Exclusive economic zone

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.[1] It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nmi limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters.[2]

Territorial waters - World
The World's exclusive economic zones, shown in dark blue
Sea areas in international rights


Map of the Territorial Waters of the Atlantic and Indian Ocean
EEZs in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean
Map of the Territorial Waters of the Pacific Ocean
EEZs in the Pacific Ocean

Generally, a state's exclusive economic zone is an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea, extending seaward to a distance of no more than 200 nmi (370 km) out from its coastal baseline. The exception to this rule occurs when exclusive economic zones would overlap; that is, state coastal baselines are less than 400 nmi (740 km) apart. When an overlap occurs, it is up to the states to delineate the actual maritime boundary.[3] Generally, any point within an overlapping area defaults to the nearest state.[4]

A state's exclusive economic zone starts at the seaward edge of its territorial sea and extends outward to a distance of 200 nmi (370 km) from the baseline. The exclusive economic zone stretches much further into sea than the territorial waters, which end at 12 nmi (22 km) from the coastal baseline (if following the rules set out in the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea).[5] Thus, the exclusive economic zones includes the contiguous zone. States also have rights to the seabed of what is called the continental shelf up to 350 nmi (650 km) from the coastal baseline, beyond the exclusive economic zones, but such areas are not part of their exclusive economic zones. The legal definition of the continental shelf does not directly correspond to the geological meaning of the term, as it also includes the continental rise and slope, and the entire seabed within the exclusive economic zone.


The idea of allotting nations EEZs to give them more control of maritime affairs outside territorial limits gained acceptance in the late 20th century.

Initially, a country's sovereign territorial waters extended 3 nmi or 5.6 km (range of cannon shot) beyond the shore. In modern times, a country's sovereign territorial waters extend to 12 nmi (22 km) beyond the shore. One of the first assertions of exclusive jurisdiction beyond the traditional territorial seas was made by the United States in the Truman Proclamation of September 28, 1945. However, it was Chile and Peru respectively that first claimed maritime zones of 200 nautical miles with the Presidential Declaration Concerning Continental Shelf of 23 June 1947 (El Mercurio, Santiago de Chile, 29 June 1947) and Presidential Decree No. 781 of 1 August 1947 (El Peruano: Diario Oficial. Vol. 107, No. 1983, 11 August 1947).[6]

It was not until 1982 with the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea that the 200 nautical mile exclusive economic zone was formally adopted.


The exact extent of exclusive economic zones is a common source of conflicts between states over marine waters.

Potential disputes

Regions where a permanent ice shelf extends beyond the coastline are also a source of potential dispute.[18]

Resolved disputes

Transboundary stocks

Fisheries management, usually adhering to guidelines set by the FAO, provides significant practical mechanisms for the control of EEZs. Transboundary fish stocks are an important concept in this control.[22] Transboundary stocks are fish stocks that range in the EEZs of at least two countries. Straddling stocks, on the other hand, range both within an EEZ as well as in the high seas, outside any EEZ. A stock can be both transboundary and straddling.[23]

By country


Territorial waters - Argentina
Argentina's exclusive economic zone including territorial claims. Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentine reaches 3,849,756 km²


Territorial waters - Australia
Australia's exclusive economic zones including Antarctic claim

Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone was declared on 1 August 1994, and extends from 12 nautical miles to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with another state.[24][25] To the 12 nautical miles boundary is Australia's territorial waters. Australia has the third largest exclusive economic zone, behind France and the United States, but ahead of Russia, with the total area of 8,148,250 square kilometres, which actually exceeds its land territory.

The United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf confirmed, in April 2008, Australia's rights over an additional 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed beyond the limits of Australia's EEZ.[26][27] Australia also claimed, in its submission to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, additional Continental Shelf past its EEZ from the Australian Antarctic Territory,[28] but these claims were deferred on Australia's request. However, Australia's EEZ from its Antarctic Territory is approximately 2 million square kilometres.[27]

EEZ Area (km2)[27]
Heard and McDonald Islands 410,722
 Christmas Island 463,371
 Cocos Islands 325,021
 Norfolk Island 428,618
Macquarie Island 471,837
Mainland Australia, Tasmania and minor islands 6,048,681
Australian Antarctic Territory 2,000,000[status 1]
Total 10,148,250


Territorial waters - Brazil
Brazil's exclusive economic zones

Brazil's EEZ includes areas around the Fernando de Noronha Islands, St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago and the Trindade and Martim Islands.

EEZ Area (km2)[29]
 Brazil 2 400 917
Bandeira de Fernando de Noronha.png Fernando de Noronha 363 362
St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago 413 636
Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl. 468 599
Total 3 646 514

In 2004, the country submitted its claims to the United Nations Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) to extend its maritime continental margin.[30]


Canada Exclusive Economic Zone
Canada's exclusive economic zone and territorial waters

Canada is unusual in that its exclusive economic zone, covering 5,599,077 km2 (2,161,816 sq mi), is slightly smaller than its territorial waters.[31] The latter generally extend only 12 nautical miles from the shore, but also include inland marine waters such as Hudson Bay (about 300 nautical miles (560 km; 350 mi) across), the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the internal waters of the Arctic archipelago.


Territorial waters - Chile
Chile's exclusive economic zones, including Antarctic claim

Chile's EEZ includes areas around the Desventuradas Islands, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands.

Region EEZ Area (km2)[32] Land area Total
Mainland 1 975 760 755 757 2 731 517
Desventuradas 449 836 5 449 841
Easter 720 412 164 720 576
Juan Fernandez 502 524 100 502 624
Total 3 648 532 755 921 4 404 453


China Exclusive Economic Zones
People's Republic of China's exclusive economic zone:
  China's EEZ
877,019 km2
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by Taiwan
  EEZ claimed by China, disputed by others
3,000,000 km2 Total:3,877,019

The first figure excludes all disputed waters, while the last figure indicates China's claimed boundaries, and does not take into account neighboring powers' claims.


הגבול הימי של ישראל
Exclusive economic zone between Israel and Cyprus as signed in Nicosia. (Labels in Hebrew.)

The Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus covers more than 70,000 km2 and is divided between 13 exploration blocks. The process of the establishment of Cyprus, Israel and Lebanon Exclusive Economic Zones was held in Nicosia in 2010 with separate meetings between each country.[33] Cyprus and Israel as part of their wider cooperation have agreed to start their gas explorations with a common American company, specifically Noble Energy. Cypriot and Israeli governments are discussing to export their natural gas through the shipping of compressed Natural Gas to Greece and then to the rest of Europe or through a subsea Pipelines starting from Israel and then leading to Greece via Cyprus.[34][35]


Territorial waters - Denmark
The exclusive economic zones and territorial waters of the Kingdom of Denmark

The Kingdom of Denmark includes the constituent country (selvstyre) of Greenland and the constituent country (hjemmestyre) of the Faroe Islands.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[36] Land area Total
 Denmark 105 989 42 506 149 083
 Faroe Islands 260 995 1 399 262 394
 Greenland 2 184 254 2 166 086 4 350 340
Total 2 551 238 2 210 579 4 761 817


Territorial waters - France
Exclusive economic zones of France, including Antarctic territorial claim

Due to its numerous overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the second largest EEZ in the world, covering 10,165,095 km2 (4,514,000 mi2), the EEZ of the United States is the first largest (11,351,000 km2 / 4,382,000 mi2). The EEZ of France covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world, whereas the land area of the French Republic is only 0.45% of the total land area of the Earth.

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2)[27] Land area Total
 Metropolitan France 334,604 551,695 886,299
 French Guiana 133,949 83,846 217,795
 Guadeloupe 95,978 1,628 97,606
 Martinique 47,640 1,128 48,768
 Réunion 315,058 2,512 317,570
 French Polynesia 4,767,242 4,167 4,771,409
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 12,334 242 12,576
 Mayotte 63,078 376 63,454
 Wallis and Futuna 258,269 264 258,533
 Saint-Martin 1,000 53 1,053
 Saint-Barthélemy 4,000 21 4,021
 New Caledonia 1,422,543 18,575 1,441,118
 Clipperton Island 431,263 6 431,269
Crozet Islands 574,558 352 574,910
Kerguelen Islands 567,732 7,215 574,947
Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands 509,015 66 509,081
Scattered islands in the Indian Ocean 352,117 44 352,161
Tromelin Island 270,455 1 270,456
Total 10,160,835 675,417 12,366,417


Greece has claimed an exclusive economic zone, as it is entitled to do so, as per UNCLOS 1982 as well as customary international law.[37]

According to published maps, the Israel government has recognized the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) of Greece and Cyprus. They describe the course of the gas pipeline which will transfer gas produced by American Νoble Εnergy Ltd. from the Leviathan reservoir to Europe, through an undersea pipeline crossing Greece. The gas pipeline should traverse the sea area, which according to international law, is part of the Greek EEZ. By this proposal, Israel recognizes the Greek EEZ in the area and offers an advantage that Greece can use during negotiation procedures to support its claims on the area. In practice, this cooperation will set up a powerful energy coalition between Greece, Cyprus and Israel. The mining and operating part will be undertaken by an American company.[38] "The substance of the issue is that in an effort to protect and secure vital Israeli interests in the Mediterranean Sea, Israel has been left with no choice other than to officially delimit its maritime borders".[39]


Territorial waters - India
India's exclusive economic zones

India is currently seeking to extend its EEZ to 350 miles.[40]


In 2010, an agreement was signed with Cyprus concerning the limit of territorial waters between Israel and Cyprus at the maritime halfway point, a clarification essential for safeguarding Israel's rights to oil and underwater gas reservoirs. The agreement was signed in Nicosia by Israeli Infrastructure Minister Uzi Landau and the Cypriot Foreign Minister Markos Kyprianou. The two countries agreed to cooperate in the development of any cross border resources discovered, and to negotiate an agreement on dividing joint resources.


Japan Exclusive Economic Zones
Japan's exclusive economic zones:
  Japan's EEZ
  Joint regime with Republic of Korea
  EEZ claimed by Japan, disputed by others
EEZ Area (km2)
Marcus Island 428,875
Nanpō Islands 862,782
Pacific Ocean (Japan) 1,162,334
Ryukyu Islands 1,394,676
Sea of Japan 630,721
Daito Islands 44
Senkaku Islands 7
Sea of Okhotsk 235
Total[41] 4,479,674

Japan has disputes over its EEZ boundaries with all its Asian neighbors (Russia, Republic of Korea, China and Taiwan). The above, and relevant maps at the Sea Around Us Project[42][43] both indicate Japan's claimed boundaries, and do not take into account neighboring powers' claims.

Japan also refers to various categories of "shipping area" – Smooth Water Area, Coasting Area, Major or Greater Coasting Area, Ocean Going Area – but it is unclear whether these are intended to have any territorial or economic implications.


Territorial waters - Mexico
Exclusive economic zone of Mexico

Mexico's exclusive economic zones comprise a total surface area of 3,144,295 km2, and places Mexico among the countries with the largest areas in the world.[44] This puts Mexico's total territory as 5,153,735 km2.

New Zealand

Territorial waters - New Zealand
Exclusive economic zones of the Realm of New Zealand, including the Ross Dependency (shaded)

New Zealand's EEZ covers 4,083,744 km2 (1,576,742 sq mi),[45][46] which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2.[47] These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

North Korea

Exclusive economic zone of North Korea
The exclusive economic zone of North Korea

The exclusive economic zone of North Korea stretches 200 nautical miles from its basepoints in both the West Sea (Yellow Sea) and the Sea of Japan.[48] The EEZ was declared in 1977 after North Korea had contested the validity of the Northern Limit Lines (NLL) set up after the Korean War as maritime borders.[49] The EEZ has not been codified in law and North Korea has never specified its coordinates, making it difficult to determine its specific scope.[50]

In the West Sea, the EEZ remains unspecified in the Korean Bay because China has not determined its own EEZ in the area.[51] The border between the North Korean and South Korean EEZs in the West Sea cannot be determined because of potential overlap and disputes over certain islands.[52]

In the Sea of Japan, the North Korean EEZ can be approximated to be trapezoidal-shaped.[53] The border between North Korea and Russia's respective EEZs is the only such border that has been determined in East Asia.[54] Here, the EEZ does not cause many problems, even with regards to South Korea, because the sea is not thought to be rich in resources.[53]


Territorial waters - Norway
Norway's exclusive economic zones, including dependent territory Bouvet Island

Norway has a large exclusive economic zone of 819 620 km2 around its coast. The country has a fishing zone of 1,878,953 km2, including fishing zones around Svalbard and Jan Mayen.[55]

In April 2009, the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf approved Norway's claim to an additional 235,000 square kilometres of continental shelf. The commission found that Norway and Russia both had valid claims over a portion of shelf in the Barents Sea.[56]

Region EEZ & TW Area (km2) Land area Total
Mainland 1 273 482 323 802 1 597 284
Svalbard 402 574 61 002 463 576
Jan Mayen 273 118 373 273 491
Bouvet Island 436 004 49 436 053
Total 2 385 178 385 226 2 770 404


Ph Territorial Map
The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines shown in the lighter blue shade, with Archepelagic Waters in the darkest blue

The Philippines' EEZ covers 2,263,816 km2 (874,064 sq mi).[57]


The Polish EEZ covers the area of 30,533 km2 (11,789 sq mi) within the Baltic Sea.[58]


Portugal EEZ
Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zones plus submitted Extended Continental Shelf to the UN[59]

Portugal has the 20th largest EEZ in the world. Presently, it is divided in three non-contiguous sub-zones:

Portugal submitted a claim to extend its jurisdiction over additional 2.15 million square kilometers of the neighboring continental shelf in May 2009,[60] resulting in an area with a total of more than 3,877,408 km2. The submission, as well as a detailed map, can be found in the Task Group for the extension of the Continental Shelf website.

Spain disputes the EEZ's southern border, maintaining that it should be drawn halfway between Madeira and the Canary Islands. But Portugal exercises sovereignty over the Savage Islands, a small archipelago north of the Canaries, claiming an EEZ border further south. Spain objects, arguing that the Savage Islands do not have a separate continental shelf,[61] citing article 121 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.[62]


Territorial waters - Russia
Russia's exclusive economic zone
  • Kaliningrad (Baltic Sea) – 11,634 km2
  • St. Petersburg (Baltic Sea) – 12,759 km2
  • Barents Sea – 1,308,140 km2
  • Black Sea (without the Crimean EEZ) – 66,854 km2
  • Pacific – 3,419,202 km2
  • Siberia – 3,277,292 km2
  • Total – 8,095,881 km2[63]


Territorial Waters of Somalia
Somalia's exclusive economic zone
  • 825,052 km2

South Africa

Maritime zones of South Africa
South Africa's maritime zones, including the exclusive economic zone

South Africa's EEZ includes both that next to the African mainland and that around the Prince Edward Islands, totalling 1,535,538 km2.[64]

  • Mainland – 1,068,659 km2
  • Prince Edward islands – 466,879 km2

South Korea

South Korean exclusive economic zone:
  Korean EEZ
  EEZ claimed by Republic of Korea and Japan
  Joint regime with Japan

Area: 300,851 (225,214) km2

United Kingdom

Territorial waters - United Kingdom
The exclusive economic zones of the United Kingdom in blue, including the British Overseas Territories and the Crown Dependencies. The British claim in Antarctica is shown in shaded blue.[65]
Rockall EEZ topographic map-en
British Isles EEZ

The United Kingdom's exclusive economic zone is the fifth largest in the world at 6,805,586 square km. It comprises the exclusive economic zones surrounding the United Kingdom,[66] the Crown Dependencies, and the British Overseas Territories. The figure does not include the EEZ of the British Antarctic Territory. The exclusive economic zones associated with the Falkland Islands and South Georgia are disputed by Argentina. The EEZ of the Chagos archipelago also known as the British Indian Ocean Territory is also disputed with Mauritius which considers the EEZ as part of its territory.

The UK was late to establish an EEZ, relying on overlapping maritime zones for fisheries, pollution control, and energy matters. The Marine and Coastal Access Act 2009 gave the powers to establish an EEZ, with the zone defined by The Exclusive Economic Zone Order 2013 which came into force on 31 March 2014.[67][68]

Only the United Kingdom and Gibraltar are part of the EU. The Crown dependencies and the remaining overseas territories (that is, all except Gibraltar) are not part of the EU. The United Kingdom has not as yet claimed its rights with regards to Gibraltar or the Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus.

Areas of EEZs of the UK, crown dependencies and overseas territories[64]
Territory km2 sq mi Notes
United Kingdom 773,676 298,718 includes Rockall and the Isle of Man
Anguilla 92,178 35,590
Ascension Island 441,658 170,525
Bermuda 450,370 173,890
British Indian Ocean Territory 638,568 246,552 disputed with Mauritius
British Virgin Islands 80,117 30,933
Cayman Islands 119,137 45,999
Channel Islands 11,658 4,501
Falkland Islands 550,872 212,693 disputed with Argentina
Gibraltar 426 164 disputed with Spain
Montserrat 7,582 2,927
Pitcairn Island 836,108 322,823
Saint Helena 444,916 171,783
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 1,449,532 559,667 disputed with Argentina
Tristan da Cunha archipelago† 754,720 291,400
Turks and Caicos Islands 154,068 59,486
Total 6,805,586 2,627,651

†Part of the overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, which together has an EEZ of 1,641,294 square km.

United States

Territorial waters - United States
Exclusive economic zones of the United States, including insular areas

The United States' exclusive economic zone is the largest in the world, covering 11,351,000 km2. Areas of its EEZ are located in three oceans, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea.

The sizes of the components of the US EEZ/territorial seas are (in decreasing size):[69]

Total: 11,351,000 km2 (4,383,000 sq mi)

Rankings by area

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes land and internal waters.

Rank Country EEZ km2[64] Shelf km2 EEZ+TIA km2
-  European Union 25,000,000 1,346,878 30,000,000
1  France 11,691,000 579,422 12,366,417
2  United States 11,351,000 2,193,526 21,814,306
3  Australia 8,505,348 2,194,008 16,197,464
4  Russia 7,566,673 3,817,843 24,664,915
5  United Kingdom 6,805,586 872,891 7,048,486
6  Indonesia 6,159,032 2,039,381 8,063,601
7  Canada 5,599,077 2,644,795 15,607,077
8  Japan 4,479,388 214,976 4,857,318
9  New Zealand 4,083,744 277,610 4,352,424
10  Chile 3,681,989 252,947 4,431,381
11  Brazil 3,660,955 774,563 12,175,832
12  Kiribati 3,441,810 7,523 3,442,536
13  Mexico 3,269,386 419,102 5,141,968
14  Federated States of Micronesia 2,996,419 19,403 2,997,121
15  Denmark 2,551,238 495,657 4,761,811
16  Papua New Guinea 2,402,288 191,256 2,865,128
17  Norway 2,385,178 434,020 2,770,404
18  India 2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406
19  Marshall Islands 1,990,530 18,411 1,990,711
20  Portugal 1,727,408 28,000 1,819,498
21  Philippines 1,590,780 272,921 1,890,780
22  Solomon Islands 1,589,477 36,282 1,618,373
23  South Africa 1,535,538 156,337 2,756,575
24  Seychelles 1,336,559 39,063 1,337,014
25  Mauritius 1,284,997 29,061 1,287,037
26  Fiji 1,282,978 47,705 1,301,250
27  Madagascar 1,225,259 101,505 1,812,300
28  Argentina 1,159,063 856,346 3,939,463[70]
29  Ecuador 1,077,231 41,034 1,333,600
30  Spain 1,039,233 77,920 1,545,225
31  Maldives 923,322 34,538 923,622
32  Peru 906,454 82,000 2,191,670
33  China 877,019 231,340 10,473,980
34  Somalia 825,052 55,895 1,462,709
35  Colombia 808,158 53,691 1,949,906
36  Cape Verde 800,561 5,591 804,594
37  Iceland 751,345 108,015 854,345
38  Tuvalu 749,790 3,575 749,816
39  Vanuatu 663,251 11,483 675,440
40  Tonga 659,558 8,517 660,305
41  Bahamas 654,715 106,323 668,658
42  Palau 603,978 2,837 604,437
43  Mozambique 578,986 94,212 1,380,576
44  Morocco 575,230 115,157 1,287,780
45  Costa Rica 574,725 19,585 625,825
46  Namibia 564,748 86,698 1,388,864
47  Yemen 552,669 59,229 1,080,637
48  Italy 541,915 116,834 843,251
49  Oman 533,180 59,071 842,680
50  Myanmar 532,775 220,332 1,209,353
51  Sri Lanka 532,619 32,453 598,229
52  Angola 518,433 48,092 1,765,133
53  Greece 505,572 81,451 637,529
54  South Korea 475,469 342,522 575,469
55  Venezuela 471,507 98,500 1,387,950
56  Vietnam 417,663 365,198 748,875
57  Ireland 410,310 139,935 480,583
58  Libya 351,589 64,763 2,111,129
59  Cuba 350,751 61,525 460,637
60  Panama 335,646 53,404 411,163
61  Malaysia 334,671 323,412 665,474
62  Nauru 308,480 41 308,501
63  Equatorial Guinea 303,509 7,820 331,560
64  Thailand 299,397 230,063 812,517
65  Pakistan 290,000 51,383 1,117,911
66  Egypt 263,451 61,591 1,265,451
67  Turkey 261,654 56,093 1,045,216
68  Jamaica 258,137 9,802 269,128
69  Dominican Republic 255,898 10,738 304,569
70  Liberia 249,734 17,715 361,103
71  Honduras 249,542 68,718 362,034
72  Tanzania 241,888 25,611 1,186,975
73  Ghana 235,349 22,502 473,888
74  Saudi Arabia 228,633 107,249 2,378,323
75  Nigeria 217,313 42,285 1,141,081
76  Sierra Leone 215,611 28,625 287,351
77  Gabon 202,790 35,020 470,458
78  Barbados 186,898 426 187,328
79  Côte d'Ivoire 176,254 10,175 498,717
80  Iran 168,718 118,693 1,797,468
81  Mauritania 165,338 31,662 1,190,858
82  Comoros 163,752 1,526 165,987
83  Sweden 160,885 154,604 602,255
84  Senegal 158,861 23,092 355,583
85  Netherlands 154,011 77,246 192,345
85  Ukraine 147,318 79,142 750,818
86  Uruguay 142,166 75,327 318,381
87  Guyana 137,765 50,578 352,734
88  São Tomé and Príncipe 131,397 1,902 132,361
89  Samoa 127,950 2,087 130,781
90  Suriname 127,772 53,631 291,592
91  Haiti 126,760 6,683 154,510
92  Algeria 126,353 9,985 2,508,094
93  Nicaragua 123,881 70,874 254,254
94  Guinea-Bissau 123,725 39,339 159,850
95  Kenya 116,942 11,073 697,309
96  Guatemala 114,170 14,422 223,059
97  Antigua and Barbuda 110,089 4,128 110,531
98  Tunisia 101,857 67,126 265,467
99  Cyprus 98,707 4,042 107,958
100  El Salvador 90,962 16,852 112,003
101  Finland 87,171 85,109 425,590
102  Bangladesh 86,392 66,438 230,390
103  Taiwan 83,231 43,016 119,419
104  Eritrea 77,728 61,817 195,328
105  Trinidad and Tobago 74,199 25,284 79,329
106  East Timor 70,326 25,648 85,200
107  Sudan 68,148 19,827 1,954,216
108  Cambodia 62,515 62,515 243,550
109  Guinea 59,426 44,755 305,283
110  Croatia 59,032 50,277 115,626
111  United Arab Emirates 58,218 57,474 141,818
112  Germany 57,485 57,485 414,599
113  Malta 54,823 5,301 55,139
114  Estonia 36,992 36,992 82,219
115  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 36,302 1,561 36,691
116  Belize 35,351 13,178 58,317
117  Bulgaria 34,307 10,426 145,186
118  Benin 33,221 2,721 145,843
119  Qatar 31,590 31,590 43,176
120  Congo, Republic of the 31,017 7,982 373,017
121  Poland 29,797 29,797 342,482
122  Dominica 28,985 659 29,736
123  Latvia 28,452 27,772 93,011
124  Grenada 27,426 2,237 27,770
125  Israel 26,352 3,745 48,424
126  Romania 23,627 19,303 262,018
127  Gambia 23,112 5,581 34,407
128  Georgia 21,946 3,243 91,646
129  Lebanon 19,516 1,067 29,968
130  Cameroon 16,547 11,420 491,989
131  Saint Lucia 15,617 544 16,156
132  Albania 13,691 6,979 42,439
133  Togo 12,045 1,265 68,830
134  Kuwait 11,026 11,026 28,844
135  Syria 10,503 1,085 195,683
136  Bahrain 10,225 10,225 10,975
137  Brunei 10,090 8,509 15,855
138  Saint Kitts and Nevis 9,974 653 10,235
139  Montenegro 7,745 3,896 21,557
140  Djibouti 7,459 3,187 30,659
141  Lithuania 7,031 7,031 72,331
142  Belgium 3,447 3,447 33,975
143  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1,606 1,593 2,346,464
144  Singapore 1,067 1,067 1,772
145  Iraq 771 771 439,088
146  Monaco 288 2 290
147  Palestine 256 256 6,276
148  Slovenia 220 220 20,493
149  Jordan 166 59 89,508
150  Bosnia and Herzegovina 50 50 51,259
151  Kazakhstan 2,724,900
152  Mongolia 1,564,100
153  Chad 1,284,000
154  Niger 1,267,000
155  Mali 1,240,192
156  Ethiopia 1,104,300
157  Bolivia 1,098,581
158  Zambia 752,612
159  Afghanistan 652,090
160  Central African Republic 622,984
161  South Sudan 619,745
162  Botswana 582,000
163  Turkmenistan 488,100
164  Uzbekistan 447,400
165  Paraguay 406,752
166  Zimbabwe 390,757
167  Burkina Faso 274,222
168  Uganda 241,038
169  Laos 236,800
170  Belarus 207,600
171  Kyrgyzstan 199,951
172    Nepal 147,181
173  Tajikistan 143,100
174  Malawi 118,484
175  Hungary 93,028
176  Azerbaijan 86,600
177  Austria 83,871
178  Czech Republic 78,867
179  Serbia 77,474
180  Slovakia 49,035
181   Switzerland 41,284
182  Bhutan 38,394
183  Moldova 33,846
184  Lesotho 30,355
185  Armenia 29,743
186  Burundi 27,834
187  Rwanda 26,338
188  North Macedonia 25,713
189  Swaziland 17,364
190  Kosovo[a] 10,887
191  Luxembourg 2,586
192  Andorra 468
193  Liechtenstein 160
194  San Marino 61
195   Vatican City 0.44
Total  United Nations 137,159,222 25,103,204 274,004,586

See also


a. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has been recognized as an independent state by 112 out of 193 United Nations member states, while 10 states have recognized Kosovo only to later withdraw their recognition.
  1. ^ The reference gives an approximate figure of 2 million square kilometres for the EEZ claimed by Australia as part of its Antarctic Territory. This is in addition to the 8 million square kilometre total given in the reference. This EEZ is also distinct from the 2.56 million square kilometres of additional continental shelf mentioned in the reference.


  1. ^ "Part V – Exclusive Economic Zone, Article 56". Law of the Sea. United Nations. Retrieved 2011-08-28.
  2. ^ "Part V – Exclusive Economic Zone, Articles 55, 56". Law of the Sea. United Nations.
  3. ^ William R. Slomanson, 2006. Fundamental Perspectives on International Law, 5th edn. Belmont, CA: Thomson-Wadsworth, 294.
  4. ^ UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  5. ^ [1] 1982 UN Convention on the Law of The Sea.
  6. ^ The Exclusive Economic Zone: A Historical Perspective. Fao.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  7. ^ Russia and Norway Reach Accord on Barents Sea, New York Times, 28 April 2010, Accessed 28 April 2010
  8. ^ Russia and Norway resolve Arctic border dispute, Guardian, 15 September 2010, Accessed 21 September 2010
  9. ^ "Im östlichen Mittelmeer sollen Erdgasvorkommen von mehreren Billionen Kubikmetern liegen. Das befeuert den Zypernkonflikt". Neue Zürcher Zeitung. 12 November 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  10. ^ "NZZ: Boreholes rekindle the Cyprus problem (original: ΝΖΖ: Οι γεωτρήσεις αναζωπυρώνουν το Κυπριακό)". Kathimerini. 13 November 2018. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
  11. ^ "Gas Partnership: Netanyahu Visits Cyprus". Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  12. ^ Makris, A. "Cyprus Calls on Turkey to Steer Away From Threats – GreekReporter.com". Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  13. ^ European Consortium for Church-State Research. Conference (2007). Churches and Other Religious Organisations as Legal Persons: Proceedings of the 17th Meeting of the European Consortium for Church and State Research, Höör (Sweden), 17–20 November 2005. Peeters Publishers. p. 50. ISBN 978-90-429-1858-0. There is little data concerning recognition of the 'legal status' of religions in the occupied territories, since any acts of the 'Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus' are not recognized by either the Republic of Cyprus or the international community.
  14. ^ Quigley. The Statehood of Palestine. Cambridge University Press. p. 164. ISBN 978-1-139-49124-2. The international community found this declaration invalid, on the ground that Turkey had occupied territory belonging to Cyprus and that the putative state was therefore an infringement on Cypriot sovereignty.
  15. ^ Nathalie Tocci (January 2004). EU Accession Dynamics and Conflict Resolution: Catalysing Peace Or Consolidating Partition in Cyprus?. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-7546-4310-4. The occupied territory included 70 percent of the island's economic potential with over 50 percent of the industrial ... In addition, since partition Turkey encouraged mainland immigration to northern Cyprus. ... The international community, excluding Turkey, condemned the unilateral declaration of independence (UDI) as a.
  16. ^ Dr Anders Wivel; Robert Steinmetz (28 March 2013). Small States in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 165. ISBN 978-1-4094-9958-9. To this day, it remains unrecognised by the international community, except by Turkey
  17. ^ Peter Neville (22 March 2013). Historical Dictionary of British Foreign Policy. Scarecrow Press. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-8108-7371-1. ...Ecevit ordered the army to occupy the Turkish area on 20 July 1974. It became the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, but Britain, like the rest of the international community, except Turkey, refused to extend diplomatic recognition to the enclave. British efforts to secure Turkey's removal from its surrogate territory after 1974 failed.
  18. ^ The Legal Status of Ice in the Antarctic Region Archived 2006-02-27 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "AWARD OF THE ARBITRAL TRIBUNAL IN THE SECOND STAGE OF THE PROCEEDINGS (MARITIME DELIMITATION)". Permanent Court of Arbitration. Archived from the original on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  20. ^ Kwiatkowska, Barbara (January 2001). "The Eritrea-Yemen Arbitration: Landmark Progress in the Acquisition of Territorial Sovereignty and Equitable Maritime Boundary Delimitation". Ocean Development and International Law. 32 (1). doi:10.1080/00908320150502177.
  21. ^ United Nations International Court of Justice Archived 2015-04-16 at the Wayback Machine Decision year: 2009
  22. ^ FAO: The State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006 Part3: highlights of Special studies Rome. ISBN 978-92-5-105568-7
  23. ^ FAO (2007) Report of the FAO workshop on vulnerable ecosystems and destructive fishing in deep sea fisheries Rome, Fisheries Report No. 829.
  24. ^ The Australian Fishing Zone
  25. ^ Geoscience Australia. 2005. Maritime Boundary Definitions Archived 2005-04-05 at the Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ UN confirms Australia’s rights over extra 2.5 million square kilometres of seabed. Archived 2009-10-25 at the Wayback Machine Minister for Resources and Energy, The Hon Martin Ferguson AM MP, Media Release, 21 April 2008."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-08-27. Retrieved 2008-11-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  27. ^ a b c d Geoscience Australia, 2012. Education: Oceans and Seas
  28. ^ Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea. Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf, Submission by Australia
  29. ^ See Around Us Project (n.d.). "Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)". Retrieved 3 June 2015. EEZ waters of: Brazil 2,400,917 km², Fernando de Noronha 363,362 km², St Paul and St. Peter Archipelago 413,636 km², Trindade & Martim Vaz Isl. 468,599 km²
  30. ^ UN Continental Shelf and UNCLOS Article 76: Brazilian Submission
  31. ^ Wildlife Habitat Canada. Canada's Marine Waters: Integrating the Boundaries of Politics and Nature Archived 2005-12-21 at the Wayback Machine.
  32. ^ See Around Us Project (n.d.). "Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ)". Retrieved 3 June 2015. EEZ waters of: Chile 1,975,760 km², Desventuradas Isl. 449,836 km², Easter Isl. 720,412 km², J. Fernandez, Felix and Ambrosio Isl. 502,524 km²
  33. ^ Γραφείο Τύπου και Πληροφοριών - About us. Cyprus.gov.cy. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  34. ^ (PDF) http://www.cyprusgasconference.com/pdf/George%20Pamboridis.pdf. Retrieved December 29, 2012. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  35. ^ EEZ Waters Of Cyprus. Seaaroundus.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  36. ^ Danish foreign ministry Archived 2008-11-23 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ Indirect Proclamation of EEZ – Greece Gives Coordinates Of Continental Shelf To UN ~ HellasFrappe. Hellasfrappe.blogspot.com.es (2013-02-21). Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  38. ^ Israel Recognizes Greek Exclusive Economic Zone | News from Greeks in Africa, Asia, and South America. World.greekreporter.com (2011-02-23). Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  39. ^ Israel defends energy exploration deal with Cyprus | ICEJ UK. Uk.icej.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  40. ^ Sunderarajan, P. "India hopes to double its EEZ". Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  41. ^ including areas recommended by "CLCS".
  42. ^ Japan (main islands) The Sea Around Us Project
  43. ^ Japan (outer islands) The Sea Around Us Project
  44. ^ Geographic location
  45. ^ New Zealand Sea Around Us Project
  46. ^ Kermadec Islands (New Zealand) The Sea Around Us Project
  47. ^ New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (2007). Improving Regulation of Environmental Effects in New Zealand’s Exclusive Economic Zone: Discussion Paper – Introduction Archived 2012-02-07 at the Wayback Machine. Published August 2007, Publication number ME824. ISBN 0-978-478-30160-1 Accessed 2006-01-07.
  48. ^ Prescott & Schofield 2001, p. 25.
  49. ^ Kim 2017, p. 20.
  50. ^ Kim 2017, pp. 20, 71–72.
  51. ^ Kim 2017, p. 77.
  52. ^ Kotch & Abbey 2003, p. 179.
  53. ^ a b Van Dyke 2009, p. 42.
  54. ^ Kim 2017, p. 51.
  55. ^ Statistisk årbok 2007 Accessed January 2008
  56. ^ UN backs Norway claim to Arctic seabed extension Archived 2009-12-11 at the Wayback Machine, Canwest News Service, 15 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  57. ^ Exclusive Economic Zones – Sea Around Us Project – Fisheries, Ecosystems & Biodiversity – Data and Visualization.
  58. ^ Inc., Advanced Solutions International,. "404" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2004. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  59. ^ Task Group for the Extension of the Portuguese Continental Shelf Archived 2009-12-18 at the Wayback Machine
  60. ^ Portugal applies to UN to Extend Its Continental Shelf Zone. Accessed 3 July 2011
  61. ^ Lacleta Muñoz, José Manuel: "Las fronteras de España en el mar". Documentos de trabajo 34-2004, Real Instituto Elcano
  63. ^ "Sea Around Us Project – Data and Visualization". Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  64. ^ a b c "Sea Around Us – Fisheries, Ecosystems and Biodiversity". Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  65. ^ 10 Downing Street. "Countries within a country". Archived from the original on 2010-04-16. Retrieved 2010-01-16.
  66. ^ "The Exclusive Economic Zone Order 2013" http://www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
  67. ^ Gibson, J. (January 2009). "The United Kingdom's elusive exclusive economic zone". Journal of Water Law. 20 (4). Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  68. ^ "The Exclusive Economic Zone Order 2013". legislation.gov.uk. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  69. ^ Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ) Archived January 2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Seaaroundus.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-23.
  70. ^ Considering the maritime areas claimed, the total area of the Argentine reaches 6 581 500 km²

Works cited:

External links

Argentine Sea

The Argentine Sea (Spanish: Mar Argentino) is the sea within the continental shelf off the Argentine mainland.

Australian Antarctic Territory

The Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) is a part of Antarctica administered by the Australian Antarctic Division, an agency of the federal Department of the Environment and Energy. The territory's history dates to a claim on Enderby Land made by the United Kingdom in 1841, which was subsequently expanded and eventually transferred to Australia in 1933. It is the largest territory of Antarctica claimed by any nation by area. In 1961, the Antarctic Treaty came into force. Article 4 deals with territorial claims, and although it does not renounce or diminish any preexisting claims to sovereignty, it also does not prejudice the position of Contracting Parties in their recognition or non-recognition of territorial sovereignty. As a result, only four other countries—New Zealand, the United Kingdom, France, and Norway—recognise Australia's claim to sovereignty in Antarctica.

Australian Fisheries Management Authority

The Australian Fisheries Management Authority (AFMA) is the Australian Government agency responsible for the management and sustainable use of fisheries resources including combating illegal fishing activities in the Australian Fishing Zone that covers 8,148,250 square kilometres, the third largest in the world, and in most of Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone, which extends to 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastline of Australia and its external territories, except where a maritime delimitation agreement exists with a state.)

AFMA is an agency of the Australian Department of Agriculture and Water Resources. The Authority does not have a legal identity separate from the Commonwealth .

Australian Whale Sanctuary

The Australian Whale Sanctuary was established in 1999 to protect dolphins and whales from hunting in waters within the Australian government's jurisdiction.The sanctuary includes the whole of the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), which is the area 200 nautical miles (370 km) surrounding the continent of Australia and its external dependencies such as Christmas Island (in the Indian Ocean), Cocos (Keeling) Island, Norfolk Island, Macquarie Island and Heard Island and McDonald Islands, and including the EEZ adjoining the coastline of the Australian Antarctic Territory which is only recognised by United Kingdom, New Zealand, France and Norway.The sanctuary is the scene of an ongoing controversy between Australia and Japan over whaling. In 2008 the Federal Court of Australia ruled it was illegal under Australian law for the Japanese whaling fleet to kill whales in the Sanctuary. In 2015 Kyodo Senpaku Kaisha Ltd was found guilty of wilful contempt of court and fined A$1,000,000.

Beige catshark

The beige catshark (Parmaturus bigus) is a cat shark of the family Scyliorhinidae, The first recorded specimen was a female recorded off the coast of Queensland, Australia around Lord Howe Island. Its length was 72 cm.

Recently, a number of both male and female specimens (unpublished data) were captured in the waters off New Zealand, at the edge of the EEZ (exclusive economic zone). To date, very little is known about the ecology of this species. Scientists are currently studying the sensory systems of this catshark in order to reveal information about its ecology and ultimately behaviour. The reproduction is of this catshark is oviparous.

Celebes Sea

The Celebes Sea (Indonesian: Laut Sulawesi, Filipino: Dagat Selebes) of the western Pacific Ocean is bordered on the north by the Sulu Archipelago and Sulu Sea and Mindanao Island of the Philippines, on the east by the Sangihe Islands chain, on the south by Sulawesi's Minahassa Peninsula, and on the west by Kalimantan in Indonesia. It extends 420 miles (675 km) north-south by 520 mi (840 km) east-west and has a total surface area of 110,000 square miles (280,000 km2), to a maximum depth of 20,300 feet (6,200 m). The sea opens southwest through the Makassar Strait into the Java Sea.

The Celebes Sea is a piece of an ancient ocean basin that formed 42 million years ago in a locale removed from any landmass. By 20 million years ago, earth crust movement had moved the basin close enough to the Indonesian and Philippine volcanoes to receive emitted debris. By 10 million years ago the Celebes Sea was inundated with continental debris, including coal, which was shed from a growing young mountain on Borneo and the basin had docked against Eurasia.

The border between the Celebes and the Sulu Sea is at the Sibutu-Basilan Ridge. Strong ocean currents, deep sea trenches and seamounts, combined with active volcanic islands, result in complex oceanographic features.

Exclusive economic zone of New Zealand

New Zealand's exclusive economic zone (EEZ) covers 4,083,744 km2, which is approximately fifteen times the land area of the country. Sources vary significantly on the size of New Zealand's EEZ; for example, a recent government publication gave the area as roughly 4,300,000 km2. These figures are for the EEZ of New Zealand proper, and do not include the EEZs of other territories in the Realm of New Zealand (Tokelau, Niue, the Cook Islands and the Ross Dependency).

Exclusive economic zone of Poland

The Polish Exclusive Economic Zone (Polish EEZ) has the area of 30,533 km2. within the Baltic Sea.It includes the following bathymetric basins: Bornholm Basin (part, max. depth 95 m within Polish EEZ), Slupsk Furrow (complete, max. depth 93 m), Gotland Basin (part,max. depth 120 m within Polish EEZ ), and Gdansk Basin (part, max. depth 107 m within Polish EEZ). There are a number of shoals between the basins and the Polish coast, including Odra Bank (min.

depth 4.5 m), Slupsk Bank (min. depth 8 m), Stilo Bank (min. depth 18 m) and Southern Middle Bank (min. depth 14 m).Of mineral resources within the Polish EEZ, best recognized are gravel and sand deposits.

Exclusive economic zone of Portugal

Portugal has the 5th largest exclusive economic zone (EEZ) within Europe, 4th largest of the EU and the 20th largest EEZ in the world, at 1,727,408 km2.

Exclusive economic zone of Somalia

The exclusive economic zone of Somalia covers 830,389 km2 in the Indian Ocean. It extends to a distance of 200 nautical miles from the baselines, from which the breadth of the nation's territorial waters is measured. In accordance with Law No. 37 passed in 1972, Somalia's EEZ falls under its territorial sovereignty.

Fishing in Portugal

Fishing is a major economic activity in Portugal. The country has a long tradition in the sector, and is among the countries in the world with the highest fish consumption per capita. Roman ruins of fish processing facilities were found across the Portuguese coast. Fish has been an important staple for the entire Portuguese population, at least since the Portuguese Age of Discovery.

The Portuguese fishing sector is divided into various subsectors, which in turn are divided between industrial fishing and artisanal fishing. According to trade union sources, over 50% of fishing workers work in the artisanal area. There are a variety of trade unions and employers' organisations representing sectoral and regional interests.

Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zone, a sea zone over which the Portuguese have special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources, has 1,727,408 km2. This is the third-largest Exclusive Economic Zone of the European Union and the eleventh-largest in the world.

Fishing industry in New Zealand

As with other countries, New Zealand’s 200 nautical miles exclusive economic zone gives its fishing industry special fishing rights. It covers 4.1 million square kilometres. This is the sixth largest zone in the world, and is fourteen times the land area of New Zealand itself.The New Zealand zone has a rich and unusually complex underwater topography. Over 15,000 marine species are known to live there, about ten percent of the world's diversity. Many of these are migratory species, but New Zealand's isolation means also that many of the marine species are unique to New Zealand.

Geography of Mayotte

Mayotte is an island of volcanic origin in the northernmost Mozambique Channel, about one-half of the way from northern Madagascar to northern Mozambique. Mayotte is part of the Comoro Islands, and like them is the result of a former hot spot, the oldest of the Comoros archipelago, formed about 7.7 mya.Mayotte has an area of 374 square kilometres, and a coastline of length 185.2 km. Its maritime claims are an exclusive economic zone of 200 nautical miles, and a territorial sea of 12 nm.

International waters

The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands.International waters (high seas) do not belong to any State's jurisdiction, known under the doctrine of 'Mare liberum'. States have the right to fishing, navigation, overflight, laying cables and pipelines, as well as scientific research.

Oceans, seas, and waters outside national jurisdiction are also referred to as the high seas or, in Latin, mare liberum (meaning free sea). The Convention on the High Seas, signed in 1958, which has 63 signatories, defined "high seas" to mean "all parts of the sea that are not included in the territorial sea or in the internal waters of a State" and where "no State may validly purport to

subject any part of them to its sovereignty." The Convention on the High Seas was used as a foundation for the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, signed in 1982, which recognized Exclusive Economic Zones extending 200 nautical miles from the baseline, where coastal States have sovereign rights to the water column and sea floor as well as the natural resources found there.The high seas make up 50% of the surface area of the planet and cover over two thirds of the ocean.Ships sailing the high seas are generally under the jurisdiction of the flag state (if there is one); however, when a ship is involved in certain criminal acts, such as piracy, any nation can exercise jurisdiction under the doctrine of universal jurisdiction. International waters can be contrasted with internal waters, territorial waters and exclusive economic zones.

Marine ecoregions of the South African exclusive economic zone

The marine ecoregions of the South African exclusive economic zone are a set of geographically delineated regions of similar ecological characteristics on a fairly broad scale, covering the exclusive economic zone along the South African coast. There were originally five inshore bioregions over the continental shelf and four offshore bioregions covering the continental slope and abyssal regions.

These bioregions are used for conservation research and planning. They were defined in the South African National Spatial Biodiversity Assessment of 2004.

The South African National Spatial Biodiversity Assessment of 2011 amended this to reduce the number of regions to four inshore and two offshore and rename them as ecoregions.

Operation Resolute

Operation Resolute is the Australian Defence Force's contribution to patrolling Australia's Exclusive Economic Zone. Operation Resolute began on 17 July 2006 and consolidated a number of previous ADF operations, including Operation Relex.

Operation Resolute is commanded by the joint civilian-military Border Protection Command and the ADF contributes Royal Australian Navy ships, Royal Australian Air Force aircraft and patrols from the Australian Army's Regional Force Surveillance Units as required.

Defence personnel and civilians deployed may be eligible for the Operational Service Medal for Border Protection.


Rockall () is an uninhabitable granite islet located within the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the United Kingdom, situated in the North Atlantic Ocean and is claimed by the United Kingdom as its territory. This claim is disputed by Republic of Ireland, which does not recognise the UK's claim.Its approximate distances from the closest large islands are: 301.3 kilometres (187.2 miles; 162.7 nautical miles) west of Scotland; 423.2 kilometres (263.0 miles; 228.5 nautical miles) northwest of Ireland; and 700 kilometres (430 mi) south of Iceland. The nearest permanently inhabited place is North Uist, an island in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland, 370 kilometres (230 mi) to the east.

The United Kingdom claimed Rockall in 1955 and incorporated it as a part of Scotland in 1972. Ireland does not recognise this claim, although it has never sought to claim sovereignty for itself. The UK does not make a claim to extended EEZ based on Rockall, as it has ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS); this says that "rocks which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life of their own shall have no exclusive economic zone or continental shelf". However, such features are entitled to a territorial sea extending 12 nautical miles. With effect from 31 March 2014, the UK and Ireland published EEZ limits which resolved any disputes over the extent of their respective EEZs.In response to a Freedom of Information request in 2012, the British government stated that, "The islet of Rockall is part of the UK: specifically it forms part of Scotland under the Island of Rockall Act 1972. No other state has disputed our claim to the islet." In Scotland it is part of South Harris Parish within the historic county of Inverness-shire.

Responding to a written parliamentary question in 2016, the Irish Minister for Foreign Affairs said: "The UK claims sovereignty over Rockall and has sought to formally annex it under its 1972 Island of Rockall Act. While Ireland has not recognised British sovereignty over Rockall, it has never sought to claim sovereignty for itself. The consistent position of successive Irish Governments has been that Rockall and similar rocks and skerries have no significance for establishing legal claims to mineral rights in the adjacent seabed or to fishing rights in the surrounding seas."


A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. Most commonly it is a channel of water that lies between two land masses. Some straits are not navigable, for example because they are too shallow, or because of an unnavigable reef or archipelago.

Territorial waters

The term territorial waters is sometimes used informally to refer to any area of water over which a state has jurisdiction, including internal waters, the territorial sea (see below), the contiguous zone, the exclusive economic zone and potentially the continental shelf. In a narrower sense, the term is used as a synonym for the territorial sea.

Extreme points
By owner
By nature
(key work)

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