminal; Industrial Port Company; phosphate Company; National Electricity power Company, and the pilotage operated by Aqaba port Marine Services Company .

Stations of the Exodus

The Stations of the Exodus are the 42 locations visited by the Israelites following their exodus from Egypt, recorded in Numbers 33, with variations also recorded in the books of Exodus and Deuteronomy.

According to the documentary hypothesis, the list of the Stations is believed to have originally been a distinct and separate source text. In this hypothesis, it is believed that the redactor, in combining the Torah's sources, used parts of the Stations list to fill out awkward joins between the main sources. The list records the locations visited by the Israelites, during their journey through the wilderness, after having left Egypt. Consequently, the parts which were inserted to join up the sources appear in suitable locations in the books of Exodus and Numbers.

However, a slightly variant version of the list appears in full at Numbers 33, and several parts of the journey described in the full list, most noticeably the journey from Sinai to Zin, do not appear in the fragmented version.

Both versions of the list contain several brief narrative fragments. For example " ... and they came to Elim, where there were twelve wells of water, and seventy date-palms...". It is a matter of some debate as to how much of the narrative is part of the original text of the list, and how much is extra detail added into it by the redactor.

The situation also occurs in reverse, where some brief texts, within parts of the list, and ascribed to the redactor, are usually regarded as not being part of the list of stations, albeit without much conviction. This is particularly true for Numbers 21:14-15, which references unknown events in the lost Book of the Wars of the Lord, and Numbers 21:16b-18a, describing the digging of the well at Beer.

Biblical commentators like St Jerome in his Epistle to Fabiola, Bede (Letter to Acca: "De Mansionibus Filiorum Israhel") and St Peter Damian discussed the Stations according to the Hebrew meanings of their names. Dante modeled the 42 chapters of his Vita Nuova on them.

Taba Border Crossing

The Taba Border Crossing also known as the Menachem Begin Crossing (Arabic: معبر طابا‎, Hebrew: מעבר מנחם בגין‎ formerly Hebrew: מעבר טאבה‎) is an international border crossing between Taba, Egypt, and Eilat, Israel.

Tarshish

Tarshish (Hebrew: תַּרְשִׁישׁ) occurs in the Hebrew Bible with several uncertain meanings, most frequently as a place (probably a large city or region) far across the sea from the Land of Israel and Phoenicia (Tarshish is currently the name of a village in Mount Lebanon District in Lebanon). Tarshish was said to have exported vast quantities of important metals to Israel and Phoenicia. The same place-name occurs in the Akkadian inscriptions of Esarhaddon (the Assyrian king, d. 669 BC) and also on the Phoenician inscription on the Nora Stone; its precise location was never commonly known, and was eventually lost in antiquity. Legends grew up around it over time so that its identity has been the subject of scholarly research and commentary for more than two thousand years.

Its importance stems in part from the fact that Hebrew biblical passages tend to understand Tarshish as a source of King Solomon's great wealth in metals – especially silver, but also gold, tin, and iron (Ezekiel 27). The metals were reportedly obtained in partnership with King Hiram of Phoenician Tyre (Isaiah 23), and fleets of ships from Tarshish. However, Solomon's Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians, thus archaeological evidence has been difficult to uncover.

Yam Suph

In the Exodus narrative, Yam Suph (Hebrew: יַם-סוּף) is the body of water which the Israelites crossed following their exodus from Egypt. The same phrase appears in over 20 other places in the Hebrew Bible. While traditionally understood to refer to the Red Sea (the saltwater inlet located between Africa and the Arabian Peninsula), the appropriate translation of the phrase remains a matter of dispute; as does the exact location referred to. It is now often translated as Sea of Reeds - with several competing theories as to where this was.

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