Eyalet

Eyalets (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت‎, pronounced [ejaːˈlet], English: State), also known as beylerbeyliks or pashaliks, were a primary administrative division of the Ottoman Empire.

From 1453 to the beginning of the nineteenth century the Ottoman local government was loosely structured.[1] The Empire was at first divided into provinces called eyalets, presided over by a Pasha of three tails (feathers borne on a state officer's ceremonial staff).[1] The Grand Vizier was responsible for nominating all the high officers of State, both in the capital and the provinces.[1] Between 1861 and 1866, these Eyalets were abolished, and the territory was divided for administrative purposes into Vilayets.[1]

The eyalets were subdivided into districts called livas or sanjaks,[2] each of which was under the charge of a Pasha of one tail, with the title of Mira-lira, or Sanjak-bey.[3] These provinces were usually called pashaliks by Europeans.[3] The pasha was invested with powers of absolute government within his province, being the chief of both the military and financial departments, as well as police and criminal justice.[3]

At official functions, the order of precedence was Egypt, Baghdad, Abyssinia, Buda, Anatolia, "Mera'ish", and the Capitan Pasha in Asia and Buda, Egypt, Abyssinia, Baghdad, and Rumelia in Europe, with the remainder arranged according to the chronological order of their conquest.[4]

1730 Seutter Map of Turkey (Ottoman Empire), Persia and Arabia - Geographicus - MagniTurcarum-seutter-1740
1730 map
1849 Mitchell Map of Turkey ( Iraq, Syria, Palestine ) - Geographicus - TurkeyAsia-m-1849
1849 map
Cedid Atlas (Middle East) 1803
The 1803 Cedid Atlas, showing the Middle Eastern Eyalets

Names

The term eyalet is sometimes translated province or governorate. Depending on the rank of the governor, they were also sometimes known as pashaliks (governed by a pasha), beylerbeyliks (governed by a bey or beylerbey), and kapudanliks (governed by a kapudan).

Pashaluk or Pashalik (Turkish: paşalık) is the abstract word derived from pasha, denoting the quality, office or jurisdiction of a pasha or the territory administered by him. In European sources, the word "pashalic" generally referred to the eyalets.[3]

The term 'eyalet' began to be applied to the largest administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire instead of beglerbegilik from the 1590s onward, and it continued to be used until 1867.[5]

History

Ottoman Empire (1609)
Eyalets in 1609

Murad I instituted the great division of the sultanate into two beylerbeyiliks of Rumelia and Anatolia, in circa 1365.[6] With the eastward expansion of Bayezid’s realms in the 1390s, a third eyalet, Rûm Eyalet, came into existence, with Amasya its chief town. This became the seat of government of Bayezid’s youngest son, Mehmed I, and was to remain a residence of princely governors until the 16th century.[7]

In 1395, Bayezid I executed the last Shishmanid Tsar of Bulgaria, and annexed his realm to Rumelia Eyalet. In 1461, Mehmed II expelled the last of the Isfendyarid dynasty from Sinop, awarding him lands near Bursa in exchange for his hereditary territory. The Isfendyarid principality became a district of Anatolia Eyalet.[7] In 1468, Karaman Eyalet was established, following the annexation of the formerly independent principality of Karaman; Mehmed II appointed his son Mustafa as governor of the new eyalet, with his seat at Konya.[7]

The 16th century saw the greatest increase in the number of eyalets, largely through the conquests of Selim I and Süleyman I, which created the need to incorporate the new territory into the structure of the Empire, and partly through the reorganisation of existing territory.[7] A list dated 1527 shows eight eyalets, with Egypt, Damascus, Diyarbekir and Kurdistan added to the original four. The last eyalet, however, did not survive as an administrative entity. Süleyman’s conquests in eastern Turkey, Iraq and Hungary also resulted in the creation of new eyalets.[7]

The former principality of Dulkadir became the Dulkadir Eyalet at some time after its annexation in 1522. After the Iranian campaign of 1533–6, the new eyalets of Erzurum, Van, Sharazor and Baghdad guarded the frontier with Iran.[7] In 1541 came the creation of Budin Eyalet from part of the old Kingdom of Hungary.[7] The Eyalet of the Archipelago was created by Süleyman I especially for Hayreddin Barbarossa in 1533, by detaching districts from the shores and islands of the Aegean which had previously been part of the eyalets of Rumelia and Anatolia, and uniting them as an independent eyalet.[7]

In 1580, Bosnia, previously a district of Rumelia, became an eyalet in its own right, presumably in view of its strategically important position on the border with the Habsburgs. Similar considerations led to the creation of the Kanije Eyalet from the districts adjoining this border fortress, which had fallen to the Ottomans in 1600. In the same period, the annexation of the Rumelian districts on the lower Danube and the Black Sea coast, and their addition to territories between the Danube and the Dniepr along the Black Sea, created the Silistra Eyalet. At the same time, on the south-eastern shore of the Black Sea, Trebizond Eyalet came into being. The purpose of this reorganisation, and especially the creation of the eyalet of Özi was presumably to improve the defences of the Black Sea ports against the Cossacks.[7]

By 1609, according to the list of Ayn Ali, there were 32 eyalets. Some of these, such as Tripoli, Cyprus or Tunis, were the spoils of conquest. Others, however, were the products of administrative division.[7]

Ottoman Empire (1795)
Eyalets in 1795

In 1795, the government launched a major reorganization of the provincial administration, with a law decreeing that there would be 28 provinces, each to be governed by a vizer. These were Adana, Aleppo, Anatolia, Baghdad, Basra, Bosnia, Childir, Crete, Damascus, Diyarbekir, Egypt, Erzurum, Habesh, Karaman, Kars, Dulkadir, the Archipelago, Morea, Mosul, Rakka, Rumelia, Sayda, Sharazor, Silistra, Sivas, Trebizond, Tripoli, Van. In practice, however, central control remained weak, and beylerbeyis continued to rule some provinces, instead of vizers.[8]

Government

The beglerbegiliks where the timar system was not applied, such as Abyssinia, Algiers, Egypt, Baghdad, Basra and Lahsa, were more autonomous than the others. Instead of collecting provincial revenues through sipahis, the beglerbegi transferred fixed annuals sums to Istanbul, known as the salyane.[5]

By 1500, the four central eyalets of the Empire, Rumelia, Anatolia, Rum and Karaman, were under direct rule. Wallachia, Moldavia and the Khanate of the Crimea, territories which Mehmed II had brought under his suzerainty, remained in the control of native dynasties tributary to the Sultan. So, too, did the Kingdom of Hungary after the battle of Mohács in 1526.[7]

Map

ImperioOtomano1683

List

From the mid-14th century until the late 16th century, only one new beylerbeylik (Karaman) was established.

Disappeared before 1609

The eyalets that existed before 1609 but disappeared include the following:[9]

Province Name Ottoman Turkish Name and Transliteration (Modern Turkish) Existed for
Abkhazia Abhazya ? years (1578–?) also called Sukhum [Sohumkale] or Georgia [Gürcistan] and included Mingrelia and Imeretia as well as modern Abkhazia – nominally annexed but never fully conquered
Akhaltsikhe Ahıska ? years (1603–?) either split from or coextensive with Samtskhe
Dagestan Dağıstan ? years (1578–?) also called Demirkapı – assigned a serdar [chief] rather than a beylerbeyi
Dmanisi Tumanis ? years (1584–?)
Ganja Gence 16 years (1588–1604)
Gori Gori ? years (1588–?) probably replaced Tiflis after 1586
Győr Yanık 04 years (1594–1598)
Ibrim Ìbrīm 01 year (1584-1585) temporary promotion of the sanjak of Ibrim[10]
Kakheti Kaheti ? years (1578–?) Kakhetian king was appointed hereditary bey
Lazistan ? years (1574–?)
Lorri Lori ? years (1584–?)
Nakhichevan Nahçivan 01 year (1603 only) possibly never separate from Yerevan[9]
Poti Faş ? years (1579–?) may have also been another name for Trabzon
Sanaa San'a 02 years (1567–1569) temporary division of Yemen
Shemakha Şamahı 01 year (1583 only) may have also been another name for Shervan
Szigetvár Zigetvar 04 years (1596–1600) later transferred to Kanizsa
Shervan Şirvan 26 years (1578–1604) overseen by a serdar [chief] rather than a beylerbeyi
Tabriz Tebriz 18 years (1585–1603)
Tiflis Tiflis 08 years (1578–1586) probably replaced by Gori after 1586
Wallachia Eflak 2 months (September–October 1595) the rest of the time Wallachia was a separate autonomous principality
Yerevan Erivan 21 years (1583–1604) sometimes also included Van
Zabid Zebit 02 years (1567–1569) temporary division of Yemen

Eyalets in 1609

Conquests of Selim I and Suleyman I in the 16th century required an increase in administrative units. By the end of the latter half of the century there were as many as 42 eyalets, as the beylerbeyliks came to be known. The chart below shows the administrative situation as of 1609.

Province Name Ottoman Turkish Name and Transliteration (Modern Turkish) Existed for
Abyssinia Habeş 313 years (1554–1867) Included areas on both sides of the Red Sea. Also called "Mecca and Medina"
Adana Eyalet آضنه Ażana (Adana) 257 years (1608–1865)
Archipelago جزایر بحر سفید Cezayir-i Bahr-i Sefid 329 years (1535–1864) Domain of the Kapudan Pasha (Lord Admiral); Also called Denizi or Denizli, later Vilayet of the Archipelago
Aleppo Eyalet حلب Ḥaleb (Halep) 330 years (1534–1864)
Algiers Eyalet جزایر غرب Cezâyîr-i Ġarb (Cezayir Garp, Cezayir) 313 years (1517–1830)
Anatolia Eyalet Anadolu 448 years (1393–1841) Second Eyalet
Baghdad Eyalet بغداد Baġdâd (Bağdat) 326 years (1535–1861) Until the Treaty of Zuhab (1639), Ottoman rule was not consolidated.
Basra Eyalet بصره Baṣra (Basra) 324 years (1538–1862)
Bosnia Eyalet Bosna 284 years (1580–1864)
Buda Budin 145 years (1541–1686)
Cyprus قبرص Ḳıbrıṣ (Kıbrıs) 092 years (1571-1660; 1745-1748)
Diyarbekir Eyalet دیار بكر Diyârbekir (Diyarbakır) 145 years (1541–1686)
Eger Eyalet اكر Egir (Eğri) 065 years (1596–1661)
Egypt Eyalet مصر Mıṣır (Mısır) 350 years (1517–1867)
Erzurum Eyalet Erzurum 334 years (1533–1867) Until the Treaty of Zuhab (1639), Ottoman rule was not consolidated.
Al-Hasa Eyalet Lahsa 110 years (1560–1670) Seldom directly ruled
Kefe (Theodosia) كفه Kefe 206 years (1568–1774)
Kanizsa Eyalet Kanije 086 years (1600–1686)
Karaman Eyalet Karaman 381 years (1483–1864)
Kars Eyalet Kars 295 years (1580–1875) Until the Treaty of Zuhab (1639), Ottoman rule was not consolidated. Bounded to Erzurum Eyalet in 1875.
Maraş Maraş, Dulkadır 342 years (1522–1864)
Mosul Eyalet Musul 329 years (1535–1864) Until the Treaty of Zuhab (1639), Ottoman rule was not consolidated.
Ar-Raqqah Rakka 278 years (1586–1864)
Rumelia Rumeli 502 years (1365–1867) First Eyalet
Samtskhe Çıldır 267 years (1578–1845) Also called Meskheti, later possibly coextensive with Akhaltsikhe (Ahıska) Province. Most of eyalet passed to Russia in 1829. Remained parts of eyalet bounded to Erzurum in 1845.
Sharazor Şehrizor 132 years (1554–1686) Also Shahrizor, Sheherizul, or Kirkuk. In 1830, this eyalet bounded to Mosul province as Kirkuk sanjak.
Silistria Eyalet Silistre 271 years (1593–1864) Later sometimes called Ochakiv (Özi); First beylerbeyi was the Crimean khan
Eyalet of Sivas Sivas 466 years (1398–1864)
Syria شام Şam 348 years (1517–1865)
Temeşvar Eyalet Tımışvar (Temeşvar) 164 years (1552–1716)
Trebizond Eyalet, Lazistan Trabzon 403 years (1461–1864)
Tripoli Eyalet (Tripoli-in-the-East) طرابلس شام Trablus-ı Şam (Trablusşam) 285 years (1579–1864)
Tripolitania Eyalet (Tripoli-in-the-West) طرابلس غرب Trablus-ı Garb (Trablusgarp) 313 years (1551–1864)
Tunis Eyalet Tunus 340 years (1524–1864)
Van Eyalet وان Van 316 years (1548–1864) Until the Treaty of Zuhab (1639), Ottoman rule was not consolidated.
Yemen Eyalet یمن Yemen 142 years (1517–1636; 1849–1872)

Sources:

  • Colin Imber. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The structure of Power. (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.)
  • Halil Inalcik. The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age 1300–1600. Trans. Norman Itzkowitz and Colin Imber. (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1973.)
  • Donald Edgar Pitcher. An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire (Leiden, Netherlands: E.J.Brill,1972.)

Established 1609–1683

Province Name Ottoman Turkish Name and Transliteration (Modern Turkish) Existed for
Crete Eyalet Girid 198 years (1669–1867)
Morea Mora 181 years (1620–1687) and (1715–1829) originally part of Aegean Archipelago Province
Podolia Podolya 027 years (1672–1699) overseen by several serdars (marshals) rather than by beylerbeyi (governors)
Sidon Sayda 181 years (1660–1841)
Uyvar Eyalet Uyvar 022 years (1663–1685)
Varad Eyalet Varad 031 years (1661–1692)

Established 1683–1864

Province Name Ottoman Turkish Name and Transliteration (Modern Turkish) Existed for
Eyalet of Adrianople Edirne 38 years (1826–1864)
Monastir Eyalet Monastir 38 years (1826–1864)
Salonica Eyalet Selanik 38 years (1826–1864)
Eyalet of Aidin Aydın 38 years (1826–1864)
Ankara Eyalet Ankara 37 years (1827–1864)
Kastamonu Eyalet Kastamonu 37 years (1827–1864)
Herzegovina Eyalet Hersek 18 years (1833–1851)
Hüdavendigâr Eyalet Hüdavendigâr 26 years (1841–1867)
Karasi Eyalet Karesi 02 years (1845–1847)
Niš Eyalet Niş 18 years (1846–1864)
Vidin Eyalet Vidin 18 years (1846–1864)

Maps

Das osmannische Reich und dessen Schutz-Staaten, nach seiner grossten Ausdehnung im XVIIten Jahrhundert

Eyalets in the 17th century

1855 Colton Map of Turkey, Iraq, and Syria - Geographicus - TurkeyIraq-colton-1855

1855 map of Turkey in Asia by Joseph Hutchins Colton

Europaeische Turkey und Griechenland. Zum Atlas v. J.M. Ziegler. Topogr. Anstalt v. Joh. Wurster u. Comp. in Winterthur. (1864)

Map of European Turkey by Carl Ritter, published in 1864

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d A handbook of Asia Minor. Naval Staff. Intelligence Department. 1919. p. 203.
  2. ^ Raymond Detrez; Barbara Segaert (2008-01-01). Europe and the historical legacies in the Balkans. Peter Lang. p. 167. ISBN 978-90-5201-374-9. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  3. ^ a b c d The empires and cities of Asia (1873) by Forbes, A. Gruar. Page 188
  4. ^ Çelebi, Evliya. Trans. by von Hammer, Joseph. Narrative of travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa in the seventeenth century, Vol. 1, p. 90 ff. Parbury, Allen, & Co. (London), 1834.
  5. ^ a b Selcuk Aksin Somel (2010-03-23). The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire. Scarecrow Press. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-4617-3176-4. Retrieved 2013-06-03.
  6. ^ D. E. Pitcher (1972). An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire: From Earliest Times to the End of the Sixteenth Century. Brill Archive. p. 125. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Imber, Colin (2002). "The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power" (PDF). pp. 177–200. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-07-26.
  8. ^ M. Sükrü Hanioglu (2010-03-08). A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire. Princeton University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-1-4008-2968-2. Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  9. ^ a b D. E. Pitcher (1972). An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire: From Earliest Times to the End of the Sixteenth Century. Brill Archive. pp. 128–29. Retrieved 2013-06-02.
  10. ^ V. L. Menage (1988): "The Ottomans and Nubia in the sixteenth century". Annales Islamologiques 24. pp.152-153.

Further reading

  • Colin Imber. The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1650: The Structure of Power. (Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.)
  • Halil Inalcik. The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age 1300-1600. Trans. Norman Itzkowitz and Colin Imber. (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1973.)
  • Paul Robert Magocsi. Historical Atlas of Central Europe. (2nd ed.) Seattle, WA, USA: Univ. of Washington Press, 2002)
  • Nouveau Larousse illustré, undated (early 20th century), passim (in French)
  • Donald Edgar Pitcher. An Historical Geography of the Ottoman Empire. (Leiden, Netherlands: E.J.Brill,1972.) (Includes 36 color maps)
  • Westermann, Großer Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German) (includes maps)

External links

Aleppo Eyalet

Aleppo Eyalet (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت حلب; Eyālet-i Ḥaleb‎) was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. After the Ottoman conquest it was governed from Damascus, but by 1534 Aleppo was made the capital of a new eyalet. Its reported area in the 19th century was 8,451 square miles (21,890 km2). Its capital, Aleppo, was the third largest city of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th and 17th century.

Bosnia Eyalet

The Eyalet of Bosnia (Turkish: Eyalet-i Bosna, Bosnian: Bosanski pašaluk) or Bosnia Beylerbeylik (Turkish: Bosna Beylerbeyliği, Bosnian: Bosanski beglerbegluk) was an eyalet (also known as a beylerbeylik) of the Ottoman Empire, mostly based on the territory of the present-day state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Prior to the Great Turkish War, it had also included most of Slavonia, Lika, and Dalmatia in present-day Croatia. Its reported area in the 19th century was 20,281 square miles (52,530 km2).

Budin Eyalet

Budin Eyalet (also known as Province of Budin / Buda or Pashaluk of Budin / Buda; Ottoman Turkish: ایالت بودین; Eyālet-i Budin‎, Hungarian: Budai vilajet, Serbian: Budimski vilajet or Будимски вилајет, Croatian: Budimski vilajet) was an administrative territorial entity of the Ottoman Empire in Central Europe and the Balkans. It was formed on the territories that Ottoman Empire conquered from the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and Serbian Despotate. The capital of the Budin Province was Budin (Hungarian: Buda).

Population of the province was ethnically and religiously diverse and included Hungarians, Croats, Serbs, Slovaks, Muslims of various ethnic origins (living mainly in the cities) and others (Jews, Romani, etc.). The city of Buda itself became majority Muslim during the seventeenth century, largely through the immigration of Balkan Muslims.

Damascus Eyalet

Damascus Eyalet (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت شام; Eyālet-i Šām‎) was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. Its reported area in the 19th century was 51,900 square kilometres (20,020 sq mi). It became an eyalet after the Ottomans conquered it from the Mamluks in 1516. Janbirdi al-Ghazali, a Mamluk traitor, was made the first beylerbey of Damascus. The Damascus Eyalet was one of the first Ottoman provinces to become a vilayet after an administrative reform in 1865, and by 1867 it had been reformed into the Syria Vilayet.

Eyalet of the Archipelago

The Eyalet of the Archipelago (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت جزایر بحر سفید‎, Eyālet-i Cezāyir-i Baḥr-i Sefīd, "Eyalet of the Islands of the White Sea") was a first-level province (eyalet) of the Ottoman Empire. From its inception until the Tanzimat reforms of the mid-19th century, it was under the personal control of the Kapudan Pasha, the commander-in-chief of the Ottoman Navy.

Habesh Eyalet

Habesh Eyalet (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت حبش‎, Eyālet-i Ḥabeş) was an Ottoman eyalet. It was also known as the Eyalet of Jeddah and Habesh, as Jeddah was its chief town, and Habesh and Hejaz. It extended on the areas of coastal Hejaz and Northeast Africa that border the Red Sea basin. On the Northeast Africa littoral, the eyalet comprised Massawa, Hirgigo, Suakin and their hinterlands.

Like Ottoman control in North Africa, Yemen, Bahrain, and Lahsa, the Ottomans had no "effective, long term control" outside of the ports where there was a direct Ottoman presence and garrison.

Herzegovina Eyalet

The Eyalet of Herzegovina (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت هرسك; Eyālet-i Hersek‎) was an Ottoman eyalet from 1833 to 1851. Its last capital was Mostar.

Morea Eyalet

The Eyalet of the Morea (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت موره; Eyālet-i Mōrâ‎) was a first-level province (eyalet) of the Ottoman Empire, centred on the Peloponnese peninsula in southern Greece.

Ottoman Algeria

The regency of Algiers (in Arabic: Al Jazâ'ir), was a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire in North Africa lasting from 1515 to 1830, when it was conquered by the French. Situated between the regency of Tunis in the east and the Sharifian Empire (from 1553) in the west (and the Spanish and Portuguese possessions of North Africa), the Regency originally extended its borders from La Calle to the east to Trara in the west and from Algiers to Biskra, and after spread to the present eastern and western borders of Algeria.The Regency was governed by beylerbeys, pashas, aghas and deys, and was composed of various beyliks (provinces) under the authority of beys (vassals): Constantine in the east, Medea in the Titteri and Mazouna, then Mascara and then Oran in the west. Each beylik was divided into various outan (counties) with at their head the caïds directly under the bey. To administer the interior of the country, the administration relied on the tribes said makhzen. These tribes were responsible for securing order and collecting taxes on the tributary regions of the country. It was through this system that, for three centuries, the State of Algiers extended its authority over the north of Algeria. However, society was still divided into tribes and dominated by maraboutics brotherhoods or local djouads (nobles). Several regions of the country thus only lightly recognised the authority of Algiers. Throughout its history, they formed numerous revolts, confederations, tribal fiefs or sultanates that fought with the regency for control. Before 1830, out of the 516 political units, a total of 200 principalities or tribes were considered independent because they controlled over 60% of the territory in Algeria and refused to pay taxes to Algiers.

Ottoman Cyprus

The Eyalet of Cyprus (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت قبرص‎, Eyālet-i Ḳıbrıṣ) was an eyalet (province) of the Ottoman Empire made up of the island of Cyprus, which was annexed into the Empire in 1571. The Ottomans changed the way they administered Cyprus multiple times. It was a sanjak (sub-province) of the Eyalet of the Archipelago from 1670 to 1703, and again from 1784 onwards; a fief of the Grand Vizier (1703–1745 and 1748–1784); and again an eyalet for the short period from 1745 to 1748.

Ottoman Syria

Ottoman Syria refers to divisions of the Ottoman Empire within the Levant, usually defined as the region east of the Mediterranean Sea, west of the Euphrates River, north of the Arabian Desert and south of the Taurus Mountains.Ottoman Syria became organized by the Ottomans upon conquest from the Mamluks in the early 16th century as a single eyalets (province) of Damascus Eyalet. In 1534, the Aleppo Eyalet was split into a separate administration. The Tripoli Eyalet was formed out of Damascus province in 1579 and later the Adana Eyalet was split from Aleppo. In 1660, the Eyalet of Safed was established and shortly afterwards renamed Sidon Eyalet; in 1667, the Mount Lebanon Emirate was given special autonomous status within the Sidon province, but was abolished in 1841 and reconfigured in 1861 as the Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate. The Syrian eyalets were later transformed into the Syria Vilayet, the Aleppo Vilayet and the Beirut Vilayet, following the 1864 Tanzimat reforms. Finally, in 1872, the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem was split from the Syria Vilayet into an autonomous administration with special status.

Ottoman Tripolitania

The coastal region of what is today Libya was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1864, as the Eyalet of Tripolitania (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت طرابلس غرب‎ Eyālet-i Trâblus Gârb) or Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary from 1864 to 1912 and as the Vilayet of Tripolitania (Ottoman Turkish: ولايت طرابلس غرب‎ Vilâyet-i Trâblus Gârb) from 1864 to 1912. It was also known as the Kingdom of Tripoli, even though it was not technically a kingdom, but an Ottoman province ruled by pashas (governors). The Karamanli dynasty ruled the province as de facto hereditary monarchs from 1711 to 1835, despite remaining under nominal Ottoman rule

and suzerainty from Constantinople.

Besides the core territory of Tripolitania, Barca was also considered part of the kingdom of Tripoli, because it was de facto ruled by the Pasha of Tripoli, also the nominal Ottoman governor-general.Ottoman name of "Trablus Garb" literally means "Tripoli in the West" since the state already had another Tripoli in the east also called Trablus conquered by Selim I after the battle at Marj Dabiq. After Tripolitania was annexed names of the eyalets are changed to "Tripoli in the East" (Trablus Şam) and "Tripoli in the West" which is Roman Tripolitania (Trablus Garb).

A remnant of the centuries of Turkish rule is the presence of a population of Turkish origin, the Kouloughlis.

Podolia Eyalet

Podolia Eyalet (Ottoman Turkish: Eyalet-i Kamaniçe‎) was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire. Its capital was Kamianets-Podilskyi (Polish: Kamieniec Podolski; Ukrainian: Кам’янець-Подільський; Turkish: Kamaniçe).

Rumelia Eyalet

The Eyalet of Rumeli or Rumelia (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت روم ایلی‎, Eyālet-i Rūm-ėli), also known as the Beylerbeylik of Rumeli, was a first-level province (beylerbeylik or eyalet) of the Ottoman Empire encompassing most of the Balkans ("Rumelia"). For most of its history it was also the largest and most important province of the Empire, containing key cities such as Edirne, Yanina (Ioannina), Sofia, Manastır/Monastir (Bitola), Üsküp (Skopje), and the major seaport of Selanik/Salonica (Thessaloniki).

The capital was in Adrianople (Edirne), Sofia, and finally Monastir (Bitola). Its reported area in the 19th century was 48,119 square miles (124,630 km2).

Short-lived Ottoman provinces

Among the many Ottoman provinces (eyalets or vilayets) that were created during the centuries-long history of the Ottoman Empire, some existed for relatively short amounts of time, either because they were ceded to foreign powers, obtained independence, or were simply merged with other provinces.

Sidon Eyalet

The Eyalet of Sidon (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت صیدا, Eyālet-i Ṣaydā‎) was an eyalet (also known as a beylerbeylik) of the Ottoman Empire. In the 19th century, the eyalet extended from the border with Egypt to the Bay of Kesrouan, including parts of modern Israel, Palestine and Lebanon.Depending on the location of its capital, it was also known as the Eyalet of Safad, Beirut or Akka (Acre).

Silistra Eyalet

The Eyalet of Silistra or Silistria (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت سیلیستره‎; Eyālet-i Silistre), later known as Özü Eyalet (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت اوزی‎; Eyālet-i Özi) meaning Province of Ochakiv was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire along the Black Sea littoral and south bank of the Danube River in southeastern Europe. The fortress of Akkerman was under the eyalet's jurisdiction. Its reported area in the 19th century was 27,469 square miles (71,140 km2).

Temeşvar Eyalet

The Eyalet of Temeşvar (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت تمشوار; Eyālet-i Tımışvār‎), known as Eyalet of Yanova after 1658, was a first-level administrative unit (eyalet) of the Ottoman Empire located in the Banat region of Central Europe.

Besides Banat, the province also included area north of the Mureș River, part of the Crișana region. Its territory is now divided between Hungary, Romania, and Serbia. Its capital was Temeşvar (Romanian: Timișoara).

Trebizond Eyalet

Trebizond Eyalet (Ottoman Turkish: ایالت طربزون; Eyālet-i Ṭrabzōn‎) or Trabzon Beylerbeyliği was an eyalet of the Ottoman Empire.

Established in 1598, it remained a primarily Christian region into the 17th century, well after the rest of Anatolia had been converted to Islam. Its reported area in the 19th century was 10,507 square miles (27,210 km2).

Modern
Historical

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.