Extreme cinema is a genre of film distinguished by its use of excessive violence, torture, and sex of extreme nature. The rising popularity of Asian films in the 21st century has contributed to the growth of extreme cinema, although extreme cinema is still considered to be a cult-based genre. Being a relatively new genre, extreme cinema is controversial and widely unaccepted by the mainstream media. Extreme cinema films target a specific and small audience group.
The prehistory of extreme cinema can be traced back to censorship of art films and advertising tactics for classical exploitation films to Anglophone markets alongside later liberal representations of sex in the first half of the 20th Century onwards.
The name "extreme cinema" originated from a “line of Asian films that share a combination of sensational features, such as extreme violence, horror and shocking plots”.
Extreme cinema is highly criticized and debated by film critics and the general public. There have been debates over the hypersexualization that makes these films a threat to the ‘mainstream’ community standards.
There has also been criticism over the increasing use of violence in modern-day films. Ever since the emergence of slasher-gore films in the ’70s, the rising popularity of extreme cinema has contributed to the casual violence in popular media. Some criticize the easy exposure and unintended targeting of adolescence by extreme cinema films.
The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) classifies extreme cinema films into an "R18" rating, which is defined as “special and legally restricted classification primarily for explicit works of consenting sex or strong fetish material involving adults.”
Acid Western is a subgenre of the Western film that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s that combines the metaphorical ambitions of critically acclaimed Westerns, such as Shane and The Searchers, with the excesses of the Spaghetti Westerns and the outlook of the counterculture of the 1960s. Acid Westerns subvert many of the conventions of earlier Westerns to "conjure up a crazed version of autodestructive white America at its most solipsistic, hankering after its own lost origins".Anthony Wong (Hong Kong actor)
Anthony Wong Chau-sang (born Anthony William Perry; 2 September 1961), known professionally as Anthony Wong, is a Hongkonger actor who is perhaps best known in the West for his roles in the 1992 action film Hard Boiled, the 2002 critically acclaimed Infernal Affairs and as General Yang in the 2008 Hollywood film The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor.Chloë Sevigny
Chloë Stevens Sevigny (; born November 18, 1974) is an American actress, director, model, and fashion designer. She is mostly known for her work in independent films, often appearing in controversial or experimental features. She is the recipient of several accolades, including a Golden Globe, a Satellite Award, and an Independent Spirit Award, as well as Academy Award and Screen Actors Guild Award nominations. She also has a career in fashion design concurrent with her acting work. Over the years, her alternative fashion sense has earned her a reputation as a "style icon".After graduating from high school, Sevigny found work as a model. She appeared in music videos for Sonic Youth and The Lemonheads, and acquired "it girl" status. In 1995, she made her film debut in Kids, which earned her critical acclaim. A string of roles in small-scale features throughout the late 1990s further established her as a prominent performer in the independent film scene. She received particular attention for her portrayal of Lana Tisdel in the drama Boys Don't Cry (1999), which earned her nominations for the Academy Award and Golden Globe Award in the Best Supporting Actress category.
Throughout the 2000s, Sevigny appeared in supporting parts in numerous independent films, including American Psycho (2000), Demonlover (2002); Party Monster and Dogville (both 2003); and The Brown Bunny (2004). Her participation in the latter caused considerable controversy due to its featuring of a graphic unsimulated sex scene. From 2006 to 2011, Sevigny portrayed Nicolette Grant on the HBO series Big Love, for which she won a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress in 2010. She also appeared in mainstream films such as David Fincher's Zodiac (2007), and the biopic Mr. Nice (2010).
After the conclusion of Big Love, Sevigny went on to appear in numerous television projects, starring in the British series Hit & Miss (2012), and having supporting roles in Portlandia (2013), two seasons of American Horror Story; and in the Netflix series Bloodline (2015–2017). Sevigny made her directorial debut in 2016 with the short film Kitty, followed by a second short film titled Carmen. She had several supporting parts in 2017 before obtaining a lead role portraying Lizzie Borden in the independent thriller Lizzie (2018).Cinema of Transgression
The Cinema of Transgression is a term coined by Nick Zedd in 1985 to describe a New York City-based underground film movement, consisting of a loose-knit group of like-minded artists using shock value and humor in their work. Key players in this movement were Zedd, Kembra Pfahler, John Waters, Tessa Hughes-Freeland, Casandra Stark, Beth B, Tommy Turner, Richard Kern, and Lydia Lunch, who in the late 1970s and mid-1980s began to make very low-budget films using cheap 8 mm cameras.
Zedd outlined his philosophy on the Cinema of Transgression in "The Cinema of Transgression Manifesto", published under the name Orion Jeriko in the zine The Underground Film Bulletin (1984–90).Cinema of Transgression continues to heavily influence underground filmmakers. In 2000, the British Film Institute showed a retrospective of the movement's work introduced by those involved in the production of the original video films.Experimental film
Experimental film, experimental cinema or avant-garde cinema is a mode of filmmaking that rigorously re-evaluates cinematic conventions and explores non-narrative forms and alternatives to traditional narratives or methods of working. Many experimental films, particularly early ones, relate to arts in other disciplines: painting, dance, literature and poetry, or arise from research and development of new technical resources.While some experimental films have been distributed through mainstream channels or even made within commercial studios, the vast majority have been produced on very low budgets with a minimal crew or a single person and are either self-financed or supported through small grants.Experimental filmmakers generally begin as amateurs, and some used experimental films as a springboard into commercial film making or transitioned into academic positions. The aim of experimental filmmaking is usually to render the personal vision of an artist, or to promote interest in new technology rather than to entertain or to generate revenue, as is the case with commercial films.Finals (comics)
Finals is a four-issue mini-series published by DC under its Vertigo imprint from September to December 1999. Written by Will Pfeifer and illustrated by Jill Thompson, it is a black comedy about campus life at Knox State University, aka KAOS U, where the maxim “Strength Through Study” is taken very much to heart.Giichi Nishihara
Giichi Nishihara (西原 儀一, Nishihara Giichi, 1929 – 16 August 2009) a.k.a. Shirō Sekiya (関谷四郎, Sekiya Shirō) was a Japanese film director, screenwriter, producer and actor best known for his low-budget and sensationalistic pink films made for his Aoi Eiga studios in the 1960s and 1970s. He has been called both "Japan's sleaziest movie-maker," and "a cult favorite among devotees of extreme cinema."High Treason (1929 British film)
High Treason is a 1929 film based on a play by Noel Pemberton Billing. It was directed by Maurice Elvey, and stars James Carew, Humberstone Wright, Benita Hume, Henry Vibart, Hayford Hobbs, Irene Rooke, and Jameson Thomas. Raymond Massey makes his first screen appearance in a small role. The sound film was presented in a London trade show on 9 August 1929, then went into UK general release in silent and sound versions on 9 September 1929. The sound version was released in the US by Tiffany Productions on 13 March 1930. The silent version and a trailer for the sound version are preserved and held by the British Film Institute; the only known surviving original copy of the sound version is a lavender fine grain of the American release version held in the collection of Alaska Moving Image Preservation Association (AMIPA), which has been recently restored by the Library of Congress.The film is a science fiction drama set in a futuristic 1940 (though this is changed to 1950 in later releases). The plot and aesthetics of the film are heavily influenced by Fritz Lang's Metropolis.Le Masque de la Méduse
Le masque de la Méduse (English: The Mask of Medusa) is a 2009 fantasy horror film directed by Jean Rollin. The film is a modern-day telling of the Greek mythological tale of the Gorgon and was inspired by the 1964 classic Hammer Horror film of the same name and the 1981 cult classic Clash of the Titans. It was Rollin's final film, as the director died in 2010.List of apocalyptic films
This is a list of apocalyptic feature-length films. All films within this list feature either the end of the world, a prelude to such an end (such as a world taken over by a viral infection), and/or a post-apocalyptic setting.Mark Kermode
Mark James Patrick Kermode (né Fairey; born 2 July 1963) is an English film critic and musician. He is the chief film critic for The Observer, contributes to the magazine Sight & Sound, presents the BBC Four documentary series Mark Kermode's Secrets of Cinema, co-presents the BBC Radio 5 Live show Kermode and Mayo's Film Review, and previously co-presented the BBC Two arts programme The Culture Show. Kermode is a member of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. Kermode is a founding member of the skiffle band the Dodge Brothers, for which he plays double bass.
In January 2019, it was announced that Kermode would be presenting a movie soundtrack themed show on Bauer Media Group's new classical radio station, Scala Radio.Meat pie Western
Meat pie Western, also known as a kangaroo western, is a term used to describe Western-style films or TV series set in the Australian outback.New French Extremity
New French Extremity (New French Extremism or, informally, New French Extreme) is a term coined by Artforum critic James Quandt for a collection of transgressive films by French directors at the turn of the 21st century. The filmmakers are also discussed by Jonathan Romney of The Independent.
Quandt associates François Ozon, Gaspar Noé, Catherine Breillat, Bruno Dumont, Claire Denis' Trouble Every Day (2001), Patrice Chéreau's Intimacy (2001), Bertrand Bonello's The Pornographer (2001), Marina de Van's In My Skin (2002), Leos Carax's Pola X (1999), Philippe Grandrieux's Sombre (1998) and La vie nouvelle (2002), Jean-Claude Brisseau's Secret Things (2002), Jacques Nolot's La Chatte à deux têtes (2002), Virginie Despentes and Coralie Trinh Thi's Baise-moi (2000), and Alexandre Aja's Haute tension (2003) with the label.While Quandt intended the term as pejorative, many so labeled have produced critically acclaimed work. David Fear indicates that the lack of humanity beneath the horror represented in these films leads to their stigma, arguing that Bruno Dumont's Flanders (2006) "contains enough savage violence and sexual ugliness" to remain vulnerable to the New French Extremity tag, but "a soul also lurks underneath the shocks". Nick Wrigley indicates that Dumont was merely chastised for "letting everybody down" who expected him to be the heir to Robert Bresson.Jonathan Romney also associates the label with Olivier Assayas' Demonlover (2002) and Christophe Honoré's Ma mère (2004).Tim Palmer has also written about these films, describing them as constituting a "cinema of the body." Palmer has argued that such films reflect a large scale stylistic trajectory, a kind of avant-garde among like-minded directors, from Catherine Breillat to François Ozon, along with contemporary figures such as Marina de Van, Claire Denis, Dumont, Gaspar Noé, and many others. Palmer situates this tendency within the complex eco-system of French cinema, underlining the conceptual diversity and artistic scope in French cinema today.Opera film
An opera film is a recording of an opera on film.Romanian New Wave
The Romanian New Wave (Romanian: Noul val românesc) is a genre of realist and often minimalist films made in Romania since the mid-aughts, starting with two award-winning shorts by two Romanian directors, namely Cristi Puiu's Cigarettes and Coffee, which won the Short Film Golden Bear at the 2004 Berlin International Film Festival, and Cătălin Mitulescu's Trafic, which won the Short Film Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival later that same year.Slow cinema
Slow cinema is a genre of art cinema film-making that emphasizes long takes, and is often minimalist, observational, and with little or no narrative. It is sometimes called "contemplative cinema". Examples include Ben Rivers' Two Years at Sea, Michelangelo Frammartino's Le Quattro Volte, and Shaun Wilson's film 51 Paintings.Takashi Miike
Takashi Miike (三池 崇史, Miike Takashi, born August 24, 1960) is a Japanese filmmaker. He has directed over one hundred theatrical, video and television productions since his debut in 1991. His films range from violent and bizarre to dramatic and family-friendly.Transgressive art
Transgressive art is art that aims to transgress; i.e. to outrage or violate basic morals and sensibilities. The term transgressive was first used in this sense by American filmmaker Nick Zedd and his Cinema of Transgression in 1985. Zedd used it to describe his legacy with underground film-makers like Paul Morrissey, John Waters, and Kenneth Anger, and the relationship they shared with Zedd and his New York City peers in the early 1980s.