Executive officer

An executive officer (CCE) is generally a person responsible for running an organization, although the exact nature of the role varies depending on the organization. In many militaries, an executive officer, or "XO," is the second-in-command, reporting to the commanding officer. The XO is typically responsible for the management of day-to-day activities, freeing the commander to concentrate on strategy and planning the unit's next move.

Administrative law

While there is no clear line between executive or principal and inferior officers, principal officers are high-level officials in the executive branch of U.S. government such as department heads of independent agencies. In Humphrey's Executor v. United States, 295 U.S. 602 (1935), the Court distinguished between executive officers and quasi-legislative or quasi-judicial officers by stating that the former serve at the pleasure of the president and may be removed at his discretion. The latter are removed only with procedures consistent with statutory conditions enacted by Congress. The decision by the Court was that the Federal Trade Commission was a quasi-legislative body because of other powers it had, and therefore, the president could not fire an FTC member for political reasons. Congress can’t retain removal power over officials with executive function (Bowsher v. Synar). However, statutes can restrict removal if not purely executive (Humphrey’s executor), but can't restrict removal of purely executive officer (Myers v. United States, 272 U.S. 52 (1926)). The standard is whether restriction "impedes the president’s ability to perform his constitutional duty" (Morrison v. Olson, 487 U.S. 654 (1988)).

Corporate law and other legal associations

In business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer (CEO) being the best-known type. The definition varies; for instance, the California Corporate Disclosure Act defines "executive officers" as the five most highly compensated officers not also sitting on the board of directors. In many insurance policies, executive officer means, in the case of a corporation, any chairman, chief executive officer, chief financial officer, chief operating officer, president, or general counsel. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, an executive officer is any member, manager, or officer.

In charity/voluntary sector/non-profit, the executive officer(s) are those appointed to drive the day-to-day decisions of the organization. This is normally a formal appointment made by the executive board of trustees. Specific responsibilities and scope vary and are usually called out in a governance document.


In the units of some military forces, typically those that are naval in nature (including the U.S. Marine Corps), the executive officer is the second-in-command, reporting to the commanding officer (CO).

In most non-naval military services that are land-based (except the U.S. Army, where an executive officer is the second-in-command of certain units) or in joint military organizations, the executive officer is an administrative staff position versus a command position. XOs in these positions typically assist a commander or deputy commander (or in the case of joint staffs or joint commands, a director) by managing day-to-day activities such as management of the senior officer's schedule, screening of documents or other products, and oversight of the senior officer's administrative support staff.

Management of individual assets in the airline industry is derived from the military terminology, where an executive officer or first officer, is the second in command of the aircraft. In a fixed wing aircraft, the first officer sits in the right-hand seat, but on a rotary wing aircraft, they sit on the left. Management of the airline as a whole is more in-line with the corporate example above.

United Kingdom

The term XO is not used in most British Army or Royal Marines units, where the designation second-in-command (2i/c) is used as a formal appointment. However, the position does exist in some specialist regiments within the Royal Artillery where the exact duties vary. In the Royal Air Force, the term XO is informally used between officers and airmen, referring to the officer who is second-in-command. It is, however, formally used in the Royal Navy. In smaller vessels, such as submarines and frigates, the executive officer also holds the position of first lieutenant. Originally, the second-in-command was usually referred to as first lieutenant (or as "number one"), although it is becoming more common to hear the term XO. On larger ships of the Royal Navy, in which the XO holds the rank of commander, the XO is usually referred to simply as "the commander". The XO also heads the executive department.

United States

United States Army

There are executive officer slots in each company, battalion, regiment, and brigade, though generally not at higher levels of command until the army level. The XO is typically the second-in-command, and serves as the day-to-day manager of the command staff. The XO is typically responsible for the management of day-to-day activities, such as administration, maintenance, and logistics, freeing a commander to concentrate on tactical/operational planning and execution and a general officer commander to concentrate on similar planning and execution at the operational-strategic level. The XO may take charge in the absence of the commander, the exception being commands with a deputy commander, although recent army command reductions have either merged the two, or eliminated the deputy.

A few organizations within the army maintain authorizations for a chief warrant officer to serve as an XO/2IC. One example of this is the Modular Ammunition Platoon, where the ammunition technician acts as the second-in-command during the absence of the platoon leader. While the experience gained as an XO is highly beneficial for an army officer's professional development, it is not necessarily a prerequisite for a command position. At the army level of command, a commanding general will have a deputy commanding general as second in command and an "executive officer" on his personal staff who works as his liaison to the general staff and an aide-de-camp who takes care of his calendar and personal needs.

United States Marine Corps

The executive officer is the billet of the officer who is second-in-command at the company/battery, battalion/squadron, and Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU)/regiment/aviation group (i.e., Marine Aircraft Group, Marine Air Control Group, and Marine Wing Support Group) level. Per the Marine Corps Manual, paragraph 1007.5: "The executive officer shall be an officer of the organization who is eligible to succeed to command, and normally will be the officer next in rank to the commander. As the direct representative of the commander, all orders issued by the executive officer shall have the same force and effect as though issued by the commander. The executive officer shall conform to and effectuate the policies and orders of the commander and shall be prepared to assume command at any time the need should arise." At higher levels of command, the second-in-command is the assistant division/wing commander or, in the case of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF), deputy commander. For those commands having a general officer (usually a brigadier general) in command without a designated assistant commander or deputy commander, such as a Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB) or Marine Logistics Group (MLG), the chief of staff (a colonel) is the second-in-command. Unlike their U.S. Navy counterparts, XOs of U.S. Marine Corps squadrons in U.S. Naval Aviation do not "fleet up" to become CO.

United States Navy and United States Coast Guard

An XO is assigned to all ships, aviation squadrons, and shore units and installations, and is responsible to the captain for all ship’s work, drills, exercises, personnel organization, and the policing and inspection of the ship. When the ship goes to action stations, the XO confirms that the ship actually is ready for combat and reports this to the captain. The XO's own action station is in a separate part of the ship from that of the captain, so that a single hit will not likely incapacitate both officers.[1] On small ships with no first lieutenant, gunnery officer, or navigator, the executive officer may also be responsible for the duties of those officers.[2] Carrier air wings in the U.S. Navy do not have an XO, but have a deputy commander (DCAG) instead; for shore-based or functional naval air wings, the equivalent position is the deputy commodore.

In the U.S. Coast Guard, on board small cutters and patrol boats that are commanded by either a junior officer or a senior enlisted member, executive chief petty officers or executive petty officers are usually assigned to serve as second-in-command.

On U.S. aircraft carriers, per Title 10 United States Code, both the captain (i.e., the commanding officer or CO) and the XO assigned to the ship are naval aviators or naval flight officers. Although not specified by 10 U.S.C., large, air-capable amphibious assault ships will have one of the two senior positions (CO or XO) occupied by a surface warfare officer and the other by a naval aviator or naval flight officer, alternating at each change of command. In naval aviation, in U.S. Navy squadrons (other than fleet replacement squadrons and the Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron {viz., Blue Angels}), the XO will eventually "fleet up" to become the CO of that squadron after twelve to fifteen months as XO. This fleet up model was also adopted in the early 2000s for XO and CO positions of both large amphibious assault ships (but not aircraft carriers) and Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyers. In addition to operational and tactical responsibilities, XOs also shoulder most of the CO's administrative burden, to include oversight of the command's administrative officer (if assigned) and administrative department.

The term of XO in the Navy and Coast Guard should not be confused with the term executive assistant (EA) in those services, the latter being an officer in the rank of captain (O-6) who serves either dual-hatted as, or in addition to, the chief of staff to a flag officer.

United States Air Force

In the U.S. Air Force, XO is not a command or second-in-command position. Instead, it is used to designate a company grade officer or junior field grade officer who serves as a staff administrative assistant to a senior officer, starting with a commander at the squadron level or above (e.g., squadron, group, wing, numbered air force, major command).[3] In the other uniformed services, this position may be called an aide, an "executive assistant" or an adjutant. Like the Army, while experience gained as an XO is highly beneficial for an Air Force officer's professional development, it is not necessarily a prerequisite for a command position.[4] For officers holding second-in-command positions, the U.S. Air Force uses the titles of "vice commander" (CV), or "deputy commander" (CD) for an officer who serves as the second-in-command for an organization above squadron level. For a squadron level organization, the second-in-command is typically termed the "director of operations" or "operations officer" (DO). These latter terms were previously used for similar positions at the group and wing level until renamed as the "operations group commander (OG/CC). The rank of an executive officer in the U.S. Air Force can vary from lieutenant or captain working for a colonel, to a major or lieutenant colonel in support of a brigadier general or major general, to a colonel serving as the executive officer to the Chief of Staff of the Air Force.

Personal staff officers

The U.S. Air Force uses the term executive officer for officers assigned as personal staff officers to general officers. Their role is similar to aides-de-camp in the U.S. Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force and flag aides and flag lieutenants in the U.S. Navy and Coast Guard.

Executive officer, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe

A unique application of the term is executive officer to the Supreme Allied Commander Europe, and commander, United States European Command. This position is typically held by a brigadier general or rear admiral (LH) and is drawn from all of the armed services. The duties involve serving as both an "executive assistant" to Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR) and also includes command responsibilities for the U.S. military community at Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) in Belgium.[5]


  1. ^ Naval Orientation. US Navy. pp. 16–2.
  2. ^ Mayo, Claude Banks (1939). Your Navy. Los Angeles: Parker & Baird Company. pp. 287&288.
  3. ^ Air Force Organization, AFI 32-101 "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-13. Retrieved 2010-12-06.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ The Executive Officer Guide http://www.afmentor.com/mentor/execguide-appendix-b.html Accessed 2012-05-02.
  5. ^ Biography of Brigadier General Gregory Lengyel, Executive Officer to SACUER (2010-2012) https://archive.is/20120717150747/http://www.af.mil/information/bios/bio.asp?bioID=13949 Accessed on 2012-05-02.
1958 Birthday Honours

The Queen's Birthday Honours 1958 were appointments in many of the Commonwealth realms of Queen Elizabeth II to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of those countries. The appointments were made to celebrate the official birthday of The Queen. They were published on 3 June 1958 for the United Kingdom and Colonies, Australia, New Zealand, Ghana, and the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.

Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority

The Australian Sports Anti-Doping Authority is a government statutory authority tasked to protect Australia's sporting integrity through the elimination of doping. The authority is part of the Department of Health's portfolio and was established on 13 March 2006 under the Australian Sports Anti‑Doping Authority Act 2006.

The ASADA drug tests Australian athletes who compete at state and national levels. The ASADA can also test international athletes if they are competing in events held in Australia. It is also ASADA's role to inform the sporting community of drugs and related safety issues. The ASADA Advisory Group is relied upon by the Chief Executive Officer as a consultative forum on matter related to the agency's purpose.

Battle of Guam (1944)

The Second Battle of Guam (21 July – 10 August 1944) was the American recapture of the Japanese-held island of Guam, a U.S. territory in the Mariana Islands captured by the Japanese from the U.S. in the 1941 First Battle of Guam during the Pacific campaign of World War II.

Charles Scharf

Charles W. Scharf (born 24 April 1965, New York City) is an American businessman who was the chief executive officer of Visa Inc., the current CEO of BNY Mellon and a member of the Microsoft board of directors.

Chief Executive (Afghanistan)

The Chief Executive Officer of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a position within the Government of Afghanistan. The extra-constitutional post was created in September 2014 following the disputes that arose after the 2014 Afghan presidential election when both Ashraf Ghani and Abdullah Abdullah claimed victory in that election. As part of a national unity agreement, it was agreed that Ashraf Ghani would assume the presidency and a new post of Chief Executive Officer of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan would be created for Abdullah Abdullah.

Chief Executive Officer of Defence Equipment and Support

The Chief Executive Officer of Defence Equipment and Support, formerly the Chief of Defence Materiel, is a senior post in the British armed forces created in April 2007. It merges the roles of Chief of Defence Procurement and Chief of Defence Logistics into a single post responsible for leading Defence Equipment and Support.

The command may be held by a four-star officer, admiral, general, or air chief marshal appointed from the three services, and also by civilians.

Chief executive officer

The chief executive officer (CEO), or just chief executive (CE), is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and even some government organizations (e.g., Crown corporations). The CEO of a corporation or company typically reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues, or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs typically aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc.

In the early 21st century, top executives typically had technical degrees in science, engineering, or law.

Crimson Tide (film)

Crimson Tide is a 1995 American submarine film directed by Tony Scott, and produced by Don Simpson and Jerry Bruckheimer. It takes place during a period of political turmoil in the Russian Federation, in which ultranationalists threaten to launch nuclear missiles at the United States and Japan. It focuses on a clash of wills between the new executive officer (Denzel Washington) of a U.S. nuclear missile submarine and its seasoned commanding officer (Gene Hackman), arising from conflicting interpretations of an order to launch their missiles. Its story parallels a real incident during the Cuban Missile Crisis, albeit aboard a Soviet rather than U.S. submarine.

The film was scored by Hans Zimmer, who won a Grammy Award for the main theme, which makes heavy use of synthesizers in place of traditional orchestral instruments.

An extended cut, which incorporated seven minutes of deleted scenes, was released on DVD in 2006. When the film was released on Blu-ray two years later, however, the film was restored to the theatrical version.

Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure

The Department of Planning, Transport and Infrastructure (DPTI) is a large South Australian government department which provides a range of services across the three key words of its title.

Director general

A director general or director-general (plural: directors generals, sometimes director generals) or general director is a senior executive officer, often the chief executive officer, within a governmental, statutory, NGO, third sector or not-for-profit institution. It is commonly used in many countries worldwide, but with various meanings.

Executive director

An executive director is a chief executive officer (CEO) or managing director of an organization, company, or corporation. The title is widely used in North American non-profit organizations, though many United States nonprofits have adopted the title president or CEO.Confusion can arise because the words executive and director occur both in this title and in titles of various members of some organizations' boards of directors. The precise meanings of these terms are discussed in the board of directors article.

Hong Kong Football Association

The Hong Kong Football Association Limited (Chinese: 香港足球總會), often abbreviated to the HKFA, is the governing body of association football in Hong Kong. Its current chairman is Brian Leung Hung-Tak and its Acting Chief Executive Officer is Paul Woodland.

James A. Bell

James A. Bell (born June 4, 1948) is a retired American executive of The Boeing Company.

Bell is a retired President, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of The Boeing Company. He served as interim President and Chief Executive Officer of the Boeing Company on March, 2005, following the resignation of Harry Stonecipher. He returned to his singular role as Boeing's CFO on June 30, 2005 following the appointment of Jim McNerney as the new President, Chairman, and Chief Executive Officer of the Boeing Company. He was appointed Corporate President in June 2008.

President (corporate title)

The President is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between the president and the Chief Executive Officer varies, depending on the structure of the specific organization. In a similar vein to the Chief Operating Officer, the title of corporate President as a separate position (as opposed to being combined with a "C-Suite" designation, such as "President and Chief Executive Officer" or "President and Chief Operating Officer") is also loosely defined; the President is usually the legally recognized highest rank of corporate officer, ranking above the various Vice Presidents (including Senior Vice President and Executive Vice President), but on its own generally considered subordinate, in practice, to the CEO. The powers of the president vary widely across organizations and such powers come from specific authorization in the bylaws (e.g. the president can make an "executive decision" only if the bylaws allow for it).

Prime Minister of Pakistan

The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزِیرِ اعظم پاکِستان‬‎ ‬‎ – Wazīr-ē-Āzam, Urdu pronunciation: [ʋəˈziːr-ˌeː ˈɑː.zəm]; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".The Prime Minister leads the executive branch of the government, oversees the economic growth, leads the National Assembly, heads the Council of Common Interests as well as the Cabinet, and is vested with the command authority over the nuclear arsenals. This position places its holder in leadership of the nation and in control over all matters of internal and foreign policy. The Prime Minister is elected by the members of the National Assembly and therefore is usually the leader of the majority party in the parliament. The Constitution of Pakistan vests the executive powers in the Prime Minister, who is responsible for appointing the Cabinet as well as running the executive branch, taking and authorising executive decisions, appointments and recommendations that require executive confirmation of the Prime Minister.Constitutionally, the Prime Minister serves as the chief adviser to President of Pakistan on critical matters and plays an influential role in appointment in each branch of the military leadership as well as ensuring the control of the military through chairman joint chiefs. Powers of the Prime Minister have significantly grown with a delicate system of the check and balance by each branch. The position was absent during years of 1960–73, 1977–85 and 1999–2002 due to imposed martial law. In each of these periods, the military junta led by the President had the powers of the Prime Minister.Imran Khan has held the office of Prime Minister since 18 August 2018, following the outcome of nationwide general elections held on 25 July 2018.

Scott T. Ford

Scott T. Ford was President and Chief Executive Officer of Alltel from 2002 to 2009.


Second-in-command (2i/c or 2IC) is a title denoting that the holder of the title is the second-highest authority within a certain organisation.

In the British Army or Royal Marines, the second-in-command is the deputy commander of a unit, from battalion or regiment downwards. This terminology is also used in many other Commonwealth armies and other nations. The equivalent appointment in the United States Army is the executive officer.

The second-in-command of a battalion or regiment is usually a major. The second-in-command of a company, squadron, or artillery battery (in which they are called the battery captain) is usually a captain (although infantry company second-in-commands were usually lieutenants until after the Second World War), the second-in-command of a platoon or troop is the platoon or troop sergeant, and the second-in-command of a section is usually a lance corporal.

In the Royal Navy, the second-in-command of a vessel, regardless of rank, is known as the first lieutenant or executive officer.

Ship's company

A ship's company comprises all officers, non-commissioned officers and enlisted personnel aboard a naval vessel. The size of the ship's company (the complement) is the number of people on board, excluding civilians and guests.

Toronto Organizing Committee for the 2015 Pan and Parapan American Games

The Toronto Organizing Committee for the 2015 Pan Parapan American Games (TO2015) (French: Comité d’organisation des Jeux panaméricains et parapanaméricains de 2015 à Toronto - TOR2015) was a non-profit organization responsible for producing and financing the 2015 Pan American Games and 2015 Parapan American Games. It was established on January 21, 2010, about three months after the 2015 games were awarded to Toronto, Ontario.TO2015 was led by chief executive officer Ian Troop, who has senior operating experience with multinational corporations Its board of directors consisted of 12 members, with five partners the, Canadian Olympic Committee, Canadian Paralympic Committee, Canadian and Ontario provincial governments, and the City government of Toronto, Ontario.The Chair of the Games was The Honourable David Peterson, former politician and Premier of Ontario. In December 2013 Troop was fired. He was replaced in January 2014 by Saad Rafi.

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