Exercise ball

An exercise ball, also known as a Swiss Ball, is a ball constructed of soft elastic with a diameter of approximately 35 to 85 centimeters (14 to 34 inches) and filled with air. The air pressure is changed by removing a valve stem and either filling with air or letting the ball deflate. It is most often used in physical therapy, athletic training and exercise. It can also be used for weight training. The ball, while often referred to as a Swiss ball, is also known by a number of different names, including balance ball, birth ball, body ball, ball, fitness ball, gym ball, gymnastic ball, physio ball, pilates ball, naval mine, Pezzi ball, stability ball, Swedish ball, therapy ball, or yoga ball.

Fitball Group Fitness Class
An exercise class using exercise balls.
An exercise ball allows a wide range of exercises to be performed.
Gymnastikbaelle ISPO 2014
Different types and sizes of balls at ISPO-fair 2014


The physical object known as a "Swiss Ball" was developed in 1963 by Aquilino Cosani, an Italian plastics manufacturer. He perfected a process for moulding large puncture-resistant plastic balls.[1] Those balls, then known as "Pezzi balls", were first used in treatment programs for newborns and infants by Mary Quinton, a British physiotherapist working in Switzerland. Later, Dr. Susanne Klein-Vogelbach, the director at the Physical Therapy School in Basel, Switzerland, integrated the use of ball exercise as physical therapy for neuro-developmental treatment. Based on the concept of "functional kinetics",[2] Klein-Vogelbach advocated the use of ball techniques to treat adults with orthopedic or medical problems. The term "Swiss Ball" was used when American physical therapists began to use those techniques in North America after witnessing their benefits in Switzerland.[3] From their development as physical therapy in a clinical setting, those exercises are now used in athletic training,[4] as part of a general fitness routine [5] and incorporation in alternative exercises such as yoga and Pilates.[6]

in 2012, Neil Whyte completed the record for the fastest time 10 Swiss balls have been jumped across at 8.31 seconds.The record for the farthest jump between two Swiss balls was also made by Neil at a distance of 2.3 meters in 2012 [7]


Weighted sit-ups on an exercise ball
A woman performing weighted sit-ups on an exercise ball.

A primary benefit of exercising with an exercise ball as opposed to exercising directly on a hard flat surface is that the body responds to the instability of the ball to remain balanced, engaging many more muscles.[8] Those muscles become stronger over time to keep balance. Most frequently, the core body muscles — the abdominal muscles and back muscles — are the focus of exercise ball fitness programs.[9]

A major benefit of using an unstable surface is the ability to recruit more muscle units without the need to increase the total load. The greatest benefit of moving an exercise onto an unstable surface is achieving a greater activation of the core musculature, exercises such as curl-up or push-up performed on an exercise ball.[10] An unstable surface increases activation of the rectus abdominis and allows for greater activity per exercise when compared to a stable surface. Exercises such as a curl-up on an exercise ball yields a greater amount of electromyography (EMG) activity compared to exercises on a stable platform.[11] Performing standard exercises, such as a push-up, on an unstable surface can be used to increase activation of core trunk stabilizers and in turn provide increased trunk strength and greater resistance to injury.[12]

Other uses

Fitness Experts and some doctors also recommend sitting on an exercise ball instead of an office chair.

That is based on the theory that the abdominal and back muscles are constantly engaged and active to maintain proper posture and balance on the ball.[13][14] There is no scientific evidence of those benefits occurring by just sitting without additional exercises.[15][16] However, some people warn against using a Swiss ball as a chair because of ergonomic considerations[17] or biomechanical reasons.[18]

This large plastic ball, known as a "birth ball", can also be used during labour to aid the descent of the fetal head into the pelvis. Sitting in an upright position will also aid fetal positioning and is more comfortable for the woman. Sitting on the ball with arms placed on a bed, table or otherwise sturdy object for support and gently rocking the hips may help the woman during contractions and aid the natural physiological process of birth.[19]

See also


  1. ^ Flett, Maureen (2003). Swiss Ball: For Strength, Tone and Posture. Sterling Publishing Company, Inn. ISBN 1-85648-663-X.
  2. ^ Klein-Vogelbach, Susanne. (1990). Functional Kinetics: Observing, Analyzing, and Teaching Human Movement. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-15350-0.
  3. ^ Carriere, Beate; Renate Tanzberger (1998). The Swiss Ball: Theory, Basic Exercises and Clinical Application. Springer. ISBN 3-540-61144-4.
  4. ^ Hillman, Susan Kay (2005). Introduction to Athletic Training. Human Kinetics. ISBN 0-7360-5292-5.
  5. ^ Milligan, James (2005). Swiss Ball For Total Fitness: A Step-by-step Guide. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 1-4027-1965-5.
  6. ^ Mitchell, Carol (2003). Yoga on the Ball. Inner Traditions / Bear & Company. ISBN 0-89281-999-5.
  7. ^ Glenday, Craig (2013). Guinness World Records 2014. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-908843-15-9.
  8. ^ Vera-Garcia FJ, Grenier SG, McGill SM (2000) Abdominal muscle response during curl-ups on both stable and labile surfaces. Phys. Ther. 80, 564-569 Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Mayo Clinic Staff (August 24, 2007). "Slide show: Core exercises with a fitness ball". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 1 April 2008.
  10. ^ Clark, K. M., Holt, L. E., & Sinyard, J. (2003). Electromyographic comparison of the upper and lower rectus abdominis during abdominal exercises. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association, 17(3), 475–483. doi:10.1519/1533-4287(2003)017<0475:ECOTUA>2.0.CO;2
  11. ^ Clark, K. M., Holt, L. E., & Sinyard, J. (2003). Electromyographic comparison of the upper and lower rectus abdominis during abdominal exercises. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research / National Strength & Conditioning Association, 17(3), 475–483. doi:10.1519/1533-4287(2003)017<0475:ECOTUA>2.0.CO;2
  12. ^ Anderson, G. S., Gaetz, M., Holzmann, M., & Twist, P. (2013). European Journal of Sport Science Comparison of EMG activity during stable and unstable push-up protocols. European Journal of Sport Science, 13(1), 42–48. doi:10.1080/17461391.2011.577240
  13. ^ Clapp, Jane (2006). Working on the Ball: A Simple Guide to Office Fitness. Andrews McMeel Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7407-5699-3.
  14. ^ Greenwood-Robinson, Maggie (2007). The Biggest Loser Fitness Program. Rodale. p. 65. ISBN 1-59486-695-3.
  15. ^ Gregory DE, Dunk NM, Callaghan JP (2006). "Stability ball versus office chair: comparison of muscle activation and lumbar spine posture during prolonged sitting". Hum Factors. 48 (1): 142–53. doi:10.1518/001872006776412243. PMID 16696264.
  16. ^ McGill SM, Kavcic NS, Harvey E (May 2006). "Sitting on a chair or an exercise ball: various perspectives to guide decision making". Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 21 (4): 353–60. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2005.11.006. PMID 16410033.
  17. ^ "Blog". Ergoweb.com. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  18. ^ Gregory, Diane E. "The Use of Stability Balls in the Workplace in Place of the Standard Office Chair". Centre for Research Expertise for the Prevention of Muscloskeletal Disorders, University of Waterloo. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
  19. ^ Wesson, Nicky (2000). Labor Pain: A Natural Approach to Easing Delivery. Inner Traditions / Bear & Company. ISBN 0-89281-895-6.
Abdominal exercise

Abdominal exercises are those that affect the abdominal muscles (colloquially known as the stomach muscles or "abs").


Bladderball was a game traditionally played by students of Yale University, between 1954 and 1982, until being banned by the administration. A variant of the earlier game of pushball, was originally a competition between The Yale Banner, the Yale Daily News, campus humor magazine The Yale Record and campus radio station WYBC. Revival games were played in 2009 and 2011, and very briefly, in 2014.

Brooklyn Boulders

Brooklyn Boulders is a company that designs, builds and operates community spaces and hybrid rock climbing facilities anchored by the premise that physical movement stimulates innovation and creativity with facilities located in New York City, Boston, and Chicago.

The first Brooklyn Boulders location is an 18,000-square-foot (1,700 m2) rock climbing facility, the first ever in New York City. Located in the old Daily News garage on Third Avenue in Gowanus, Brooklyn Boulders Brooklyn opened on September 9, 2009.

Brooklyn Boulders was founded in 2009 by Lance Pinn, Jeremy Balboni, and Stephen Spaeth, who wanted to create a dedicated rock climbing facility when there previously was none. Prior to opening, a Facebook group called “NYC Needs a Climbing Gym” was formed and over three hundred members joined overnight. By July 2009, the group reached over 1,000 members. Construction began in March 2009, and Brooklyn Boulders hosted “t-nut parties” on weekends, where anyone was permitted to visit, lend a hand setting t-nuts into the walls in exchange for free day passes. Brooklyn Boulders is also home to the Adaptive Climbing Group, founded by amputee climber Kareemah Batts.Brooklyn Boulders is known for the graffiti adorning their walls, some of it by notable artist Cope2 and its "biggest architectural flourish: a replica of the Brooklyn Bridge suitable for climbing." Called the "best workout in Brooklyn" by Vogue, Brooklyn Boulders is also home to some of the world's best climbers, including Ashima Shiraishi and Sasha DiGiulian.During Hurricane Sandy, Brooklyn Boulders was transformed into "an operating base for Team Rubicon, a disaster response organization," and remained open for 24 hours.

On July 31, 2013, Brooklyn Boulders' second location, Brooklyn Boulders Somerville, opened "a 40,000-square-foot climbing facility; a combination climbing gym and collaborative workspace in Somerville, Massachusetts." Brooklyn Boulders Somerville hosted TEDxSomerville on March 30, 2015.Brooklyn Boulders opened its first location in the Midwest, Brooklyn Boulders Chicago, on December 13, 2014. Located in Chicago's West Loop, Brooklyn Boulders Chicago features "a 1,000-square-foot Active Collaborative Workspace", replete with standing desks, exercise-ball sitting desks and above-desk pull-up bars.Brooklyn Boulders opened its fourth facility in Long Island City, BKB Queensbridge, with a Grand Opening Event December 10, 2015. Bloomberg Business featured Brooklyn Boulders in September 2015, declaring that "Brooklyn Boulders is tapping climbing's popularity in the tech world to become a co-working haven for (very ripped) entrepreneurs."

Hamsterball (video game)

Hamsterball is a video game developed by American studio Raptisoft Games in 2004 for Microsoft Windows, Hamsterball TikGames for PlayStation 3 was released on 25 March 2010.Similar to the arcade game Marble Madness, the goal is to complete a series of race courses in as short a time as possible while avoiding various obstacles. Instead of a marble, however, the player controls a hamster in a clear plastic exercise ball. A set amount of extra time is added to the player's clock at the beginning of each race; if time runs out, the game ends.

Players can follow invisible paths hidden throughout the courses to unlock multiplayer combat arenas, in which the goal is to knock opponents' hamsters off the edge as many times as possible within a time limit.

Jackknife (exercise)

A jackknife is an abdominal exercise. This exercise is also known as a "V-Up". Jackknife exercises are designed to strengthen the upper and lower abdominal muscles, particularly the transversus abdominis muscle. There are a number of variations of jackknife exercises that allow people of different ages and ability to work their abdominal muscles.This exercise can be modified by using a exercise ball. The jackknife can be done by lying flat on your back with your arms extended overhead and your feet raised slightly above the floor. The jackknife is completed by slowly bringing your straight arms toward your hips, and lifting your upper torso off the floor.

Jake Jabs Center for Entrepreneurship

The Jake Jabs Center for Entrepreneurship is an entrepreneurial concept development center and a graduate and undergraduate-level entrepreneurial training center at the University of Colorado Denver Business School. The Center offers about 20 graduate and undergraduate AACSB accredited courses, with entrepreneurship being one of CU Denver's most popular MBA specializations. Furthermore, specializations in entrepreneurship are offered as part of the MS in Management, MS in Marketing, MS International Business, and MS in Information Systems programs. The Center offers several graduate and undergraduate programs, including 1) graduate MBA specialization in entrepreneurship, 2) graduate certificate in entrepreneurship, 3) graduate certificate in bio-entrepreneurship, 4) graduate international entrepreneurship certificate/badge, 5) undergraduate specialization in entrepreneurship for business students, 6) undergraduate minor in entrepreneurship, offered to non-business students, and finally 7) undergraduate certificate in entrepreneurship.

Denver entrepreneur, film producer and philanthropist, Richard Bard provided start-up funding for the Bard Center for Entrepreneurship in 1996. In 2013 the Center was renamed the Jake Jabs Center For Entrepreneurship after Jake Jabs, a Denver-based furniture baron, donated $10 million to the center (augmented by an additional $2 million gift in 2018), largely due to his friendship with the Center's director, Professor Madhavan Parthasarathy. As of March 2014, this was the largest single donation in the history of CU Denver's downtown campus, and the largest single donation ever made by an individual entrepreneur to a Business School department or Center.

The Center is headed by Dr. Madhavan Parthasarathy (known as MP), the executive director of the Center, and an endowed full professor in marketing & entrepreneurship. Assisting him are Sarah Engel, assistant director, and graduate assistants Jason Russ and Ian Koenigsberg. The Jake Jabs Center's Advisory Council consists of some of Colorado's greatest entrepreneurs including Jake Jabs, Joel Appel (former CEO of OrangeGlo corporation), Rutt Bridges (geophysicist, entrepreneur, and former politician), Joanne Posner-Mayer (innovator of the exercise ball and benefactor of the Posner Center), Dr. Lloyd Lewan (former dean of Semester at Sea, and Co-chair of Lewan and Associates), Jerry Kern (CEO of the Colorado Symphony), among others.

The Jake Jabs Center takes entrepreneurship from the classroom to the real world and provides hands-on learning opportunities. The Center's entrepreneurship curriculum incorporates instruction, mentoring, and support from outstanding Business School faculty, as well as from experienced professionals with expertise in new business development. Courses explore legal issues, social sector initiatives, new venture design, finance structuring, strategic web development, leadership, new product development, and business plan creation.

Lamaze technique

The Lamaze technique, also known as the psychoprophylactic method or simply Lamaze, started as a prepared childbirth technique popularized in the 1950s by French obstetrician Dr. Fernand Lamaze based on his observations in the Soviet Union as an alternative to the use of medical intervention during childbirth. Today, Lamaze has become a popular way to get information about pregnancy, birth, and parenting through Lamaze International.

The stated goal of Lamaze is to increase a mother's confidence in her ability to give birth, through the presentation of classes that help pregnant women understand how to cope with pain in ways that both facilitate labor and promote comfort, including relaxation techniques, movement and massage.

Last Last One Forever and Ever

"Last Last One Forever and Ever" (also known as "Live Action") is the tenth and final episode in the sixth season of the American animated television series Aqua Teen Hunger Force. The 88th episode of the series overall, it originally aired in the United States on Adult Swim on May 31, 2009. In the episode, Don Shake, a live-action version of Master Shake, attempts to write a successful novel in order to afford his rent in a live-action universe. This episode ends on an unofficial cliffhanger, which is continued in the season seven episode "Rabbot Redux".

"Last Last One Forever and Ever" was made as a special "live action" episode with the majority of the episode taking place in a live-action set. This episode features comedian H. Jon Benjamin as a live-action version of Master Shake named Don Shake; recording artist T-Pain portrayed a live-action version of Frylock, and a "brownish" exercise ball was used to portray Meatwad. It also featured David Long, Jr., who portrayed the role of their neighbor, Carl Brutananadilewski, after winning an open casting call sponsored by Burger King to fill the role.Adult Swim former vice president Mike Lazzo considered not airing it on television while Willis and Maiellaro initially believed that this episode would be the final episode, until the series was renewed. This episode received a mixed review from Jonah Krakow of IGN, and was the third highest rated program on the night of its original debut. This episode has been made available on DVD, and other forms of home media, including on demand.

List of inflatable manufactured goods

This is a non-comprehensive list of inflatable manufactured goods, as no such list could ever completely contain all items that regularly change. An inflatable is an object that can typically be inflated with a gas, including air, hydrogen, helium and nitrogen. Some can be inflated with liquids, such as waterbeds and water balloons.

List of weight training exercises

This is a partial list of weight training exercises organized by muscle group.

Medicine ball

A medicine ball (also known as an exercise ball, a med ball, or a fitness ball) is a weighted ball roughly the diameter of the shoulders (approx. 13.7 inches), often used for rehabilitation and strength training. The medicine ball also serves an important role in the field of sports medicine to improve strength and neuromuscular coordination. However, it should not be confused with the inflated exercise ball, which is larger (up to 36" diameter).

Medicine balls are usually sold as 2–25 lb (1–11 kg) balls and are used effectively in ballistic training to increase explosive power in athletes in all sports e.g. throwing the medicine ball or jumping whilst holding it. Some medicine balls are up to 14" (approx. 35.56 cm) in diameter and up to 14 lbs weight, or in the form of weighted basketballs.

Hippocrates is said to have stuffed animal skins for patients to toss for “medicinal” purposes. Similar large balls were used in Persia in 1705. The term "medicine ball" dates back to at least 1876, in American Gymnasia and Academic Record, by Robert Jenkins Roberts, Jr.

Murder of Junko Furuta

Junko Furuta (古田 順子 Furuta Junko) was a Japanese high-school student who was abducted, tortured, raped, and murdered in the late 1980s. Her murder case was named "Concrete-encased high school girl murder case" (女子高生コンクリート詰め殺人事件, Joshikōsei konkurīto-zume satsujin-jiken), due to her body being discovered in a concrete drum. The murder was mainly perpetrated by four teenage boys, Hiroshi Miyano, Jō Ogura, Shinji Minato, and Yasushi Watanabe.

Approximately 100 people knew about Junko Furuta's captivity, but either did nothing about it or themselves participated in the torture and murder. Most of the participants were friends of the teenage boys, who were low-ranking members of the Yakuza.


Navasana, Naukasana, Boat Pose, or Paripurna Navasana (Sanskrit: परिपूर्णनावासन; IAST: paripūrṇanāvāsana "Full Boat Pose") is a seated asana in modern yoga.

Outline of exercise

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to exercise:

Exercise – any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness. It is performed for various reasons including strengthening muscles and the cardiovascular system, honing athletic skills, weight loss or maintenance, as well as for the purpose of enjoyment. Frequent and regular physical exercise boosts the immune system, and helps prevent the "diseases of affluence" such as heart disease, cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes and obesity.


Proprioception ( PROH-pree-o-SEP-shən), is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement. It is sometimes described as the "sixth sense".In humans, it is provided by proprioceptors in skeletal striated muscles (muscle spindles) and tendons (Golgi tendon organ) and the fibrous membrane in joint capsules. It is distinguished from exteroception, by which one perceives the outside world, and interoception, by which one perceives pain, hunger, etc., and the movement of internal organs.

The brain integrates information from proprioception and from the vestibular system into its overall sense of body position, movement, and acceleration. The word kinesthesia or kinæsthesia (kinesthetic sense) strictly means movement sense, but has been used inconsistently to refer either to proprioception alone or to the brain's integration of proprioceptive and vestibular inputs.

Proprioception has also been described in other animals such as vertebrates, and in some invertebrates such as arthropods. More recently proprioception has also been described in flowering land plants (angiosperms).

Space hopper

A space hopper (also known as a moon hopper, skippyball, kangaroo ball, bouncer, hippity hop, hoppity hop, sit and bounce, or hop ball) is a rubber ball (similar to an exercise ball) with handles which allow one to sit on it without falling off. The user can hop around on the toy, using the elastic properties of the ball to move forward.

The term "space hopper" is more common in the United Kingdom; the toy is less familiar in the United States, and may be known as a "hoppity hop", "hippity hop" or a "sit n bounce". A similar toy popular in the United States in the 1980s was the pogo ball, which has a hard plastic ring encircling the ball instead of a handle.

Stefan Raab

Stefan Konrad Raab (born 20 October 1966) is a German entertainer, comedian, musician and former television host. Raab began his television career hosting the comedy show Vivasion in 1993. He became well known in 1994 after composing a hit single spoofing national football coach Berti Vogts. From 1999 to 2015, he hosted the late-night comedy show TV total and has also created a number of other television shows, such as Schlag den Raab and Bundesvision Song Contest. In the early 2010s, Raab was considered the "most powerful man in German entertainment television".Raab is also known for his recurring role as producer, writer and performer of German entries to the Eurovision Song Contest beginning in 1998. He was the initiator of the national pre-selection show Unser Star für Oslo (Our Star for Oslo), in which Germany's winning entry at the 2010 contest in Oslo was determined.

Stress ball

A stress ball or hand exercise ball is a malleable toy, usually not more than 7 cm in diameter, which is squeezed in the hand and manipulated by the fingers, ostensibly to relieve stress and muscle tension or to exercise the muscles of the hand.

Despite the name, many stress balls are not spherical. Some are molded in amusing shapes, and pad- or transfer-printed with corporate logos. They are presented to employees and clients of companies as promotional gifts. Stress balls are the third most popular promotional gift in the United Kingdom. Because of the many non-spherical shapes now available, stress balls are generically known as stress relievers.


Webheads (originally titled as Go Viral while in development) is an American children's game show on Nickelodeon, hosted by former Big Time Rush star and band member Carlos PenaVega. The first season premiered on June 2, 2014, and ended on July 3, 2014. In the second season the show was transferred Nicktoons. The season premiered on September 14, 2015 and ended on October 9, 2015.

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