Exploratory surgery

Exploratory surgery is a diagnostic method used by doctors when trying to find a diagnosis for an ailment. It can be performed in both humans and animals, but it is far more common in animals. It is used most commonly to diagnose or locate cancer in humans.

The use of new technologies such as MRIs have made exploratory surgeries less frequent.

Exploratory surgery and cancer

Sometimes, cancer is located in a place where standard tests cannot detect it. In this case, doctors must go into surgery and look for the cancerous mass manually. This procedure, which is what is commonly associated with exploratory surgery, is not used for treatment at all. Instead, it is used chiefly to identify the location of the tumor and the extent of its damage. If a tumor is found, a biopsy is performed and tests are run to see what type of cancer was found.

Exploratory surgery in animals

Because animals cannot voice their symptoms as easily as humans, exploratory surgery is more common in animals. Exploratory surgery is done when looking for a foreign body that may be lodged in the animal's body, when looking for cancer, or when looking for various other gastrointestinal problems. It is a fairly routine procedure that is done only after tests and bloodwork reveal nothing abnormal.

Annie Thompson

Annie Emma Thompson, Lady Thompson (née Affleck; June 26, 1842 – April 10, 1913) was the wife of Sir John Thompson, the fourth Prime Minister of Canada.

She was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia to James Affleck, a sea captain, and Catherine Saunders. She was the eldest of eight children. She has been described by historians as a high-spirited young woman who resembled Catherine Linton in Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights.

She married Thompson in 1870 in Portland, Maine. Their first child, a son, was stillborn on September 3, 1871. They had eight more children:

John Thomas Connolly Thompson (1872–1952)

Joseph Thompson (1874–1935)

Mary Aloysia (Babe) Thompson (1876–1917)

Mary Helena Thompson (1878–1944)

Annie Mary Thompson (1879–1880)

unknown name (died at birth, December 7, 1880)

Frances Alice (Frankie) Thompson (1881–1947)

David Anthony Thompson (1883–1885)In 1882, when John Thompson was concerned about losing an electoral battle in Antigonish, Annie wrote him to say that "I wish I could be with you for one ten minutes to talk square to you...So keep up your courage... win or lose they can't keep you from me much longer...So now you must not be such an awful baby until you get home and then I'll see how far you can be indulged."

John Thompson was appointed to the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia in 1882. When he was offered the opportunity to become Minister of Justice in 1885, Annie Thompson encouraged him to leave that bunch of "sere old crows" (her words) on the Nova Scotia bench and get out into a world which would better test and demonstrate his talents. The Thompson family finally moved to Ottawa in 1888, and John Thompson became Prime Minister in 1892.

On December 12, 1894, John Thompson died of a heart attack in Windsor Castle at the age of 49. He left a very small estate, and the Lady Thompson Fund was begun that month as a private subscription for the children.

Lady Thompson moved to Toronto in 1895. Friends, including Lady Aberdeen and Senator Frank Smith, aided her in finding housing and establishing herself. She lived at 18½ St Joseph Street, and became a member of the nearby St Basil's Roman Catholic Church.

In hospital in 1913 for exploratory surgery, she was diagnosed with inoperable cancer and died on the operating table. She was buried in Mount Hope Catholic Cemetery in Toronto (her husband was buried at Holy Cross Cemetery, Halifax).

Brede Arkless

Brede Arkless (née Boyle) (10 August 1939 – 18 March 2006) was a British female rock climber and mountaineer, and was actively involved in the all-women's climbing movement. She was born in Manchester, England, of Dublin parents, and was brought up in Ireland, to which her parents had returned quickly after the outbreak of war only three weeks after her birth.

From an early age she showed a passion for the outdoors. As a teenager, having left school at 14, she was happiest wandering around the Wicklow Mountains, where she first saw rock climbers in action on the cliffs at Glendalough; she started climbing herself at Dalkey Quarry. By the early 1960s, and in her early twenties, Brede Boyle was working in North Wales as a climbing instructor for the Mountaineering Association.

In 1964 she married fellow mountaineer Geoff Arkless, and together they started a climbing school in Wales. She made several all-women trips to the greater ranges, while still being able to rear eight children (four boys and two daughters with Geoff, and, after their separation in the mid-1970s, two daughters with another Llanberis-based climber, Mick Pointon). She also organised women-only climbing courses, together with the noted climber and feminist Jill Lawrence. She was only the second woman to qualify, in the 1960s, as a British Mountain Guide (after Gwen Moffat), and was the first woman to hold the badge of the UIAGM as an international mountain guide. Increasingly involved in all-women climbing and guiding, she eventually separated from her husband, moved to New Zealand in September 1990 and became a New Zealand citizen in 1995. While in her fifties she guided a total of 22 ascents of Aoraki / Mount Cook, the highest mountain in New Zealand.

In 1998, an expedition party of five, including a 59-year-old Arkless, succeeded in crossing the Garhwal region of the Indian Himalayas between the Hindu temples of Badrinath and Kedarnath, a feat that had only been accomplished once before, in 1934. In 2000 Arkless tried to become the oldest woman to ascend Mount Everest, but failed when she had to abandon her attempt at 8,500 m (28,000 ft) due to severe altitude sickness. The experience left her disillusioned: "Everest is full of non-climbers and rich people. Everest is all about summit fever and people who shouldn't be where they are. One guy said 'How many 8000m peaks have you climbed?' When I said 'One', he turned away."Arkless died of pancreatic cancer, aged 66. After being diagnosed, Arkless rode her bicycle more than 150 miles over high mountain passes from her home in Twizel to a hospital in Christchurch for exploratory surgery, which revealed that her illness was inoperable.Brede Arkless is commemorated in the naming of an outdoor activities centre in East London. Run as a social enterprise by Newham-based charity Community Links, "The Brede Arkless Outdoors in the City Centre" recognises "...the inspirational way in which Brede introduced disadvantaged and often disaffected children and young people safely into the challenges and joy of the mountains".

Commingled Containers

Commingled Containers is an experimental short film by Stan Brakhage, produced in 1997.

Danny Salazar

Daniel Dariel Salazar (born January 11, 1990) is a Dominican professional baseball starting pitcher for the Cleveland Indians of Major League Baseball (MLB).


Exploratory may refer to:

Exploration, the act of searching or traveling by land, sea, air or space for the purpose of discovery of resources or information

Exploratory committee, in United States politics, an organization that tests the feasibility of a potential candidate running for an elected office

Exploratory data analysis, an approach to analyzing data for the purpose of formulating hypotheses worth testing

Exploratory engineering, a term that describes the process of making models of systems that are not feasible with current technologies

Exploratory (museum), a hands-on science museum in Bristol, from 1987 to 1999

Exploratory research, a type of research conducted for a problem that has not been clearly defined

Exploratory search a specialization of information exploration used by searchers who have difficulties with the domain or achieving their goal

Exploratory surgery, a surgery performed to find a diagnosis for an ailment, improvements in imaging technology have reduced their usage

Exploratory testing, an approach to software testing that is concisely described as simultaneous learning, test design and test execution

Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology program, research conducted on the feasibility of solar power beamed from space

Fetal Position (House)

"Fetal Position" is the seventeenth episode of the third season of House and the sixty-third episode overall.


Forceps (plural forceps or considered a plural noun without a singular, often a pair of forceps; the Latin plural forcipes is no longer recorded in most dictionaries) are a handheld, hinged instrument used for grasping and holding objects. Forceps are used when fingers are too large to grasp small objects or when many objects need to be held at one time while the hands are used to perform a task. The term "forceps" is used almost exclusively within the medical field. Outside medicine, people usually refer to forceps as tweezers, tongs, pliers, clips or clamps.

Mechanically, forceps employ the principle of the lever to grasp and apply pressure.

Depending on their function, basic surgical forceps can be categorized into the following groups:

Non-disposable forceps. They should withstand various kinds of physical and chemical effects of body fluids, secretions, cleaning agents, and sterilization methods.

Disposable forceps. They are usually made of lower-quality materials or plastics which are disposed after use.Surgical forceps are commonly made of high-grade carbon steel, which ensures they can withstand repeated sterilization in high-temperature autoclaves. Some are made of other high-quality stainless steel, chromium and vanadium alloys to ensure durability of edges and freedom from rust. Lower-quality steel is used in forceps made for other uses. Some disposable forceps are made of plastic. The invention of surgical forceps is attributed to Stephen Hales.There are two basic types of forceps: non-locking (often called "thumb forceps" or "pick-ups") and locking, though these two types come in dozens of specialized forms for various uses. Non-locking forceps also come in two basic forms: hinged at one end, away from the grasping end (colloquially such forceps are called tweezers) and hinged in the middle, rather like scissors. Locking forceps are almost always hinged in the middle, though some forms place the hinge very close to the grasping end. Locking forceps use various means to lock the grasping surfaces in a closed position to facilitate manipulation or to independently clamp, grasp or hold an object.

Incisional hernia

An incisional hernia is a type of hernia caused by an incompletely-healed surgical wound. Since median incisions in the abdomen are frequent for abdominal exploratory surgery, ventral incisional hernias are often also classified as ventral hernias due to their location. Not all ventral hernias are from incisions, as some may be caused by other trauma or congenital problems.

Jason Schmidt

Jason David Schmidt (born January 29, 1973), is an American former Major League Baseball pitcher. In his career, he has played for the Los Angeles Dodgers (2007–2009), San Francisco Giants (2001–06), Pittsburgh Pirates (1996–2001) and Atlanta Braves (1995–96), by whom he had been drafted in the eighth round, 206th overall, of the 1991 draft.

John Patterson (pitcher)

John Hollis Patterson (born January 30, 1978) is a former Major League Baseball starting pitcher for the Arizona Diamondbacks and the Montreal Expos/Washington Nationals franchise.

Kyle McClellan

Kyle William McClellan (born June 12, 1984) is a retired professional baseball pitcher. McClellan was drafted by the St. Louis Cardinals in the 25th round of the 2002 Major League Baseball Draft. He also played for the Texas Rangers.


A laparotomy is a surgical procedure involving a large incision through the abdominal wall to gain access into the abdominal cavity. It is also known as a celiotomy. The first successful laparotomy was performed without anesthesia by Ephraim McDowell in 1809 in Danville, Kentucky.


Mastoiditis is the result of an infection that extends to the air cells of the skull behind the ear. Specifically, it is an inflammation of the mucosal lining of the mastoid antrum and mastoid air cell system inside the mastoid process. The mastoid process is the portion of the temporal bone of the skull that is behind the ear which contains open, air-containing spaces. Mastoiditis is usually caused by untreated acute otitis media (middle ear infection) and used to be a leading cause of child mortality. With the development of antibiotics, however, mastoiditis has become quite rare in developed countries where surgical treatment is now much less frequent and more conservative, unlike former times. Additionally, there is no evidence that the drop in antibiotic prescribing for otitis media has increased the incidence of mastoiditis, raising the possibility that the drop in reported cases is due to a confounding factor such as childhood immunizations against Haemophilus and Streptococcus. Untreated, the infection can spread to surrounding structures, including the brain, causing serious complications.

Periradicular surgery

Peri-radicular surgery is concerned with the surgical management of recurrent pathology associated with the apex of a non-vital tooth. The symptoms a patient may experience are due to infection in the peri-radicular tissues around a root-treated tooth that can impede the healing process of the tooth after conventional root canal treatment.After removing the pulpal tissues, the aim of endodontic treatment is to seal the pulpal space to prevent further bacterial contamination and to allow healing of the peri-radicular tissues. However, the success rates for root canal treatment range from 47-97% which can be due to several reasons such as voids in the root canal filling, a root canal filling that it short for the tooth and the presence of a pre-operative periapical lesion.Treatment options to manage cases such as these can be non-surgical root canal retreatment or peri-radicular surgery. Access and cleaning of the pulp chamber and canals would be easier done with non-surgical root canal re-treatment however, this is contraindicated in some patients.There are numerous indications as well as contraindications for peri-radicular surgery which are explored thoroughly throughout this topic. The stages of peri-radicular surgery are:

1. Local anaesthesia

2. Flap design

3. Bone removal

4. Curettage

5. Apicectomy

6. Retrograde preparation and filling

7. Wound closure

These steps are all individually very important for the success of the overall surgery and should be carefully carried out at each stage in order to get the best outcome for the patient.

Randy Jones (baseball)

Randall Leo Jones (born January 12, 1950), nicknamed "Junkman", is an American former professional baseball left-handed pitcher. He pitched in Major League Baseball for the San Diego Padres and New York Mets. Jones won the Cy Young Award in 1976.

He attended Brea-Olinda High School in Brea, California. He attended Chapman University in Orange, California. He was known for his sinker and the large number of ground-ball outs he induced.

Round ligament pain

Round ligament pain (RLP) is pain associated with the round ligament of the uterus, usually during pregnancy. RLP is one of the most common discomforts of pregnancy and usually starts at the second trimester of gestation and continues until delivery. It usually resolves completely after delivery although cases of postpartum RLP (that is, RLP that persisted for a few days after delivery) have been reported. RLP also occurs in nonpregnant women.The round ligament of the uterus goes from the pelvis, passes through the internal abdominal ring, and runs along the inguinal canal to the labia majora. It is the structure that holds the uterus suspended inside the abdominal cavity. There are at least 2 other round ligaments in the human body, the round ligament of the liver (ligamentum teres hepatis) and the round ligament of the head of the femur (ligamentum teres femoris).


A stabbing is penetration with a sharp or pointed object at close range. Stab connotes purposeful action, as by an assassin or murderer, but it is also possible to accidentally stab oneself or others. Stabbing differs from slashing or cutting in that the motion of the object used in a stabbing generally moves perpendicular to and directly into the victim's body, rather than being drawn across it.

Stabbings today are common among gangs and in prisons because knives are cheap, easy to acquire (or manufacture), easily concealable and relatively effective. In 2013 about 8 million stabbings occurred.

The Tin Man (American horse)

The Tin Man (February 18, 1998 in Kentucky – 2015) was an American thoroughbred racehorse. The gelding was sired by Affirmed, the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing winner, out of the unplaced Lizzie Rolfe by Tom Rolfe, who was an exceptional racehorse but a better broodmare sire.

He was retired at the age of 9 due to complications following exploratory surgery on an ankle.

Yakee A Dangerous Liaison

Ch. Yakee A Dangerous Liaison (born 6 September 1999), also known as Danny, is a Pekingese, who was the winner of the title of Best In Show at the Crufts in 2003. He had previously been Reserve Best in Show at the competition in 2002. Following his victory, he was accused of having undergone a cosmetic procedure, which supposedly turned out to be an exploratory surgery for tonsillitis. A documentary broadcast in 2008, "Pedigree Dogs Exposed" later revealed that Danny had in fact undergone surgery due to a serious inherited disorder, exacerbated by conformation to breed standards.

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