Executive Office of the President of the United States

The Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP) is a group of agencies[1] at the center of the executive branch of the United States federal government. The EOP supports the work of the President. It consists of several offices and agencies, such as the White House Office (the staff working directly for and reporting to the President, including West Wing staff and the President’s closest advisers), National Security Council or Office of Management and Budget.

With the increase in technological and global advancement, the size of the White House staff has increased to include an array of policy experts to effectively address various fields of the modern day. There are about 4,000 positions in the Executive Office of the President, most of which do not require confirmation from the U.S. Senate. The budget for the EOP in FY 2017 was $714 million.[2]

The Executive Office is overseen by the White House Chief of Staff, since January 2, 2019 held by acting Chief of Staff, Mick Mulvaney, appointed by Donald Trump, the current and 45th President of the United States.[3][4][5][6]

Executive Office of the President
Seal of the Executive Office of the President of the United States 2014
Seal of the Executive Office
Flag of the Executive Office of the President of the United States
Flag of the Executive Office
Agency overview
FormedJuly 1, 1939
JurisdictionU.S. Federal Government
HeadquartersWhite House, Washington, D.C.
Employees4,000 (approximately)
Annual budget$300–400 million
Agency executives
Websitewww.whitehouse.gov

History

In 1939, during Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term in office, the foundations of the modern White House staff were created. Based on the recommendations of a presidentially commissioned panel of political science and public administration experts that was known as the Brownlow Committee, Roosevelt was able to get Congress to approve the Reorganization Act of 1939. The Act led to Reorganization Plan No. 1,[7] which created the EOP,[8] which reported directly to the president. The EOP encompassed two subunits at its outset: the White House Office (WHO) and the Bureau of the Budget, the predecessor to today's Office of Management and Budget, which had been created in 1921 and originally located in the Treasury Department. It absorbed most of the functions of the National Emergency Council.[9] Initially, the new staff system appeared more ambitious on paper than in practice; the increase in the size of the staff was quite modest at the start. But it laid the groundwork for the large and organizationally complex White House staff that would emerge during the presidencies of Roosevelt's successors.[10]

Roosevelt's efforts are also notable in contrast to those of his predecessors in office. During the 19th century, presidents had few staff resources. Thomas Jefferson had one messenger and one secretary at his disposal, both of whose salaries were paid by the president personally. It was not until 1857 that Congress appropriated money ($2,500) for the hiring of one clerk. By Ulysses S. Grant's presidency (1869–1877), the staff had grown to three. By 1900, the White House staff included one "secretary to the president" (then the title of the president's chief aide), two assistant secretaries, two executive clerks, a stenographer, and seven other office personnel. Under Warren G. Harding, there were thirty-one staff, although most were clerical positions. During Herbert Hoover's presidency, two additional secretaries to the president were added by Congress, one of whom Hoover designated as his Press Secretary. From 1933 to 1939, even as he greatly expanded the scope of the federal government's policies and powers in response to the Great Depression, Roosevelt muddled through: his "brains trust" of top advisers were often appointed to vacant positions in agencies and departments, whence they drew their salaries since the White House lacked statutory or budgetary authority to create new staff positions.

After World War II, in particular during the presidency of Dwight David Eisenhower, the staff was expanded and reorganized. Eisenhower, a former U.S. Army general, had been Supreme Allied Commander during the war, and brought ideas of effective organization from that experience.[11]

Today, the staff is much bigger. Estimates indicate some 3,000 to 4,000 persons serve in EOP staff positions with policy-making responsibilities, with a budget of $300 to $400 million (George W. Bush's budget request for Fiscal Year 2005 was for $341 million in support of 1,850 personnel).[12]

Organization

Senior staff within the EOP have the title Assistant to the President, second-level staff have the title Deputy Assistant to the President, and third-level staff have the title Special Assistant to the President.

The core White House staff appointments, and most EOP officials generally, are not required to be confirmed by the U.S. Senate, although there are a handful of exceptions (e.g., the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, the Chair and members of the Council of Economic Advisers, and the United States Trade Representative).

The information in the following table is current as of April 4, 2018. Only principal executives are listed; for subordinate officers, see individual office pages.

Agency Principal executive Incumbent
White House Office White House Chief of Staff Mick Mulvaney (Acting)
National Security Council Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs John R. Bolton
Council of Economic Advisers Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers Kevin Hassett
Council on Environmental Quality Managing Director of the Council on Environmental Quality Vacant
Executive Residence Staff and Operations White House Chief Usher Timothy Harleth[13]
Office of Administration Director of the Office of Administration Marcia Lee Kelly
Office of Management and Budget Director of the Office of Management and Budget Mick Mulvaney
Office of National Drug Control Policy Director of National Drug Control Policy James W. Carroll
Office of Science and Technology Policy Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy Kelvin Droegemeier
Office of the United States Trade Representative United States Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer
Office of the Vice President of the United States Chief of Staff to The Vice President Vacant

White House Offices

The White House Office (including its various offices listed below) is a sub-unit of the Executive Office of the President (EOP). The various agencies of the EOP are listed above.

Budget history

Year Budget
2017 $714 million[2]
2016 $692 million[14]
2015 $676 million[15]
2014 $624 million[16]
2013 $650 million[17]
2012 $640 million[18]
2011 $708 million[19]
2010 $772 million[20]
2009 $728 million[21]
2008 $682 million[22]
2007 $need cite million[23]
2006 $need cite million[23]
2005 $need cite million[23]
2004 $need cite million[23]
2003 $386 million[23]
2002 $451 million[23]
2001 $246 million[23]
2000 $283 million[23]
1999 $417 million[23]
1998 $237 million[23]
1997 $221 million[23]
1996 $202 million[23]
1995 $215 million[23]
1994 $231 million[23]
1993 $194 million[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ Harold C. Relyea (November 26, 2008). The Executive Office of the President: A Historical Overview (PDF) (Report). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  2. ^ a b "FY 2017 Omnibus Summary – Financial Services and General Government Appropriations" (PDF). House Appropriations Committee. May 1, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  3. ^ Hartnett, Cass. "Library Guides: United States Federal Government Resources: The Executive Office of the President". guides.lib.uw.edu. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  4. ^ Trump, Donald J. (December 14, 2018). "I am pleased to announce that Mick Mulvaney, Director of the Office of Management & Budget, will be named Acting White House Chief of Staff, replacing General John Kelly, who has served our Country with distinction. Mick has done an outstanding job while in the Administration..." @realDonaldTrump. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  5. ^ Swanson, Ian (December 14, 2018). "Trump names Mulvaney acting chief of staff". TheHill. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  6. ^ O'Toole, Molly. "John F. Kelly says his tenure as Trump's chief of staff is best measured by what the president did not do". latimes.com. Retrieved January 5, 2019.
  7. ^ Roosevelt, Franklin D. (April 25, 1939). "Message to Congress on the Reorganization Act". John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters. The American Presidency Project. Santa Barbara: University of California. Retrieved May 6, 2011.
  8. ^ Mosher, Frederick C. (1975). American Public Administration: Past, Present, Future (2nd ed.). Birmingham: University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-4829-8.
  9. ^ Roosevelt, Franklin D. (May 9, 1939). "Message to Congress on Plan II to Implement the Reorganization Act". John T. Woolley and Gerhard Peters. The American Presidency Project. Santa Barbara: University of California. Retrieved May 6, 2011. The plan provides for the abolition of the National Emergency Council and the transfer to the Executive Office of the President of all its functions with the exception of the film and radio activities which go to the Office of Education.
  10. ^ Relyea, Harold C. (March 17, 2008). "The Executive Office of the President: An Historical Overview" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
  11. ^ Patterson, Bradley H. (1994). "Teams and Staff: Dwight Eisenhower's Innovations in the Structure and Operations of the Modern White House". Presidential Studies Quarterly. 24 (2): 277–298. JSTOR 27551241.
  12. ^ Burke, John P. "Administration of the White House". Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia. Archived from the original on November 17, 2010. Retrieved June 6, 2009.
  13. ^ Bennett, Kate (June 23, 2017). "Trump family hires familiar face as chief usher". CNN.
  14. ^ "Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2016 Financial Services Bill". House Appropriations Committee. May 24, 2016. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  15. ^ "Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2015 Financial Services Bill". House Appropriations Committee. July 16, 2014. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  16. ^ "Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2014 Financial Services Bill". House Appropriations Committee. July 17, 2013. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  17. ^ "Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2013 Financial Services Bill". House Appropriations Committee. June 5, 2012. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  18. ^ "Appropriations Committee Releases Fiscal Year 2012 Financial Services Bill". House Appropriations Committee. June 15, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  19. ^ "Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2011 Appropriations". Congressional Research Service. July 11, 2011. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  20. ^ "Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2010 Appropriations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. February 4, 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  21. ^ "Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2009 Appropriations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. May 12, 2009. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  22. ^ "Financial Services and General Government (FSGG): FY2008 Appropriations". Congressional Research Service. December 20, 2007. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Historical Tables, Table 4.1—OUTLAYS BY AGENCY: 1962–2022". OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET. January 20, 2017. Retrieved September 25, 2017.

External links

Chief of Staff to the Vice President of the United States

The Chief of Staff to the Vice President of the United States is the Chief of Staff position within the Office of the Vice President, part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. Chief of Staff has been responsible for overseeing the actions of the Vice President's staff, managing the Vice President's schedule, and deciding who is allowed to meet with the Vice President.

Council on Environmental Quality

The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) is a division of the Executive Office of the President that coordinates federal environmental efforts in the United States and works closely with agencies and other White House offices on the development of environmental and energy policies and initiatives.

The first Chair of the Council on Environmental Quality was Russell E. Train, under President Richard Nixon. President Donald Trump nominated the agency's acting head, Mary Neumayr for the position in June 2018. Her nomination was confirmed by the full Senate at the beginning of January 2019.

Danielle C. Gray

Danielle Gray is the former Assistant to the President, Cabinet Secretary, and a Senior Advisor to U.S. President Barack Obama. Previously, Gray served as Deputy Director of the National Economic Council and Deputy Assistant to the President for Economic Policy. Newsweek called her "the most powerful White House staffer you've never heard of."

National Economic Council (United States)

The National Economic Council (NEC) of the United States is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for considering economic policy matters, separate from matters relating to domestic policy, which are the domain of the Domestic Policy Council. The council forms part of the Office of White House Policy which contains the National Economic Council and other offices. The Director of the NEC is titled the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy and Director of the National Economic Council. The NEC is distinct from the Council of Economic Advisers (CEA), which was established in 1946. The CEA provides much of the objective empirical research for the White House and prepares the annual Economic Report of the President.

Nuclear football

The nuclear football (also known as the atomic football, the President's emergency satchel, the Presidential Emergency Satchel, the button, the black box, or just the football) is a briefcase, the contents of which are to be used by the President of the United States to authorize a nuclear attack while away from fixed command centers, such as the White House Situation Room. It functions as a mobile hub in the strategic defense system of the United States. It is held by an aide-de-camp.

Office of Administration

In the United States government, the Office of Administration is an entity within the Executive Office of the President tasked with overseeing the general administration of the entire Executive Office.

Office of Management and Budget

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent function is to produce the President's Budget, but OMB also measures the quality of agency programs, policies, and procedures to see if they comply with the president's policies and coordinates inter-agency policy initiatives.

While the current OMB Director is Mick Mulvaney, he is currently also the acting White House Chief of Staff. Many of his duties and responsibilities have been assigned to Deputy Director Russell Vought. The OMB Director reports to the President, Vice President and the White House Chief of Staff.

Office of Public Liaison

The Office of Public Liaison is a unit of the White House Office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. Under the administration of President Obama, it was called the White House Office of Public Engagement and Intergovernmental Affairs. President Trump restored the prior name and created a separate Office of Intergovernmental Affairs.

Office of the Vice President of the United States

The Office of the Vice President includes personnel who directly support or advise the Vice President of the United States. The Office is headed by the Chief of Staff to the Vice President of the United States, currently Nick Ayers. The Office also provides staffing and support to the Second Lady of the United States. It is primarily housed in the Eisenhower Executive Office Building (containing the Vice President's ceremonial office), with offices for the Vice President also in the West Wing, the U.S. Capitol and in the Vice President's official residence.

President's Intelligence Advisory Board

The President's Intelligence Advisory Board (PIAB) is an advisor to the Executive Office of the President of the United States. According to its self-description, it "...provides advice to the President concerning the quality and adequacy of intelligence collection, of analysis and estimates, of counterintelligence, and of other intelligence activities."The PIAB, through its Intelligence Oversight Board (IOB), also advises the President on the legality of foreign intelligence activities.

President's Science Advisory Committee

In 1951, President of the United States Harry S. Truman established the Science Advisory Committee (SAC) as part of the Office of Defense Mobilization (ODM). Its purpose was to advise the president on scientific matters in general, and those related to defense issues in particular.

As a direct response to the launches of the Soviet Sputnik 1 and Sputnik 2 satellites in late 1957, President Dwight D. Eisenhower upgraded SAC to become the President's Science Advisory Committee (PSAC) and moved to the White House on 21 November 1957. James R. Killian was appointed as its director at that time.

In 1961, President John F. Kennedy renamed the agency the Office of Science and Technology (OST). It last until Richard Nixon's administration in 1973. In 1976 the Office of Science and Technology Policy was established.

Senior Advisor to the President of the United States

Senior Advisor to the President is a title used by high-ranking assistants to the President of the United States. White House Senior Advisors are senior members of the White House Office. The title has been used formally since 1993.

United States Homeland Security Council

The Homeland Security Council (HSC) is an entity within the Executive Office of the President of the United States tasked with advising the President on matters relating to Homeland Security. The immediate former Homeland Security Advisor was Tom Bossert, who held the rank of Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism. The current Homeland Security Advisor is Rear Admiral Doug Fears, who took office in April 2018.

United States National Security Council

The White House National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for consideration of national security, military matters, and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. Since its inception under Harry S. Truman, the function of the Council has been to advise and assist the President on national security and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the President's principal arm for coordinating these policies among various government agencies. The Council has counterparts in the national security councils of many other nations.

White House Cabinet Secretary

The White House Cabinet Secretary is a high-ranking position within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. The Cabinet Secretary is the head of the Office of Cabinet Affairs within the White House Office and the primary liaison between the President of the United States and the Cabinet departments and agencies. The position is often held concurrently with Assistant to the President.According to the White House website, the Cabinet Secretary helps "to coordinate policy and communications strategy" and plays "a critical role in managing the flow of information between the White House and the federal departments and in representing the interests of the Cabinet to the White House."The Cabinet Secretary is appointed by and serves at the pleasure of the President; the position does not require Senate confirmation. The Cabinet Secretary is among the twenty-two highest paid positions in the White House. The current Cabinet Secretary is Bill McGinley, who was appointed on the inauguration of President Donald Trump, on January 20, 2017, and who is also Deputy Assistant to the President. John Mashburn was appointed Deputy Cabinet Secretary on the same day, and also Special Assistant to the President and on a salary of $130,00 per annum, and has since ceased being in the position.

White House Counsel

The White House Counsel is a staff appointee of the President of the United States whose role is to advise the President on all legal issues concerning the President and his Administration. Pat Cipollone is the current White House Counsel serving since December 2018.

White House National Trade Council

The National Trade Council (NTC) of the United States was the principal forum used by the President of the United States to advise on strategies in trade negotiations, coordinate with other agencies to assess U.S. manufacturing capabilities and the defense industrial base, and help match unemployed American workers with new opportunities in the skilled manufacturing sector. The council formed part of the Office of White House Policy which contains the National Economic Council and other offices. President-elect Donald Trump announced his intent to create the office on December 21, 2016, and named Peter Navarro as its inaugural director. In April 2017, the NTC was folded into the newly created Office of Trade and Manufacturing Policy; by September 2017, both the NTC and OTMP were reorganized again and placed under the National Economic Council by then White House Chief of Staff John Kelly. In February 2018 the OTMP (and by extension the NTC) regained independence. Although the National Trade Council still exists, its responsibilities and duties have largely been taken over by the Office of Trade and Manufacturing policy, rendering it effectively defunct.

White House Office

The White House Office is an entity within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. The White House Office is headed by the White House Chief of Staff, who is also the head of the Executive Office of the President. The staff of the various offices are based in the West Wing and East Wing of the White House, the Eisenhower Executive Office Building, and the New Executive Office Building. Almost all of the White House Office staff are political appointees of the President. These aides oversee the political and policy interests of the President and do not require Senate confirmation for appointment. They can be removed at the discretion of the President.

White House Office of Intergovernmental Affairs

The White House Office of Intergovernmental Affairs is a part of the Executive Office of the President and serves as the primary liaison between the White House and state, county (or county-equivalent), local, and tribal governments. The office focuses on building new and maintaining current relationships with governors, tribal leaders, mayors, state legislators, and county executives. The Office of Intergovernmental Affairs works with federal agencies and departments to ensure appropriate coordination between state, local, and tribal governments and the federal government. The current Director of Intergovernmental Affairs at the White House Office is Douglas Hoelscher.

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