Expo '70

Expo '70 (日本万国博覧会 Nihon Bankoku Hakuran-kai) was a world's fair held in Suita, Osaka, Japan, between March 15 and September 13, 1970. The theme of the Expo was "Progress and Harmony for Mankind." In Japanese, Expo '70 is often referred to as Osaka Banpaku (大阪万博 Ōsaka Banpaku). This was the first world's fair held in Japan.

The master plan for the Expo was designed by the Japanese architect Kenzo Tange helped by 12 other Japanese architects who designed elements within it. Bridging the site along a north/south axis was the Symbol Zone. Planned on three levels it was primarily a social space which had a unifying space frame roof.

1970 Osaka
Kiyonari Kikutake's Landmark Tower, Osaka Expo, 1970
BIE-classUniversal exposition
CategoryFirst category General Exposition
NameExpo 70
MottoProgress and Harmony for Mankind
BuildingSymbol Zone's space frame
Area330 hectares (820 acres)
Countries78 along with 4 international organizations
Coordinates34°48′31″N 135°32′6.8″E / 34.80861°N 135.535222°E
AwardedMay 11, 1966
OpeningMarch 15, 1970
ClosureSeptember 13, 1970
Universal expositions
PreviousExpo 67 in Montreal
NextSeville Expo '92 in Seville
Specialized Expositions
PreviousHemisFair '68 in San Antonio
NextExpo 71 in Budapest
Horticultural expositions
PreviousParis 1969 in Paris
NextFloriade (Netherlands) 1972 in Amsterdam
Osaka Expo'70 Festival Plaza
Space frame roof of the Festival Plaza, Osaka Expo, 1970


Osaka Expo'70 Kodak+Ricoh Pavilion
Osaka Expo'70 Kodak & Ricoh Pavilion

Osaka was chosen as the site for the 1970 World Exposition by the Bureau International des Expositions (BIE) in 1965. 330 hectares in the Senri Hills outside Osaka had been earmarked for the site and a Theme Committee under the chairmanship of Seiji Kaya was formed. Kenzo Tange and Uzo Nishiyama were appointed to produce the master plan for the Expo. The main theme would be Progress and Harmony for Mankind. Tange invited 12 other architects to elucidate designs for elements within the master plan. These architects included: Arata Isozaki for the Festival Plaza mechanical, electrical and electronic installations; and Kiyonori Kikutake for the Landmark Tower.[1]

Master plan

Two main principles informed the master plan. The first was the idea that the wisdom of all the peoples of the world would come together in this place and stimulate ideas; the second was that it would be less of an exposition and more of a festival. The designers thought that unlike previous expositions they wished to produce a central, unifying, Festival Plaza where people could meet and socialise. They called this the Symbol Zone and covered it and the themed pavilions with a giant space frame roof.[2]

The designers liked the idea that like the 1851 Great Exhibition in London, the roof of the Symbol Zone could be a unifying entity for the expo. They did not want the constraint imposed by the London Exhibition of having everything contained under one roof, so the space frame contained only the Festival Plaza and themed pavilions. Tange compared the concept to a tree. The idea was that although the national pavilions were like individual flowers they needed to be connected to the whole via branches and a trunk. Thus the Symbol Zone became the trunk and the moving pedestrian walkways and sub-plazas became the branches. These elements were reinforced with colour, with the trunk and branches in plain white and the pavilions in their own colours that were determined by the national architects.[3]

The Symbol Zone ran north/south across the site, spanning an arterial road running east/west. The Festival Plaza was to the north of road and had the main gate on its southern end. To the north of the main gate and central to the Festival Plaza was the Tower of the Sun from which visitors could join pedestrian walkways that travelled out towards the north, south, east and west gates.[4]

The Theme Space under the space frame was divided into three levels, each designed by the artist Tarō Okamoto, The underground level represented the past and was a symbol of the source of humanity. The surface level represented the present, symbolising the dynamism of human interaction. The space frame represented the future and a world where humanity and technology would be joined. Tange envisioned that the exhibition for the future would be like an aerial city and he asked Fumihiko Maki, Noboru Kawazoe, Koji Kamiya and Noriaki Kurokawa to design it. The Theme Space was also punctuated by three towers: the Tower of the Sun, the Tower of Maternity and the Tower of Youth.[5]

To the north of the Theme Space was the Festival Plaza. This was a flexible space that contained a flat area and stepped terrace. The plaza could be rearranged to provide for different requirements for seating capacity, from 1500 to 10000. The flexibility extended to the lighting and audio visual equipment allowing for a range of musical performances and electronic presentations.[6] Festival Plaza was covered by the world's first large-scale, transparent membrane roof. It was designed by Tange and structural engineer Yoshikatsu Tsuboi + Kawaguchi & Engineers. Measuring 75.6 m in width and 108 m in length, it was 30 m high and supported by only six lattice columns.[7]

Seventy-seven countries participated in the event, and within six months the number of visitors reached 64,218,770, making Expo '70 one of the largest and best attended expositions in history. It held the record for most visitors at an Expo until it was surpassed by the Shanghai World Expo in 2010.

Major pavilions

Canada Pavilion Expo 70
Canadian Pavilion
  • The Canadian Pavilion, designed by architect Arthur Erickson, featured two National Film Board of Canada productions: The Land, a look at Canada from coast to coast, filmed for the most part from a low-flying aircraft,[8] as well as the animated short The City, directed by Kaj Pindal.[9][10] Montreal artist and architect Melvin Charney had submitted a radically different design for the Canadian pavilion, fashioned from construction cranes and scaffolding, which was rejected.[11]
Osaka Expo'70 Korean Pavilion
The Korean (left-center, in the distance) and West German (foreground) Pavilions (far background: Tower of the Sun)
  • The West German pavilion, designed by Fritz Bornemann, featured the world's first spherical concert hall, based on artistic concepts by Karlheinz Stockhausen. The pavilion theme was "gardens of music", in keeping with which Bornemann "planted" the exhibition halls beneath a broad lawn, with the connected auditorium "sprouting" above ground. Inside, the audience was surrounded by 50 loudspeaker groups in seven rings at different "latitudes" around the interior walls of the sphere. Sound was sent around the space in three dimensions using either a spherical controller designed by Fritz Winckel of the Electronic Music Studio at the Technical University of Berlin, or a ten-channel "rotation mill" constructed to Stockhausen's design.[12] Works by Johann Sebastian Bach, Ludwig van Beethoven, Bernd Alois Zimmermann, and Boris Blacher were played from multi-track tape. As the main feature, however, Stockhausen was invited to present five-and-a-half-hour live programs of his music every day over a period of 183 days to a total audience of about a million listeners.[13] In the course of the exhibition, 19 performers in Stockhausen's ensemble gave concerts for over a million visitors.[14] "Many visitors felt the spherical auditorium to be an oasis of calm amidst the general hubbub, and after a while it became one of the main attractions of Expo 1970".[15]
  • The USSR Pavilion was the tallest in the fairgrounds, a sweeping red and white design by Soviet architect Mikhail V. Posokhin.[16]
  • The U.S. Pavilion was an air-supported dome, a joint design by two American firms: architects Davis Brody and designers Chermayeff & Geismar & Haviv.
  • The Netherlands Pavilion was the work of Carel Weeber and Jaap Bakema.[17]

Other attractions

A popular highlight of the fair was a large moon rock on display in the United States' pavilion. It had been brought back from the moon by Apollo 12 astronauts in 1969.

Expo '70 also saw the premiere of the first-ever IMAX film: the Canadian-produced Tiger Child for the Fuji Group pavilion.

The Expo also featured demonstrations of early mobile phones, local area networking and maglev train technology.


The site of Expo '70 is now Expo Commemoration Park. Almost all pavilions have been demolished, but a few memorials remain, including part of the roof for Festival Plaza designed by Tange. The most famous of the still-intact pieces is Okamoto Taro's Tower of the Sun. The former international art museum pavilion designed by Kiyoshi Kawasaki was used as the building for the National Museum of Art, Osaka until March 2004 (the museum moved to downtown Osaka in November 2004).

Additionally, there is a time capsule that is to be left for 5,000 years and opened in the year 6970. The capsule was donated by Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. The concept creating time capsules at world's fairs started with the two Westinghouse Time Capsules, which are to be opened in 6939.

Osaka successfully bid for Expo 2025 alongside Yekaterinburg, Russia and Baku, Azerbaijan. However, the world’s fair will not reuse the park space, and will instead be hosted on Yumeshima island in Konohana, on the waterfront of Osaka Bay.[18].

In popular culture

See also


  1. ^ Kultermann (1970), p 282
  2. ^ Kultermann (1970), p 284
  3. ^ Kultermann (1970), p 286
  4. ^ Kultermann (1970), p 288
  5. ^ Kultermann (1970), p 289
  6. ^ Kultermann (1970), p 289-293
  7. ^ "The Expo'70 Space Frame for the Festival Plaza (1970)". Kawaguchi & Engineers. Archived from the original on 2011-04-25.
  8. ^ "Canada the Land". Documentary film. National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
  9. ^ Pindal, Kaj. "The City". Animated short. National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  10. ^ Weldon, Carolyne. "The NFB and World Fairs, pt. 2: Osaka and Expo 70". NFB.ca Blog. National Film Board of Canada. Retrieved 3 August 2010.
  11. ^ Curran, Peggy (19 September 2012). "Melvin Charney: A towering figure in Montreal architecture". Montreal Gazette. Archived from the original on 23 September 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012.
  12. ^ Föllmer [n.d.]; Föllmer (1996); Kurtz (1992), p 166.
  13. ^ Kurtz (1992), p 178; Wörner (1973), p 256.
  14. ^ Föllmer [n.d.].
  15. ^ Kurtz (1992), p 179.
  16. ^ "Expo 70 Soviet Pavilion". Architectuul. Retrieved 2014-08-18.
  17. ^ http://schatkamer.nai.nl/en/projects/nederlands-paviljoen-wereldtentoonstelling-osaka
  18. ^ "Osaka is World Expo 2025 Host - Japan Forward". Retrieved 24 November 2018.


  • Föllmer, Golo (1996). "Osaka: Technik für das Kugelauditorium." In Musik…, verwandelt. Das Elektronische Studio der TU Berlin 1953–1995, edited by Frank Gertich, Julia Gerlach, and Golo Föllmer, 195–211. Hofheim: Wolke-Verlag. ISBN 3-923997-68-X
  • Föllmer, Golo. [n.d.] “Karlheinz Stockhausen: «Spherical Concert Hall»” (Osaka World Expo, 1970). Medien Kunst Net / Media Art Net.
  • Kultermann, Udo (1970). Kenzo Tange. London, United Kingdom: Pall Mall Press. ISBN 0-269-02686-X.
  • Kurtz, Michael (1992). Stockhausen: A Biography, translated by Richard Toop. London and Boston: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-14323-7 (cloth) ISBN 0-571-17146-X (pbk)
  • Wörner, Karl Heinz (1973). Stockhausen: Life and Work. Translated by Bill Hopkins. Berkeley: University of California Press.

External links

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2015 Suruga Bank Championship

The 2015 Suruga Bank Championship (Japanese: スルガ銀行チャンピオンシップ2015; Spanish: Copa Suruga Bank 2015) was the eighth edition of the Suruga Bank Championship, the club football match co-organized by the Japan Football Association, the football governing body of Japan, CONMEBOL, the football governing body of South America, and J. League, the professional football league of Japan, between the winners of the previous season's J. League Cup and Copa Sudamericana.

The match was contested between Japanese team Gamba Osaka, the 2014 J. League Cup winners, and Argentine team River Plate, the 2014 Copa Sudamericana winners. It was hosted by Gamba Osaka at the Osaka Expo '70 Stadium in Suita on August 11, 2015.River Plate won the match 3–0 to win their third international club title in 2015, after the 2015 Recopa Sudamericana and the 2015 Copa Libertadores (where they played in the finals less than a week before), and also became the first South American team to win this competition since 2009.

2016 Gamba Osaka U-23 season

2016 Gamba Osaka U-23 season.

Expo '70 Commemorative Stadium

Expo '70 Commemorative Stadium (万博記念競技場, Banpaku Kinen Kyōgi-jō), also called Osaka Expo '70 Stadium, is an athletics stadium located in the Expo Commemoration Park, the site of Expo '70, in the city of Suita, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. It has a capacity of around about 21,000.

The stadium was the home ground of J.League club Gamba Osaka between 1993 and 2015 before the club moved to Suita City Football Stadium. It remains in use as a local athletics venue, rugby and as a home venue for Gamba Osaka's Under-23 team in the J3 League.

Expo Commemoration Park

The Expo Commemoration Park (万博記念公園, Bampaku kinen kōen) or Expo '70 Commemorative Park is a park in Suita, Japan. It is north of Osaka (about 15 km from Umeda). The park is the former site of Expo '70, a World's Fair held between March 15 and September 13, 1970. It is about 264 ha of lawn and forest, and has education and recreation facilities.

The National Museum of Ethnology, the Osaka Expo '70 Stadium, and part of the Expoland are in this park. The National Museum of Art used to be here but was moved to Nakanoshima area, Kita-ku, Osaka. The park has the Tower of the Sun, a symbolic landmark of the Expo '70, which has been preserved and repaired a number of times. Some of the materials used or built in the Expo '70 remain.

Gamba Osaka U-23

Gamba Osaka Under−23 is a Japanese football team based in Suita, Osaka. It is the reserve team of Gamba Osaka and currently plays in J3 League which they have done since their entry to the league at the beginning of the 2016 season. They play the majority of their home games at Panasonic Stadium Suita with some played at Expo '70 Commemorative Stadium.

Osaka derby

The Osaka derby is a commonly occurring football fixture in Japan, which takes place between teams from Osaka Prefecture. Currently the derby is contested by Gamba Osaka (based in Suita) and Cerezo Osaka (based in Osaka).

Panasonic Stadium Suita

Panasonic Stadium Suita (パナソニックスタジアム吹田) formerly known as Suita City Football Stadium, is a stadium located in the city of Suita, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. It has a capacity of 39,694.

The stadium is home of the J1 League football club Gamba Osaka since 2016 and replaced Expo '70 Commemorative Stadium, which had been their main stadium between 1991 and 2015.Since 1 January 2018, the stadium is known as Panasonic Stadium Suita.

Pole (Stockhausen)

Pole (Poles), for two performers with shortwave radio receivers and a sound projectionist, is a composition by Karlheinz Stockhausen, written in 1970. It is Number 30 in the catalogue of the composer's works.


Suita (吹田市, Suita-shi) is a city located in northern Osaka Prefecture, Japan.

As of October 1, 2016, the city has an estimated population of 378,322 and a population density of 9,880 persons per km². The total area is 36.11 km².

The city was founded on April 1, 1940, and was the site of Expo '70, a World's Fair held in 1970. The J-League soccer club Gamba Osaka plays at Suita City Football Stadium.

It is connected to central by Hankyu Railway, West Japan Railway Company and the Osaka Municipal Subway. The Osaka Monorail also passes through the area, connecting the city to Osaka, the Expo Commemoration Park and Osaka International Airport.

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