Eye–hand coordination

Eye–hand coordination (also known as hand–eye coordination) is the coordinated control of eye movement with hand movement and the processing of visual input to guide reaching and grasping along with the use of proprioception of the hands to guide the eyes. Eye–hand coordination has been studied in activities as diverse as the movement of solid objects such as wooden blocks, archery, sporting performance, music reading, computer gaming, copy-typing, and even tea-making. It is part of the mechanisms of performing everyday tasks; in its absence, most people would be unable to carry out even the simplest of actions such as picking up a book from a table or playing a video game. While it is recognized by the term hand–eye coordination, without exception, medical sources, and most psychological sources, refer to eye–hand coordination.

Behaviour and kinematics

Neuroscientists have extensively researched human gaze behavior, with studies noting that the use of the gaze is very task-specific,[1] but that humans typically exhibit proactive control to guide their movement. Usually, the eyes fixate on a target before the hands are used to engage in a movement, indicating that the eyes provide spatial information for the hands.[2] The duration that the eyes appear to be locked onto a goal for a hand movement varies—sometimes the eyes remain fixated until a task is completed. Other times, the eyes seem to scout ahead toward other objects of interest before the hand even grasps and manipulates the object. Conversely, humans are able to aim saccades toward the hand without vision, using spatial information from hand proprioception.

Eye-guided hand movement

When eyes and hands are used for core exercises, the eyes generally direct the movement of the hands to targets.[3] Furthermore, the eyes provide initial information of the object, including its size, shape, and possibly grasping sites that are used to determine the force the fingertips need to exert to engage in a task.

For sequential tasks, eye-gaze movement occurs during important kinematic events like changing the direction of a movement or when passing perceived landmarks.[4] This is related to the task-search-oriented nature of the eyes and their relation to the movement planning of the hands and the errors between motor signal output and consequences perceived by the eyes and other senses that can be used for corrective movement. The eyes have a tendency to "refixate" on a target to refresh the memory of its shape, or to update for changes in its shape or geometry in drawing tasks that involve the relating of visual input and hand movement to produce a copy of what was perceived.[5] In high accuracy tasks, when acting on greater amounts of visual stimuli, the time it takes to plan and execute movement increases linearly as per Fitts's Law.[6]

Hand-guided saccades

Humans have demonstrated the ability to aim eye movement toward the hand without vision, using the sense of proprioception, with only minor errors related to the internal knowledge of limb position.[7] It has been shown the proprioception of limbs, in both active and passive movement, result in eye saccade overshoots when the hands are being used to guide eye movement. These overshoots result from the control of eye saccades rather than previous movement of the hands in experiments. This implies that limb-based proprioception is capable of being transformed into ocular motor coordinates to guide eye saccades, which allows for the guidance of the saccades by hands and feet.

Neural mechanisms

The neural control of eye–hand coordination is complex because it involves every part of the central nervous system involved in vision: eye movements, touch, and hand control. This includes the eyes themselves, the cerebral cortex, subcortical structures (such as the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and brain stem), the spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system. Other areas involved in eye–hand coordination that have been studied most intensely are the frontal and parietal cortex areas for the control of eye saccades and hand-reach. Both of these areas are believed to play a key role in eye–hand coordination and the planning of movements during tasks.

A more specific area, the parieto occipital junction, is believed to be involved in the transformation of peripheral visual input for reaching with the hands, as found via fMRI.[8] This region in particular has subdivisions for reach, grasp, and saccades. In addition to the parieto–occipital junction, the posterior parietal cortex is believed to play an important role in relating proprioception and the transformation of motor sensory input to plan and control movement with regard to visual input.[9]

Many of these areas, in addition to controlling saccades or reach, also show eye position signals that are required for transforming visual signals into motor commands. In addition, some of the areas involved in reach, like the medial intraparietal cortex, show a gaze-centered remapping of responses during eye movements in both monkeys and humans. However, when single neurons are recorded in these areas, the reach areas often show some saccade-related responses and the saccade areas often show some reach related responses. This may aid in eye–hand coordination or hint at the ability of cells to wire together as they're used more frequently.

Clinical syndromes

Numerous disorders, diseases, and impairments have been found to result in disruption to eye–hand coordination, owing to damage to the brain itself, degeneration of the brain due to disease or aging, or an apparent inability to coordinate senses completely.

Aging

Impairments to eye–hand coordination have been shown in older adults, especially during high-velocity and precise movements. This has been attributed to the general degeneration of the cortex, resulting in a loss of the ability to compute visual inputs and relate them to hand movements.[10] However, while older adults tend to take more time for these sorts of tasks, they are still able to remain just as accurate as younger adults, but only if the additional time is taken.

Bálint's syndrome

Bálint's syndrome is characterized by a complete lack of eye–hand coordination and has been demonstrated to occur in isolation to optic ataxia.[9] It is a rare psychological condition resulting most often from damage bilaterally to the superior parieto-occipital cortex.[11] One of the most common causes is from strokes, but tumours, trauma, and Alzheimer's disease can also cause damage. Balint's syndrome patients can suffer from 3 major components: optic apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia.[12] Simultanagnosia is when patients have difficulty perceiving more than one object at a time.[11] There have been three different approaches for rehabilitation. The first approach is the adaptive or functional approach. It involves functional tasks that use a patient's strengths and abilities. The second approach is remedial approach and involves restoration of the damaged central nervous system by training perceptual skills. The last approach is multicontext approach and this approach involves practising a targeted strategy in a multiple environment with varied tasks and movement demands, along with self-awareness tasks.[13]

Optic apraxia

Optic apraxia is a condition that results from a total inability of a person to coordinate eye and hand movements. Although similar to optic ataxia, its effects are more severe and do not necessarily come from damage to the brain, but may arise from genetic defects or degeneration of tissue.

Optic ataxia

Optic ataxia or visuomotor ataxia is a clinical problem associated with damage to the occipital–parietal cortex in humans, resulting in a lack of coordination between the eyes and hand. It can affect either one or both hands and can be present in part of the visual field or the entire visual field.[14] Optic ataxia has been often considered to be a high-level impairment of eye–hand coordination resulting from a cascade of failures in the sensory to motor transformations in the posterior parietal cortex. Visual perception, naming, and reading are still possible, but visual information cannot direct hand motor movements.[14] Optic ataxia has been often confused with Balint's syndrome, but recent research has shown that optic ataxia can occur independently of Balint's syndrome.[9] Optic ataxia patients usually have troubles reaching toward visual objects on the side of the world opposite to the side of brain damage. Often these problems are relative to current gaze direction, and appear to be remapped along with changes in gaze direction. Some patients with damage to the parietal cortex show "magnetic reaching": a problem in which reaches seem drawn toward the direction of gaze, even when it is deviated from the desired object of grasp.

Parkinson's disease

Adults with Parkinson's disease have been observed to show the same impairments as normal aging, only to a more extreme degree, in addition to a loss of control of motor functions as per normal symptoms of the disease.[10] It is a movement disorder and occurs when there is degeneration of dopaminergic neurons that connect the substantia nigra with the caudate nucleus. A patient's primary symptoms include muscular rigidity, slowness of movement, a resting tremor, and postural instability.[15] The ability to plan and learn from experience has been shown to allow adults with Parkinson's to improvement times, but only under conditions where they are using medications to combat the effects of Parkinson's. Some patients are given L-DOPA, which is a precursor to dopamine. It is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and then is taken up by dopaminergic neurons and then converted to dopamine.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ Vidoni, E. D.; McCarley, J. S.; Edwards, J. D.; Boyd, L. A. (2009). "Manual and oculomotor performance develop contemporaneously but independently during continuous tracking". Experimental Brain Research. 195 (4): 611–620. doi:10.1007/s00221-009-1833-2.
  2. ^ Johansson, R. S.; Westling, G; Bäckström, A.; Flanagan, J. R. (2001). "Eye–hand co-ordination in object manipulation". Journal of Neuroscience. 21 (17): 6917–6932. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.211.9086. PMID 11517279.
  3. ^ Liesker, H.; Brenner, E.; Smeets, J. (2009). "Combining eye and hand in search is suboptimal" (PDF). Experimental Brain Research. 197 (4): 395–401. doi:10.1007/s00221-009-1928-9. PMC 2721960. PMID 19590859.
  4. ^ Bowman, M. C.; Johannson, R. S.; Flanagan, J. R. (2009). "Eye–hand coordination in a sequential target contact task". Experimental Brain Research. 195 (2): 273–283. doi:10.1007/s00221-009-1781-x.
  5. ^ Coen-Cagil, R.; Coraggio, P.; Napoletano, P.; Schwartz, O.; Ferraro, M.; Boccignone, G. (2009). "Visuomotor characterization of eye movements in a drawing task". Vision Research. 49 (8): 810–818. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2009.02.016. PMID 19268685.
  6. ^ Lazzari, S.; Mottet, D.; Vercher, J. L. (2009). "Eye–hand coordination in rhythmical pointing". Journal of Motor Behavior. 41 (4): 294–304. doi:10.3200/JMBR.41.4.294-304.
  7. ^ Ren, L.; Crawford, J. D. (2009). "Coordinate transformations for hand-guided saccades". Experimental Brain Research. 195 (3): 455–465. doi:10.1007/s00221-009-1811-8.
  8. ^ Gomi, H. (2008). "Implicit online corrections in reaching movements". Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 18 (6): 558–564. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2008.11.002.
  9. ^ a b c Jackson, S. R.; Newport, R.; Husain, M.; Fowlie, J. E.; O'Donoghue, M.; Bajaj, N. (2009). "There may be more to reaching than meets the eye: re-thinking optic ataxia". Neuropsychologia. 47 (6): 1397–1408. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.01.035. PMID 19428405.
  10. ^ a b Boisseau, E.; Scherzer, P.; Cohen, H. (2002). "Eye–hand coordination in aging and in Parkinson's disease". Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition. 9 (4): 266–275. doi:10.1076/anec.9.4.266.8769.
  11. ^ a b Jackson; Swainson, G. M.; Mort, R.; Husain, D.; Jackson, M. (2009). "Attention, competition, and the parietal lobes: insights from Balint's syndrome". Psychol. Res. 73 (2): 263–270. doi:10.1007/s00426-008-0210-2. PMID 19156438.
  12. ^ Udesen, H. (1992). "Balint's syndrome: visual disorientation". Ugeskrift for Lægerer. 154 (21): 1492–94. PMID 1598720.
  13. ^ Al-Khawaja, I. Haboubi (2001). "Neurovisual rehabilitation in Balint's syndrome". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 70 (3): 416. doi:10.1136/jnnp.70.3.416. PMC 1737281. PMID 11248903.
  14. ^ a b Bravo-Marques, J. M.; -1#Ferro, J. M. Castro-Caldas (1983). "Crossed optic ataxia: possible role of the dorsal splenium". J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry. 46 (6): 533e9. doi:10.1136/jnnp.46.6.533. PMC 1027444. PMID 6875586.
  15. ^ a b Carlson, N.R. (2012). Physiology of behavior (11th ed.). Boston: Pearson. ISBN 978-0-205-23939-9.

Further reading

Brett Rumford

Brett Michael Rumford (born 27 July 1977) is an Australian professional golfer who plays on the European Tour, having formerly been a member on both the PGA Tour and PGA Tour of Australasia.

Cheiroscope

A cheiroscope (also: chiroscope) is an optical device consisting of a viewing instrument equipped with a drawing pad, with the viewing instrument set up as a haploscope that blends a left and/or right image into view over the drawing.

The cheiroscope was presented in an article published in 1929. The author E. E. Maddox writes that compared to the earlier amblyoscope,

"[t]he cheiroscope approaches the problem from a different and complementary angle, on the simple principle of pressing the hand into service to educate the eye."A cheiroscope can be operated in different manners. For example, using a cheiroscope, a line image can be presented to one eye and the image of a blank sheet to the other eye, and the subject is intended to make a drawing that reproduces the line image.

The cheiroscope is used for diagnostic purposes to test binocular vision, to assess certain conditions of strabism in particular related to binocular stability and alignment, cyclotropia, and the presence and extent of suppression. It can also be used in vision therapy to train amblyopic subjects in desuppression and eye–hand coordination.A stereoscope can be modified to function as a cheiroscope.

Childhood development of fine motor skills

Fine motor skills are the coordination of small muscle movements which occur e.g., in the fingers, usually in coordination with the eyes. In application to motor skills of hands (and fingers) the term dexterity is commonly used.

According to a study done in the UK it was observed that females between the age of 4 and 7 years old show finer motor skills compared to males of the same age. This was discovered by putting 100+ females and 100+ males through observation and having them complete a variety of fine motor skills and then grading them on each skill. They then proceeded to take the total of the grades given for the skills observed and found that females tended to have finer motor skills than males. This could potentially be due to stereotypes since young girls are generally known to color or play with small dolls which both would require fine motor skills, but this has yet to be proven.

The abilities which involve the use of hands develop over time, starting with primitive gestures such as grabbing at objects to more precise activities that involve precise eye–hand coordination. Fine motor skills are skills that involve a refined use of the small muscles controlling the hand, fingers, and thumb. The development of these skills allows one to be able to complete tasks such as writing, drawing, and buttoning. During the infant and toddler years, children develop basic grasping and manipulation skills, which are refined during the preschool years. The preschooler becomes quite adept in self-help, construction, holding grips, and bimanual control tasks requiring the use of both hands.

When the child enters middle childhood they make great progress in their artistic abilities. They begin to express themselves through drawing, sculpting, and clay modeling.

Cognitive Function Scanner

The Cognitive Function Scanner (CFS) originally developed by Peter Laursen, DMedSc, DPsySc, and Thomas Sams, PhD, for the Danish National Institute of Occupational Health in the early 1980s. It is a computer-aided cognitive assessment system consisting of a battery of neuropsychological tests, administered to subjects using computer screen, a dedicated keyboard and a graphics tablet as stimulus and response media, respectively. The nine tests in CFS examine various areas of cognitive function, including:

Short-term and long-term verbal memory

Short-term and long-term spatial memory

Visuomotor functioning (eye-hand coordination)

Visuospatial function

Perception

Attention, reaction time and vigilance (visual and auditory).The CFS takes advantage of the precision and rigor of computer technology, whilst retaining the wide range of ability measures demanded from a neuropsychological battery. In contrast to other cognitive test batteries and in addition to its psychometric measures, the later versions of CFS includes detailed recording of every step of the full response process in all tests (collection of qualitative data to support interpretation of every psychometric outcome). Cognitive Function Scanner was one of the first psychological test methods to include an artificial neural network for scoring a test.

The CFS is suitable for subjects who can read and understand numbers. Norms standardized on age, gender and education are based on a sample of 1,026 of the general Danish population, with an age range of 25–75 years. The CFS aims to be culture and language independent through the use of non-verbal stimuli in all tests, except the Word Learning and Memory Test.

See also

Artificial neural network

Cognitive test

Computer-based assessment

Neuropsychological test

Psychological Testing

Compensatory tracking task

A compensatory tracking task is a task that assesses eye–hand coordination, in which a user is operating a display that has an indicator and a zero point using a joystick, computer mouse, trackball, or other controlling device. The user must try to keep the indicator within the zero point while the indicator is being acted upon by outside forces.Early versions of compensatory tracking tasks included a display made of an cathode ray oscilloscope with a rack and pinion connected to a knob that controlled the indicator. The zero point would be displayed on the cathode ray tube. The participant would turn the knob in order to keep the indicator within the zero point. Time, and distance from the zero point are measured to determine the participant's ability to control the indicator. The early versions of this test were used to help develop better controls. Control modulators such as springs, generators, and electromagnets were used to increase difficulty of the task.

More recently, compensatory tracking tasks has been used to gauge alertness. This is done using a computer monitor and a simulation controlled by a mouse or trackball. Participants use the mouse to keep the indicator within a target which acts as the zero point. Time within the zero point and distance from the zero point are once again measured. Notable versions of the compensatory tracking task are COMPTRACK, and the PEBL compensatory tracking task.

Early childhood

Early childhood is a stage in human development. It generally includes toddlerhood and some time afterwards. Play age is an unspecific designation approximately within the scope of early childhood.

Eye–hand span

The eye–hand span is the distance across part of a text, usually a linguistic text that is being copied via typing or a piece of notated music that is being performed, defined as the distance between the position of the eyes acquiring that information and the hand(s) typing or performing it. Specifically, the eye–hand span is typically measured from the location of central visual input, and stretches between the syllable or chord currently being typed or performed, and the lateral location of the simultaneous fixation. This distance may be measured either in units of linear measurement or in characters or other "bits" of data. Some authors refer to the eye–hand span as the "perceptual span" for the visual information perceivable around the region of center of vision used in reading, and in some cases including peripheral input. The eye–hand span is analogous to the eye–voice span in reading language aloud and in singing.

Fine motor skill

Fine motor skill (or dexterity) is the coordination of small muscles, in movements—usually involving the synchronization of hands and fingers—with the eyes. The complex levels of manual dexterity that humans exhibit can be attributed to and demonstrated in tasks controlled by the nervous system. Fine motor skills aid in the growth of intelligence and develop continuously throughout the [[Human development (biology)|stages of human.

Frima Studio

Frima Studio is a Canadian digital entertainment studio. Based in Quebec City, Quebec and founded in 2003.

They have been noted as one of the fastest-growing companies in Canada.

Geriatric trauma

Geriatric trauma refers to a traumatic injury that occurs to an elderly person. The three prevailing causes of traumatic death in the elderly are falls (which account for 40% of traumatic death in this age group), traffic collisions and burns.

Handwriting movement analysis

Handwriting movement analysis is the study and analysis of the movements involved in handwriting and drawing. It forms an important part of graphonomics, which became established after the "International Workshop on Handwriting Movement Analysis" in 1982 in Nijmegen, The Netherlands. It would become the first of a continuing series of International Graphonomics Conferences. The first graphonomics milestone was Thomassen, Keuss, Van Galen, Grootveld (1983).

Handwriting is historically considered the widest taught motor skill. It is also one of the first, and often the only motor skill that children will learn at elementary school. It takes years of practice and maturing before a person has mastered the adult handwriting skill. Handwriting is not considered only as a movement that leaves a visible trace of ink on paper (product) but it can also be considered as a movement (process). Understanding of the handwriting product will not be complete until the handwriting process is understood. Therefore, handwriting movement has been researched since measurement techniques became available.

However, before recording and processing handwriting movements were within reach for those interested in studying handwriting movements, three components were required: Devices to capture handwriting movements, laboratory computers to store and process the movement data, and computer software which enables the researcher to do this under specific experimental paradigms without the need to program untested custom software. Handwriting movement analysis software is also used for studying drawing, eye–hand coordination, or any other situation where the researcher wishes to record movements using a pen.

Jenga

Jenga is a game of physical skill created by Leslie Scott, and currently marketed by Hasbro. Players take turns removing one block at a time from a tower constructed of 54 blocks. Each block removed is then placed on top of the tower, creating a progressively taller and more unstable structure.

The name jenga is derived from kujenga, a Swahili word which means "to build".

Motor coordination

Motor coordination is the combination of body movements created with the kinematic (such as spatial direction) and kinetic (force) parameters that result in intended actions. Motor coordination is achieved when subsequent parts of the same movement, or the movements of several limbs or body parts are combined in a manner that is well timed, smooth, and efficient with respect to the intended goal. This involves the integration of proprioceptive information detailing the position and movement of the musculoskeletal system with the neural processes in the brain and spinal cord which control, plan, and relay motor commands. The cerebellum plays a critical role in this neural control of movement and damage to this part of the brain or its connecting structures and pathways results in impairment of coordination, known as ataxia.

Osu!

osu! is a free and open-source rhythm game developed and published by Australian-based company PPY Developments PTY, created by Dean Herbert (also known as peppy). Originally released for Microsoft Windows on September 16, 2007, the game has also been ported to macOS (this version might be unstable), and Windows Phone. Its gameplay is based on titles including Osu! Tatakae! Ouendan, Elite Beat Agents, Taiko no Tatsujin, Beatmania IIDX, O2Jam, and DJMax.

There are four official gamemodes: osu!, osu!mania, osu!catch, and osu!taiko. In the main game mode of osu!, other gameplay modes and mods add additional gameplay features or change the difficulty. (eg. Double Time, Hidden, Flashlight, Hard Rock)

The primary emphasis of gameplay is to adapt and react to stimuli in the form of clicking or tapping on hit circles, which requires good eye–hand coordination. These hit circles have other forms, such as sliders and spinners which are interacted with in similar ways. These different gameplay mechanics are part of a beatmap. Beatmaps are a combination of a song, button layout as well as themes or cosmetic skins to make each beatmap unique. These are created by other users and typically feature varying difficulties.

Players can play osu! using various peripherals, such as computer mouse, graphic tablet, keyboard, and touchscreen device.

osu! also includes a ranking system for users to compete against one another, this creates a competitive environment where people compete to have their rankings displayed on the official leaderboards. Players can also play casually with friends or other users in a friendly competition, where all players play the same beatmap at the same time. As of 2018, there have been 8 osu! World Cups, which are 4v4 tournaments between players from countries around the world. The victors win prizes such as cash, special benefits, and osu! supporter, which is a subscription based service that provides special benefits for the player.Jeuxvideo.com reviewed osu! favorably with 18/20 points in 2015. In 2010, MMOGames.com reviewer Daniel Ball said that while the game was very similar to Elite Beat Agents, it was differentiated by its community's large library of high-quality community made content and customization.

Otto fuel II

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Rehabilitation (neuropsychology)

Rehabilitation of sensory and cognitive function typically involves methods for retraining neural pathways or training new neural pathways to regain or improve neurocognitive functioning that has been diminished by disease or trauma.

Three common neuropsychological problems treatable with rehabilitation are attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), concussion, and spinal cord injury. Rehabilitation research and practices are a fertile area for clinical neuropsychologists and others.

Sabinas brittle hair syndrome

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Surgery simulator

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Toy block

Toy blocks (also building bricks, building blocks, or simply blocks) are wooden, plastic, or foam pieces of various shapes (square, cylinder, arch, triangle, etc.) and colors that are used as construction toys. Sometimes toy blocks depict letters of the alphabet.

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