Expatriate

An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country.[1] In common usage, the term often refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, either independently or sent abroad by their employers, who can be companies, universities, governments, or non-governmental organisations.[2] Effectively migrant workers, they usually earn more than they would at home, and less than local employees. However, the term 'expatriate' is also used for retirees and others who have chosen to live outside their native country. Historically, it has also referred to exiles.[3]

Election presidentielle 2007 Lausanne MG 2757
Expatriate French voters queue in Lausanne, Switzerland for the first round of the presidential election of 2007

Etymology

The word expatriate comes from the Latin terms ex ("out of") and patria ("native country, fatherland"). Dictionary definitions for the current meaning of the word include:

Expatriate:
  • 'A person who lives outside their native country' (Oxford),[3] or
  • 'living in a foreign land' (Webster's).[4]

These contrast with definitions of other words with a similar meaning, such as:

Migrant:
  • 'A person who moves from one place to another in order to find work or better living conditions' (Oxford),[5] or
  • 'one that migrates: such as a: a person who moves regularly in order to find work especially in harvesting crops' (Webster's);[6]
or
Immigrant
  • 'A person who comes to live permanently in a foreign country' (Oxford),[7] or
  • 'one that immigrates: such as a: a person who comes to a country to take up permanent residence (Webster's).[8]

The varying use of these terms for different groups of foreigners can thus be seen as implying nuances about wealth, intended length of stay, perceived motives for moving, nationality, and even race. This has caused controversy, with many asserting that the traditional use of the word has had racist connotations.[9][10][11][12][13][14] For example, a British national working in Spain or Portugal is commonly referred to as an 'expatriate', whereas a Spanish or Portuguese national working in Britain is referred to as an 'immigrant', thus indicating Anglocentrism.

An older usage of the word expatriate was to refer to an exile.[3] Alternatively, when used as a verb, expatriation can mean the act of someone renouncing allegiance to their native country, as in the preamble to the United States Expatriation Act of 1868 which says, 'the right of expatriation is a natural and inherent right of all people, indispensable to the enjoyment of the rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.'[15]

Some neologisms have been coined, including:

  • flexpatriate, an employee who often travels internationally for business (see below);[16]
  • inpatriate, an employee sent from a foreign subsidiary to work in the country where a business is headquartered;[17]
  • rex-pat, a repeat expatriate, often someone who has chosen to return to a foreign country after completing a work assignment;[18]
  • sexpat, a sex tourist.[19]

History

Since antiquity, people have gone to live in foreign countries, whether as diplomats, merchants or missionaries. The numbers of such travellers grew markedly after the 15th century with the dawn of the European colonial period.

Types of expat community

In the 19th century, travel became easier by way of steamship or train. People could more readily choose to live for several years in a foreign country, or be sent there by employers. The table below aims to show significant examples of expatriate communities which have developed since that time:

Group Period Country of origin Destination Host country Notes
Australians and New Zealanders in London 1960s-now Australia/New Zealand London United Kingdom
Beat Generation 1950s United States Tangier Morocco
Beat Generation 1960s United States Paris France See Beat Hotel.
British retirees 1970s–now United Kingdom Costa del Sol Spain Arguably immigrants if permanent.
British retirees current United Kingdom Dordogne France Arguably immigrants if permanent.
British Raj 1721–1949 United Kingdom Princely states India Arguably colonists.
Celebrities and artists 1800s–now various Lake Geneva Switzerland
Film-makers 1910s–now Europe Los Angeles United States "Hollywood"
Jet set 1950s–1970s various various
Lost Generation 1920s–30s United States Paris France See A Moveable Feast.
Modernist artists & writers 1870s–1930s various French Riviera France
Oligarchs 1990s–current Russia London[20] United Kingdom
Salarymen current Japan various See Japanese diaspora
Shanghai French Concession 1849–1943 France Shanghai China
Shanghai International Settlement 1863–1945 United Kingdom Shanghai China Preceded by British Concession
Shanghai International Settlement 1863–1945 United States Shanghai China Preceded by American Concession.
Tax exiles 1860s(?)–now various Monte Carlo Monaco
Third culture kids current various various Includes 'military brats' and 'diplobrats'.

During the 1930s, Nazi Germany revoked the citizenship of many opponents, such as Albert Einstein, Oskar Maria Graf, Willy Brandt and Thomas Mann, often expatriating entire families.[21][22]

After World War II, decolonisation accelerated. However, lifestyles which had developed among European colonials continued to some degree in expatriate communities. Remnants of the old British Empire, for example, can still be seen in the form of gated communities staffed by domestic workers. Social clubs which have survived include the Hash House Harriers and the Royal Selangor. Homesick palates are catered for by specialist food shops, and drinkers can still order a gin and tonic, a pink gin, or a Singapore Sling. Although pith helmets are mostly confined to military ceremonies, civilians still wear white dinner jackets or even Red Sea rig on occasion. The use of curry powder has long since spread to the metropole.

From the 1950s, scheduled flights on jet airliners further increased the speed of international travel. This enabled a hypermobility which led to the jet set, and eventually to global nomads and the concept of a perpetual traveler.

Worldwide distribution of expats

In recent years, terrorist attacks against Westerners have at times curtailed the party lifestyle of some expatriate communities, especially in the Middle East.[23]

The number of expatriates in the world is difficult to determine, since there is no governmental census.[24] The international market research and consulting company Finaccord estimated the number to be 56.8 million in 2017.[25] That would resemble the population of Tanzania or Italy.

In 2013, the United Nations estimated that 232 million people, or 3.2 per cent of the world population, lived outside their home country.[26]

Business expatriates

Publication 54 Tax Guide for US Citizens Living Abroad, 1965
Long among the complexities of living in foreign countries has been the management of finances, including the payment of taxes; here, a 32-page IRS publication from 1965 for Americans living abroad

Many multinational corporations send employees to foreign countries to work in branch offices or subsidiaries. Expatriate employees allow a parent company to more closely control its foreign subsidiaries. They can also improve global coordination.[27]

A 2007 study found the key drivers for expatriates to pursue international careers were: breadth of responsibilities, nature of the international environment (risk and challenge), high levels of autonomy of international posts and cultural differences (rethinking old ways).[28]

However, expatriate professionals and independent expatriate hires are often more expensive than local employees. Expatriate salaries are usually augmented with allowances to compensate for a higher cost of living or hardships associated with a foreign posting. Other expenses may need to be paid, such as health care, housing, or fees at an international school. There is also the cost of moving a family and their belongings. Another problem can be government restrictions in the foreign country.[29][30]

Spouses may have trouble adjusting due to culture shock, loss of their usual social network, interruptions to their own career, and helping children cope with a new school. These are chief reasons given for foreign assignments ending early.[31] However, a spouse can also act as a source of support for an expatriate professional.[32] Families with children help to bridge the language and culture aspect of the host and home country, while the spouse plays a critical role in balancing the families integration into the culture. Some corporations have begun to include spouses earlier when making decisions about a foreign posting, and offer coaching or adjustment training before a family departs. According to the 2012 Global Relocation Trends Survey Report, 88 per cent of spouses resist a proposed move. The most common reasons for refusing an assignment are family concerns and the spouse's career.[33][34]

Expatriate failure is a term which has been coined for an employee returning prematurely to their home country, or resigning. On average, approximately 7% of expatriates return early. [35] Although a failure rate of 7% may seem low, this percentage fails to take into account those that perform poorly while on assignment or that leave the company entirely, and should therefor be higher in reality. This turnover of employees is especially concerning because a major reason companies send employees on assignment is to develop human capital and create global leaders. When the employee leaves the company during or soon after return, the company is unable to receive a return on investment. When asked what the cost of a premature expatriates return costs a company, 57 MNE’s reported an average cost of approximately $225,000 in 2019 USD. [36]

Research

S.K Canhilal and R.G. Shemueli suggest that successful expatriation is driven by a combination of individual, organizational, and context-related factors[37]. Of these factors, the most significant have been outlined as: cross-cultural competences, spousal support, motivational questions, time of assignment, emotional competences, previous international experience language fluency, social relational skills, cultural differences, and organizational recruitment and selection process[38].

Recent trends

Trends in recent years among business expatriates have included:

  • Reluctance by employees to accept foreign assignments, due to spouses also having a career.
  • Reluctance by multinational corporations to sponsor overseas assignments, due to increased sensitivity both to costs and to local cultures. It is common for an expat to cost at least 3-4 times more than a comparable local employee. [39]
  • Short-term assignments becoming more common.[40][33] These are assignments of several months to a year which rarely require the expatriate family to move. They can include specific projects, technology transfer, or problem-solving tasks.[33] In 2008, nearly two thirds of international assignments consisted of short-term assignments (greater than one year, typically three years). In 2014, that number fell to just over half. [41]
  • Self-initiated expatriation, where individuals themselves arrange a contract to work overseas, rather than being sent by a parent company to a subsidiary.[42][43][44][45][46] An 'SIE' typically does not require as big a compensation package as does a traditional business expatriate. Also, spouses of SIEs are less reluctant to interrupt their own careers, at a time when dual-career issues are arguably shrinking the pool of willing expatriates.[47]
  • Local companies in emerging markets hiring Western managers directly.[48][49][50][51]
  • Commuter assignments which involve employees living in one country but travelling to another for work. This usually occurs on a weekly or biweekly rotation, with weekends spent at home.[33]
  • Flexpatriates, international business travellers who take a plethora of short trips to locations around the globe for negotiations, meetings, training and conferences. These assignments are usually of several weeks duration each. Their irregular nature can cause stress within a family.[33]
  • Increased scholarship and research. For instance, Emerald Group Publishing in 2013 launched The Journal of Global Mobility: The home of expatriate management research.[52]
  • Diversity is becoming an important issue not just for management but also mobility teams. Mercer's 2017 Worldwide Survey of International Assignment Policies and Practices about the participation of women in the expatriate workforce demonstrates that much has to be done to ensure gender parity and to fight the unconscious bias that limit the participation of minorities in the expatriate workforce. Currently the average percentage of women in the expatriate workforce globally is only 14%.[53]

Expatriate children

Another issue with expatriate children is that often when children are raised in a country that is not their passport country, when they go back to their home country or leave their known community, they find themselves lost and without friends or peers to relate to. Children or young adults like this are called third culture kids. This means that they have essentially two cultures within themselves- the country in which they are living and the country they identify with as their passport country. This creates an assortment of issues- including the fact that they do not have an exact culture. Because they are a jumble of cultures, they don't feel as if they have a category in this world. Therefore, this creates a middle zone called the "third culture." The culture is a safe haven for misunderstood expatriate children to reside in.

There are many questions third culture kids face, such as the most commonly struggled with one- "Where are you from?"[54] These types of questions are incredibly difficult for expats to explain. Even expat parents may not be able to answer the burning questions they have been asked by their children. Students living abroad also have to choose schools- often opting for international schools, due to the fact that the environment is an area that is practically a habitat to cultivate understanding between third culture kids. Students going to international schools often feel understood more deeply by going to the school- rather than how understood they would feel at any other school that is on their passport. This is simply because of the subconscious understanding between children who are struggling in the same ways with their identity.

There are also downsides to expatriate life, however. Expatriate life is difficult- it is not for the faint of heart. Because of the trauma of moving from place to place; young children, specifically between the ages 10–15, experience what is called Expat Child Syndrome. Expat Child Syndrome is defined as "..a term that has been coined by psychologists to describe an emotional stress in children caused by a move abroad." Expat Child Syndrome is present in many ways- some visible and some invisible. Some children may be more affected by it than others. The more severe cases include behavior of seclusion, loneliness, withdrawn behavior and uncooperative or even disruptive behavior. Nevertheless, abrupt movement between cultures and communities is uprooting and terrifying for children and young adults.[55]

Literary and screen portrayals

Expatriate milieus are the setting of many novels and short stories, including works by:

Memoirs of expatriate life include those by authors such as:

Films have also been made about the subject, often dealing with issues of culture shock experienced by expatriates. Examples, grouped by host country, include:

Television programmes made about expatriate life include comedies, dramas, documentaries and reality series, such as:

See also

References

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  48. ^ Arp, Frithjof; Hutchings, Kate; Smith, Wendy A. (2013). "Foreign executives in local organisations: An exploration of differences to other types of expatriates". Journal of Global Mobility. 1 (3): 312–335. doi:10.1108/JGM-01-2013-0006.
  49. ^ Arp, Frithjof (2014). "Emerging giants, aspiring multinationals and foreign executives: Leapfrogging, capability building, and competing with developed country multinationals". Human Resource Management. 53 (6): 851–876. doi:10.1002/hrm.21610.
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  55. ^ "Expat Child Syndrome (ECS) : Expat Info Desk". www.expatinfodesk.com.

External links

André Villas-Boas

Luís André de Pina Cabral e Villas-Boas (Portuguese pronunciation: [luˈiʃ ɐ̃ˈdɾɛ ðɨ ˈpinɐ kɐˈβɾaɫ i ˈviɫɐʒ ˈboɐʃ]; born 17 October 1977), known as André Villas-Boas, is a Portuguese football manager, who most recently managed Chinese Super League club Shanghai SIPG. He is one of a growing number of top-level managers who have never played football professionally.Highlights in his career include an undefeated 2010–11 season in the Primeira Liga with Porto, winning four trophies and becoming the youngest manager ever to win a European title in the process, helping Tottenham to their then-record tally of 72 points in the Premier League during the 2012–13 season (the highest points for a team to finish outside the top four at the time) and three trophies during his spell with Zenit, achieving the fifth league title in the club's history.

Clarence Seedorf

Clarence Clyde Seedorf (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈklɛrəns ˈseːdɔrf] (listen); born 1 April 1976) is a Dutch professional football coach and former player. He is currently the manager of the Cameroon national team.

Regarded by many as one of the best midfielders of his generation, in 2004, he was chosen by Pelé as part of the FIFA 100. Seedorf is one of the most decorated Dutch players ever, and has won domestic and continental titles while playing for clubs in the Netherlands, Spain, Italy and Brazil. He is considered one of the most successful players in UEFA Champions League history, as he is the first, and currently the only, player to have won the Champions League with three clubs – once with Ajax, in 1995, once with Real Madrid, in 1998 and twice with Milan, in 2003 and 2007. At international level, he represented the Netherlands on 87 occasions, and took part at three UEFA European Football Championships (1996, 2000, 2004) and the 1998 FIFA World Cup, reaching the semi-finals of the latter three tournaments.

Demba Ba

Demba Ba (born 25 May 1985) is a Senegalese professional footballer who plays as a striker for Turkish club İstanbul Başakşehir and the Senegal national team.

He made his first-team debut with French team Rouen in 2005 before moving to Mouscron and onto 1899 Hoffenheim in Germany in 2007. In 2011, he moved to Premier League side West Ham United. He played only 12 games for West Ham and despite being their league top goal scorer in the 2010–11 season, they were relegated to the Championship and Ba moved to Newcastle United. In January 2013, he completed a move to Chelsea for an undisclosed fee, before joining Beşiktaş for €6 million 18 months later. After one season in Turkey, he moved to Shanghai Shenhua of the Chinese Super League.

Born and raised in France, Ba has been a full international for Senegal since 2007 and represented the country at the 2012 Africa Cup of Nations.

Dimitar Berbatov

Dimitar Ivanov Berbatov (Bulgarian: Димитър Иванов Бербатов [diˈmitɐr bɛrˈbatɔf]; born 30 January 1981) is a Bulgarian professional footballer who is currently a free Agent. A striker, he captained the Bulgaria national team from 2006 to 2010, and is the country's all-time leading goalscorer. He has also won the Bulgarian Footballer of the Year a record seven times, surpassing the number of wins by Hristo Stoichkov.

Born in Blagoevgrad, Berbatov started out with his home-town club Pirin before joining CSKA Sofia as a 17-year-old in 1998. He was signed by Bayer Leverkusen of Germany in January 2001 and played in his first Champions League final 18 months later, coming on as a substitute in the 2002 UEFA Champions League Final, which Leverkusen lost 2–1 to Real Madrid.

After five-and-a-half years with Leverkusen, he joined English club Tottenham Hotspur in July 2006, where he spent two years before moving to Manchester United. He played in his second Champions League final in 2009, during his side's 2–0 defeat against Barcelona. After four seasons with United, during which time he won two Premier League titles in 2008–09 and 2010–11, as well as the Premier League Golden Boot in 2010–11, he joined Fulham in August 2012. He had later spells in France with Monaco, Greece with PAOK, and India with Kerala Blasters.

Ferenc Puskás

Ferenc Puskás (Hungarian: [ˈfɛrɛnt͡s ˈpuʃkaːʃ]; né Purczeld; 2 April 1927 – 17 November 2006) was a Hungarian footballer and manager, widely regarded as one of the greatest players of all time and he is the son of former footballer Ferenc Puskás Senior. A prolific forward, he scored 84 goals in 85 international matches for Hungary, and 514 goals in 529 matches in the Hungarian and Spanish leagues. He became an Olympic champion in 1952 and led his nation to the final of the 1954 World Cup where he was named the tournament's best player. He won three European Cups (1959, 1960, 1966), 10 national championships (5 Hungarian and 5 Spanish Primera División) and 8 top individual scoring honors. In 1995, he was recognized as the top scorer of the 20th century by the IFFHS.Puskás started his career in Hungary playing for Kispest and Budapest Honvéd. He was the top scorer in the Hungarian League on four occasions, and in 1948, he was the top goal scorer in Europe. During the 1950s, he was both a prominent member and captain of the Hungarian national team, known as the Mighty Magyars. In 1958, two years after the Hungarian Revolution, he emigrated to Spain where he played for Real Madrid. While playing with Real Madrid, Puskás won four Pichichis and scored seven goals in two European Champions Cup finals.

After retiring as a player, he became a coach. The highlight of his coaching career came in 1971 when he guided Panathinaikos to the European Cup final, where they lost 2–0 to AFC Ajax. In 1993, he returned to Hungary and took temporary charge of the Hungarian national team. In 1998, he became one of the first ever FIFA/SOS Charity ambassadors. In 2002, the Népstadion in Budapest was renamed the Puskás Ferenc Stadion in his honor. He was also declared the best Hungarian player of the last 50 years by the Hungarian Football Federation in the UEFA Jubilee Awards in November 2003. In October 2009, FIFA announced the introduction of the FIFA Puskás Award, awarded to the player who has scored the "most beautiful goal" over the past year. He was also listed in Pelé's FIFA 100.

Hulk (footballer)

Givanildo Vieira de Sousa (born 25 July 1986), known as Hulk (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈhuwki]), is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays for Shanghai SIPG as a forward, though he can also operate as a winger.

After starting out professionally with Vitória and thenplaying three years in Japan, he went on to play several seasons in Portugal with Porto, winning ten titles – including the 2010–11 UEFA Europa League and three national championships – and being crowned the league's top scorer once. In 2012, he joined Russian Premier League side Zenit Saint Petersburg for €60 million, winning all three domestic honours and being named the competition's best player and being top scorer, once each. He was transferred to Shanghai SIPG for an Asian record €58.6 million in 2016.

Hulk made his international debut in 2009, and played for Brazil at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the three permitted over-age players. He went on to represent the Brazilian senior team in their victory at the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup and fourth-place finish at the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

He is described by FIFA's official website as "a direct powerhouse of a centre- or wide-forward who knows his way around the box". He is strongly built for a footballer and acquired his nickname due to his likeness to actor Lou Ferrigno, who played the Incredible Hulk on the eponymous television show in the 1970s.

Kevin-Prince Boateng

Kevin-Prince Boateng pronunciation (pronounced [ˈkɛvɪn pʁɪns bo.aˈtɛŋ]; born 6 March 1987), is a German-Ghanaian professional footballer who plays for Spanish club Barcelona on loan from Italian club Sassuolo.

A midfielder who can also play as a forward, Boateng is known for his strength, footspeed and ball-juggling tricks. A 2014 profile on FIFA's official website described Boateng as "blessed with strength, speed, killer instinct in front of goal, and an uncommon flamboyance in the attacking third."Throughout his career, Boateng has represented various clubs in Germany and Italy, and also had spells in England and Spain.

Born in Germany, he represented Germany internationally at youth level, although at senior level he later represented Ghana 15 times between 2010 and 2014, scoring two goals, and took part at the 2010 and 2014 FIFA World Cups with the team.

Lothar Matthäus

Lothar Herbert Matthäus (German pronunciation: [ˈloːtaːɐ̯ maˈtɛːʊs]; born 21 March 1961) is a German football manager and former player. After captaining West Germany to victory in the 1990 FIFA World Cup where he lifted the World Cup trophy, he was named European Footballer of the Year. In 1991, he was named the first ever FIFA World Player of the Year, and remains the only German to have received the award.

Matthäus held the record of having played in five FIFA World Cups (1982, 1986, 1990, 1994, 1998), more than any other outfield player in men's football, until the 2018 World Cup, in which Mexico's Rafael Márquez equalled his record in a 1–0 victory over Germany, and holds the record for the most World Cup matches played by a single player (25 games). He was the captain of the West German team that won the 1990 World Cup in Italy and also was captain of the German squad in the 1994 World Cup in the United States. He also won UEFA Euro 1980, and played in the 1984, 1988, and 2000 UEFA European Football Championships. In 1999, aged 38, he was again voted German Footballer of the Year, having previously won the award in 1990.

Matthäus is the most capped German player of all time, retiring with a total of 150 appearances (83 for West Germany) in 20 years, and 23 goals. Matthäus is a member of the FIFA 100 list of the greatest living football players chosen by Pelé. Diego Maradona said of Matthäus, "he is the best rival I've ever had. I guess that's enough to define him", in his book Yo soy el Diego (I am the Diego).A versatile and complete player, Matthäus is regarded as one of the greatest midfielders of all time, and was renowned for his perceptive passing, positional sense, well-timed tackling, as well as powerful shooting. During his career, he usually played as a box-to-box midfielder, although late in his career he played as a sweeper.

Lucas Moura

Lucas Rodrigues Moura da Silva (born 13 August 1992), known as Lucas Moura (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈlukas ˈmowɾɐ]) or simply Lucas, is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays as a right winger for English club Tottenham Hotspur and the Brazil national team.

Marcelo Bielsa

Marcelo Alberto Bielsa Caldera (American Spanish: [maɾˈselo alˈβeɾto ˈβjelsa], nicknamed Loco Bielsa [ˈloko ˈβjelsa], English: Madman Bielsa; born 21 July 1955) is an Argentine football manager who is head coach of English side Leeds United.Bielsa has managed several football clubs and also the national teams of Argentina and Chile. He developed his career as coach of Newell's Old Boys, leading that team to several wins in the early 1990s, then moved to Mexico in 1992, briefly coaching Club Atlas and Club América. Bielsa returned to Argentina in 1997 to manage Vélez Sarsfield. With Chile, he achieved cult status due to the improved results of the national team under his leadership. His personality and gestures during his stint in Chile captured the attention of media and unleashed a series of minor controversies both in sports and politics. He had a two year-spell in Spain at Athletic Bilbao between 2011 and 2013, leading them to domestic and continental cup finals in the first season, though losing both. On 8 August 2015, Bielsa resigned as coach of Marseille after just over a year at the French club.

On 15 June 2018 he was appointed manager of Leeds United.

Nicolas Anelka

Nicolas Sébastien Anelka (French pronunciation: ​[nikɔla anɛlka]; born 14 March 1979) is a French football manager and former player who played as a forward. As player, Anelka regularly featured in his country's national team, often scoring at crucial moments. Known for his ability to both score and assist goals, Anelka has been described as a classy and quick player, with good aerial ability, technique, shooting, and movement off the ball, and was capable of playing both as a main striker and as a second striker.Anelka began his career at Paris Saint-Germain, but soon moved to Arsenal. He became a first team regular and won the PFA Young Player of the Year Award the following season. His transfer to Real Madrid made him the world's most expensive player at £22.3 million in 1999, but he did not settle in well and returned to PSG in a £20 million deal. Despite regular first team football in Paris, Anelka set his eyes upon the Premier League once more, moving on loan to Liverpool in January 2002, but joining Manchester City for £13 million at the start of the 2002–03 season.

After three seasons in Manchester, he moved to Fenerbahçe for two seasons before returning to England to join Bolton Wanderers in deals worth £7 million and £8 million respectively. He then transferred to Chelsea from Bolton for a reported £15 million in January 2008. In 2009 he won the Premier League Golden Boot award as the league's top goalscorer. During his transfers over the years, he has built an aggregate transfer cost of just under £90 million. On 12 December 2011, Shanghai Shenhua announced that they had reached an agreement with Anelka to join the team in the winter transfer window. After one season there, Anelka joined Italian side Juventus on a six-month loan deal in 2013, after which he was released from Shanghai and signed for West Bromwich Albion on a free transfer. Following his dismissal by West Brom, he signed for Mumbai City FC as a Marquee Player and was named player-manager in 2015.

Anelka played 69 times at international level and won his first international honours with France at UEFA Euro 2000, and won the 2001 FIFA Confederations Cup the following year. His failure to settle at club level limited his international appearances, but he returned to the national team for Euro 2008. On 19 June 2010, he was excluded by the French Football Federation (FFF) from the 2010 World Cup in South Africa for "comments directed against the national coach, Raymond Domenech, unacceptable to the FFF, French football, and the principles they uphold". Two months later, having failed to turn up to his disciplinary hearing, he was banned for France's next 18 matches by the FFF, effectively ending his international career. Anelka later claimed to be "dying with laughter" at the 18-match ban, as he had already decided to retire from international play.

Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang

Pierre-Emerick Emiliano François Aubameyang (born 18 June 1989) is a Gabonese professional footballer who plays as a striker for Premier League club Arsenal. He is also the captain of the Gabonese national team.

Born in Laval, France as the son of former Gabonese captain Pierre Aubameyang, Aubameyang began his senior career in 2008 after being promoted from the youth-setup at A.C. Milan. However, he never appeared for the first team, and was loaned out multiple times to Ligue 1 clubs. Although renowned for his speed, having clocked 30 metres (98 ft; 33 yd) in 3.7 seconds, he was often used sparingly on loan until joining Saint-Étienne in 2011. Following multiple good performances to guide a depleted team to mid-table in 2012, Aubameyang built upon his performances to include goal scoring the following season. After establishing himself as the core component of the team, he ended the campaign as Ligue 1's second-top goalscorer, with 19 goals, while also winning the 2013 Coupe de la Ligue. This garnered him a move to Bundesliga club Borussia Dortmund, for a fee of €14 million.In Germany, Aubameyang, under the tutelage of Jürgen Klopp, adapted his game from a winger, to a complete forward. Winning the 2013 DFL-Supercup in his debut, he received plaudits for his technical skills and finishing; gaining comparisons to Thierry Henry. In the following seasons at Dortmund, Aubameyang established himself as one of the best forwards in the world, as he recorded 141 goals in 213 games, including a 31-goal haul in 2016–17 as he won the league's top scorer award. However, after only recording another DFL-Supercup and a DFB-Pokal to his name in Germany, he voiced his desire to leave, and relocated to England to join Premier League side Arsenal in a club-record deal worth £56 million (€64 million), making him, at the time, the most expensive African player of all time. He is also the most expensive Gabonese player of all time.At international level, Aubameyang has played 58 matches for the Gabon national team since his debut in 2009, scoring 24 goals. He represented his country in three Africa Cup of Nations tournaments, as well as the 2012 Summer Olympics. For his performances at the 2015 Africa Cup of Nations, Aubameyang was named CAF's African Footballer of the Year, becoming the first Gabonese player to win the award.

Roberto Carlos

Roberto Carlos da Silva Rocha (born 10 April 1973), more commonly known simply as Roberto Carlos, is a Brazilian retired professional footballer. He started his career in Brazil as a forward but spent most of his career as a left back and has been described as the "most offensive-minded left-back in the history of the game". Carlos is also widely considered one of the best left backs in history.At club level, he joined Real Madrid in 1996 where he spent 11 highly successful seasons, playing 584 matches in all competitions and scoring 71 goals. At Real, he won four La Liga titles and the UEFA Champions League three times. In April 2013, he was named by Marca as a member of the "Best Foreign Eleven in Real Madrid's History". In August 2012, he announced his retirement from football at the age of 39.Roberto Carlos started playing for the Brazil national team in 1992. He played in three World Cups, helping the team reach the final in 1998 in France, and win the 2002 tournament in Korea/Japan. He was named in the FIFA World Cup All-Star Team in 1998 and 2002. With 125 caps he has made the second most appearances for his national team.Roberto Carlos took up management and was named as the head coach of Sivasspor in the Turkish Süper Lig in June 2013. He resigned as head coach in December 2014. In July 2015, he was appointed player/manager of Indian Super League club Delhi Dynamos.He was nicknamed El Hombre Bala ("The Bullet Man") due to his powerful bending free kicks, which have been measured at over 105 miles per hour (169 km/h). He is also known for his stamina, running speed, technical skills, crossing ability, long throw ins and 24-inch (61 cm) thighs. In 1997, he was runner-up in the FIFA World Player of the Year. He was chosen on the FIFA World Cup Dream Team, and in 2004 was named by Pelé in the FIFA 100 list of the world's greatest living players.

Robinho

Robson de Souza (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈʁɔpsõ] or [ˈʁɔbisõ d(ʒi) ˈsowzɐ], born 25 January 1984), more commonly known as Robinho (Brazilian Portuguese: [ʁɔˈbĩɲu]), is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays for Turkish club Başakşehir F.K..In 1999, at 15 years old, young Robinho helped built city from a dusty patch of land to now the ethihad stadium, in 2008 he then proceeded to help build Manchester City single handedly as a club and that is where they are at today. Robinho Official football website (in Portuguese) and went on to lead Santos FC to their first Campeonato Brasileiro title since Pelé himself played for the club. Since then, he has won a second title with Santos and two more with Spanish club Real Madrid. He won the Italian Serie A title in his first season at Milan. Robinho has won one Copa América title and two FIFA Confederations Cups with the Brazilian national team, and played at two FIFA World Cups.

In November 2017, an Italian court convicted Robinho of sexual assault in the January 2013 gang rape of a 22-year-old Albanian woman at a Milan nightclub.

Ruud Gullit

Ruud Gullit, OON (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈryt ˈxʏlɪt] (listen); born Rudi Dil; 1 September 1962) is a Dutch football manager and former footballer who played professionally in the 1980s and 1990s as a midfielder or forward. He was the captain of the Netherlands national team that was victorious at UEFA Euro 1988 and was also a member of the squad for the 1990 FIFA World Cup and Euro 1992.

At club level, in 1987 he moved from PSV to Milan for a world record transfer fee. Easily recognizable with his distinctive dreadlocks and moustache, he was part of the famed Dutch trio at Milan which included Marco van Basten and Frank Rijkaard. Gullit won three Serie A titles and two European Cups with Milan. In 1996, he signed for Chelsea and a year later was appointed the club's player-manager. In his debut season, he led Chelsea to FA Cup success, the club's first major title for 26 years, and in so doing became the first overseas manager to win the FA Cup.

Gullit won the Ballon d'Or in 1987 and was named the World Soccer Player of the Year in 1987 and 1989. Normally an attacking midfielder, he was a versatile player, playing in numerous positions during his career. In 2004, he was named one of the Top 125 greatest living footballers as part of FIFA's 100th anniversary celebration.

Sadio Mané

Sadio Mané (born 10 April 1992) is a Senegalese professional footballer who plays as a winger for Premier League club Liverpool and the Senegal national team.

Having begun his career with Metz in France, he transferred to Red Bull Salzburg in 2012. After winning the Austrian Bundesliga and Austrian Cup in 2014, he was signed by Southampton. In 2015, Mané set a new Premier League record for the fastest hat-trick when he scored three times in 176 seconds during a 6–1 win over Aston Villa. He transferred to Liverpool in 2016 for a fee of £34 million, making him the most expensive African player in history at that time. Since joining Liverpool, Mané among other achievements scored in the 2018 UEFA Champions League Final.

Mané has earned 60 caps for Senegal since his debut in 2012, and represented the national team at the 2012 Olympics, 2015 Africa Cup of Nations, 2017 Africa Cup of Nations and the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

Samuel Eto'o

Samuel Eto'o Fils (French pronunciation: ​[samɥɛl eto fis]; born 10 March 1981) is a Cameroonian professional footballer who plays as a striker for Qatar SC. In his prime, Eto'o was regarded by pundits as one of the best strikers in the world, and he is regarded as one of the greatest African players of all time, winning the African Player of the Year a record four times: in 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2010.

A precocious talent, Eto'o moved to Real Madrid as a 16 year old. Due to competition in his position with more experienced players, he had several loan spells, before signing for Mallorca in 2000 where he scored 70 goals. His impressive form saw him join Barcelona in 2004 where he scored over 100 goals in five seasons and also became the record holder for the most number of appearances by an African player in La Liga. Winning La Liga three times, he was a key member of the Barcelona attack, alongside Ronaldinho, that won the 2006 UEFA Champions League Final, with Eto'o scoring in the final, and was part of a front three of Lionel Messi and Thierry Henry that won the 2009 UEFA Champions League Final, with Eto'o again scoring in the final. He is the second player in history to score in two UEFA Champions League finals. At Barcelona, Eto'o came in third for the FIFA World Player of the Year in 2005 and was twice named in the FIFA FIFPro World XI, in 2005 and 2006.

In 2010, he signed with Inter Milan, where he became the first player to win two European continental trebles following his back-to-back achievements with Barcelona and Inter. He is the fourth player in Champions League history, after Marcel Desailly, Paulo Sousa, and Gerard Piqué, to have won the trophy two years in a row with different teams. After brief spells with Anzhi Makhachkala, Chelsea, Everton, and Sampdoria, Eto'o found prolific form again in the Süper Lig with Antalyaspor having scored 44 goals in 76 league games. In 2015, he received the Golden Foot Award.

As a member of the Cameroon national team, Eto'o was a part of the squad that won the Gold Medal at the 2000 Olympics. He also won the Africa Cup of Nations in 2000 and 2002. Eto'o has participated in four World Cups and six Africa Cup of Nations. He is the all-time leading scorer in the history of the Africa Cup of Nations, with 18 goals, and is Cameroon's all-time leading scorer and third most capped player, with 56 goals in 118 caps. Eto'o announced his retirement from international football in August 2014.

Unai Emery

Unai Emery Etxegoien (Spanish pronunciation: [uˈnai eˈmeɾi]; born 3 November 1971) is a Spanish football manager and former player. He is the head coach of Premier League club Arsenal.

After a modest playing career, spent mostly in Spain's Segunda División, Emery transitioned into coaching after retiring in 2004. He began at Lorca Deportiva CF, where he achieved promotion to the Segunda División in his first season, and was awarded the Miguel Muñoz Trophy. He then joined Almería, who he led to promotion to La Liga for the first time in the club's history. This earned him a move to La Liga heavyweights Valencia, where he regularly led the team to top three finishes. After leaving Valencia, he coached Spartak Moscow for six months, before moving to Sevilla in 2013.

At Sevilla, Emery gained plaudits for his style of football, and shrewdness in the transfer market alongside Monchi, the club's director of football. He achieved an unprecedented three consecutive Europa League victories, which earned him a move to French club Paris Saint-Germain in 2016. Although he achieved limited European success at PSG, he won the Coupe de France, Coupe de la Ligue and Trophée des Champions in his first year. He won all four domestic trophies in his second season, including Ligue 1, the Coupe de France, the Coupe de la Ligue and the Trophée des Champions. After the expiry of his contract, he moved to English side Arsenal in 2018.

Yaya Touré

Gnégnéri Yaya Touré (born 13 May 1983) is an Ivorian professional footballer who most recently played as a midfielder for Superleague Greece club Olympiacos. He played for and captained the Ivory Coast national team.

Touré aspired to be a striker during his youth and has played centre back, including for Barcelona in the 2009 UEFA Champions League Final. However, he has spent the majority of his career as a box-to-box midfielder for club and country, where he has been regarded as one of the world's best players in his position. One of the greatest African players of all time, Touré was voted African Footballer of the Year for 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014.Touré began his playing career at Ivorian club ASEC Mimosas, where he made his debut at age 18. His performances attracted attention from Europe. He had stints with Beveren, Metalurh Donetsk, Olympiacos and Monaco before moving to Barcelona in 2007. He played over 70 matches for the club and was part of the historic 2009 Barcelona side that won six trophies in a calendar year. In 2010, Touré moved to Premier League club Manchester City, where he scored a number of key goals, most notably the only goals in the 2011 FA Cup semi-final and final. He also helped City earn their first league title in 44 years.

Touré earned 100 caps for the Ivory Coast from 2004 to 2015, representing the nation at the 2006, 2010 and 2014 FIFA World Cup tournaments. He also represented them in six Africa Cup of Nations in 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2015, helping them finish runner-up in 2006 and 2012, while captaining them to victory in 2015. He is the younger brother of fellow footballer Kolo Touré, who was his teammate at Manchester City and on the national team.

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