Exclusion zone

An exclusion zone is a territorial division established for various, case-specific purposes.

Per the United States Department of Defense, an exclusion zone is a territory where sanctioning body prohibits specific activities in a specific geographic area (see Military exclusion zone).[1] These zones are created for control of populations for safety, crowd control, or military purposes, or as a border zone, and they may be temporary or permanent.

Nuclear disaster exclusion zones

Large-scale geographic exclusion zones have been established after major disasters in which nuclear power plants went into meltdown:

Ordnance exclusion zones

Border zones

Border zones are areas where movement, property ownership or other activity is prohibited or restricted by legislation. Unlike regular territory, border zones are under administrative control of the border authorities. Entrance is generally only with an individual permit. Entering a border zone without authorization is a crime or misdemeanor and grounds for arrest. Border zones are instituted to pinpoint illegal intruders, conceal and obscure and prevent interference with border security procedures and equipment, and thus aid border guards with their work. For example, Russia maintains sizable border zones.

Natural disaster exclusion zones

Similarly, exclusion zones have been established due to natural disasters. There is an exclusion zone on the island of Montserrat, where the long-dormant Soufrière Hills volcano started erupting in 1995 and has continued erupting since. It encompasses the south part of the island, accounting for over half of its land mass and most areas of the island which were populated before the volcano erupted. The volcano destroyed the island's urban center and capital Plymouth, as well as many other villages and neighborhoods. The zone is now strictly enforced; entry into most of the destroyed areas is prohibited, while some areas are subject to restrictions during volcanic activity or open only as a "daytime entry zone".

Construction

Exclusion zones are commonly used in the construction industry worldwide. For this purpose they are defined locations to prohibit the entry of personnel in to danger areas, established through the risk assessment process for a construction activity. Typically, exclusion zones are set up and maintained around plant and below work at height.

Protesting

With regard to protesting, an exclusion zone is an area that protesters are legally prohibited from protesting in.

Exclusion zones often exist around seats of government and abortion clinics. As a result of protests by the Westboro Baptist Church at the funerals of soldiers killed in the Iraq War, 29 states and the US Congress created exclusion zones around soldiers' funerals.[2] In 2005, the Parliament of the United Kingdom created a one kilometre exclusion zone around itself.[3]

The First Amendment to the United States Constitution states that "Congress shall make no law... abridging... the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances." The existence of exclusion zones is based on court rulings that allow the government to regulate the time, place, and manner of protests.

An exclusion zone is related to a free speech zone. Protesters are required to picket in a free speech zone, thus rendering the area around the free speech zone to be an exclusion zone.

Restraining orders

When a restraining order is issued, an exclusion zone is an area that the respondent is prohibited from entering—often an area surrounding the petitioner's residence or workplace. For example, if a Wisconsin harassment restraining order or domestic abuse restraining order is violated, the court may order GPS monitoring of the respondent.[4][5] If the exclusion zone is entered, in violation of the order, the GPS technology is used to notify law enforcement and the petitioner.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ "exclusion zone", Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, United States Department of Defense, retrieved February 26, 2013
  2. ^ Funeral protesters say laws can't silence them
  3. ^ Exclusion Zone to Parliament Protests
  4. ^ "Wisconsin Legislature 813.129". Wisconsin Legislature. Retrieved 5 Jul 2013.
  5. ^ "Wisconsin Legislature 301.49". Wisconsin Legislature. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  6. ^ "Databases for Wisconsin Civil and Criminal Information" (PDF). End Domestic Abuse Wisconsin - Legal Department. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
Chernobyl

Chernobyl () is a ghost city in the restricted Chernobyl Exclusion Zone situated in the Ivankiv Raion of northern Kiev Oblast, Ukraine, near Ukraine's border with Belarus. Chernobyl is about 90 kilometres (56 mi) north of Kiev, and approximately 140 kilometres (87 mi) southwest of the Belarusian city of Gomel and 16 km [10 mi] from Ukraine’s border with Belarus. The city was the administrative center of Chernobyl Raion (district) from 1923, until it was disestablished in 1988. Before its evacuation, the city had about 14,000 residents.The city was evacuated on 27 April 1986, 30 hours after the Chernobyl disaster at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which was the most disastrous nuclear accident in history. The power plant was within the Chernobyl Raion district. Pripyat, a city of 50,000 people and closer to the power plant than Chernobyl, had been built in the 1970s as a home for the power plant workers. After the accident, administration of the Chernobyl Raion district was transferred to the neighboring Ivankiv Raion. The city of Slavutych, built for those evacuated from Pripyat, received the population evacuated from Chernobyl.

Today Chernobyl is mostly a ghost town, but a small number of people still reside in houses marked with signs stating: "Owner of this house lives here". Workers on watch and administrative personnel of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone are stationed in the city on a long-term basis. There are two general stores and a hotel for tourists.

Chernobyl Exclusion Zone

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Zone of Alienation (Ukrainian: Зона відчуження Чорнобильської АЕС, romanized: zona vidchuzhennya Chornobyl's'koyi AES, Russian: Зона отчуждения Чернобыльской АЭС, romanized: zona otchuzhdenya Chernobyl'skoy AES) is an officially designated exclusion zone around the site of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster. It is also commonly known as the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, the 30 Kilometre Zone, or simply The Zone (Ukrainian: Чорнобильська зона, romanized: Chornobyl's'ka zona, Russian: Чернобыльская зона, romanized: Chernobyl'skaya zona).

Established by the Soviet Armed Forces soon after the 1986 disaster, it initially existed as an area of 30 km (19 mi) radius from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant designated for evacuation and placed under military control. Its borders have since been altered to cover a larger area of Ukraine. The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone borders a separately administered area, the Polesie State Radioecological Reserve, to the north in Belarus. The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone is managed by an agency of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine, while the power plant and its sarcophagus (and replacement) are administered separately.

The Exclusion Zone covers an area of approximately 2,600 km2 (1,000 sq mi) in Ukraine immediately surrounding the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant where radioactive contamination from nuclear fallout is highest and public access and inhabitation are restricted. Other areas of compulsory resettlement and voluntary relocation not part of the restricted exclusion zone exist in the surrounding areas and throughout Ukraine. In February 2019 it was revealed that talks have been underway to redraw the boundaries of the Exclusion Zone to reflect the declining radioactivity of the Zone's outer areas.The Exclusion Zone's purpose is to restrict access to hazardous areas, reduce the spread of radiological contamination, and conduct radiological and ecological monitoring activities. Today, the Exclusion Zone is one of the most radioactively contaminated areas in the world and draws significant scientific interest for the high levels of radiation exposure in the environment, as well as increasing interest from tourists.Geographically, it includes the northernmost raions (districts) of the Kiev and Zhytomyr oblasts (regions) of Ukraine.

Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (officially named the Vladimir Ilyich Lenin Nuclear Power Plant) is a closed but not yet fully decommissioned nuclear power plant near the Ukrainian city of Pripyat, 14.5 kilometers (9 mi) northwest of the city of Chernobyl, 16 kilometers (10 mi) from the Belarus–Ukraine border, and about 110 kilometers (68 mi) north of Kiev.

Reactor No. 4 was the site of the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, and the power plant is now within a large restricted area known as the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. Both the zone and the former power plant are administered by the State Agency of Ukraine on Exclusion Zone Management. All four reactors have been shut down. Nuclear clean-up is scheduled for completion in 2065.

Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant sarcophagus

The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant sarcophagus or Shelter Structure (Ukrainian: Об'єкт "Укриття") is a massive steel and concrete structure covering the nuclear reactor number 4 building of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. It was designed to limit radioactive contamination of the environment following the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, by encasing the most dangerous area and protecting it from climate exposure. It is located within a large restricted area known as the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

The original Russian name is Объект "Укрытие" (Obyekt Ukrytiye), which means sheltering or covering, as opposed to sarcophagus.The sarcophagus locked in 200 tons of radioactive corium, 30 tons of highly contaminated dust and 16 tons of uranium and plutonium.By 1996 the structure had deteriorated to the point where it was deemed impossible to repair it as radiation levels were estimated to be as high as 10000 röntgens per hour, (normal background radiation in cities is usually around 20–50 microröntgens per hour, and a lethal dose is 500 röntgens over 5 hours). A decision to replace the sarcophagus with the New Safe Confinement was taken, and a project to construct the enclosure has since been completed.

Exclusive economic zone

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind. It stretches from the baseline out to 200 nautical miles (nmi) from its coast. In colloquial usage, the term may include the continental shelf. The term does not include either the territorial sea or the continental shelf beyond the 200 nmi limit. The difference between the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone is that the first confers full sovereignty over the waters, whereas the second is merely a "sovereign right" which refers to the coastal state's rights below the surface of the sea. The surface waters, as can be seen in the map, are international waters.

Iraqi no-fly zones

The Iraqi no-fly zones were a set of two separate no-fly zones (NFZs) that were proclaimed by the United States, United Kingdom, and France after the Gulf War of 1991 to protect the ethnic Kurdish minority in northern Iraq and Shiite Muslims in the south. Iraqi aircraft were forbidden from flying inside the zones. The policy was enforced by U.S., British, and French aircraft patrols until France withdrew in 1998. While the enforcing powers had cited United Nations Security Council Resolution 688 as authorizing the operations, the resolution contains no explicit authorization. The Secretary-General of the UN at the time the resolution was passed, Boutros Boutros-Ghali called the no-fly zones "illegal" in a later interview with John Pilger.

Ivankiv Raion

Ivankiv Raion (Ukrainian: Іванківський район) is a raion (district) in Kiev Oblast of Ukraine. Its administrative center is the urban-type settlement of Ivankiv. Population: 30,676 (2013 est.).

Jupiter (factory)

The Jupiter Factory (Russian: Юпитер or завод Юпитер) is an abandoned factory located in the outskirts of Pripyat in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (Ukraine). Officially a manufacturer of cassette recorders and components for home appliances, the factory secretly produced semiconductor components for the military, and had test workshops for robotic systems.

Kopachi

Kopachi (Ukrainian: Копачі, Russian: Копачи) was a village near Chernobyl, Ukraine, just south-west of the Pripyat River Basin. After the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 the village was contaminated by fallout and subsequently evacuated and is now within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone; and thus has been abandoned since 1986.

List of Chernobyl-related articles

This is a list of Chernobyl-related articles.

Military exclusion zone

A military exclusion zone (MEZ) is an area in the immediate vicinity of a military action established by a country to prevent the unauthorized entry of civilian personnel/equipment for their own safety or to protect natural assets already in place in the zone. It is also established to prevent an enemy from acquiring any material which could help them. The comparable term used by the air forces is that of no-fly zone.

Montserrat

Montserrat () is a British Overseas Territory (BOT) in the Caribbean. The island is in the Leeward Islands, which is part of the chain known as the Lesser Antilles, in the West Indies. Montserrat measures approximately 16 km (10 mi) in length and 11 km (7 mi) in width, with approximately 40 km (25 mi) of coastline. Montserrat is nicknamed "The Emerald Isle of the Caribbean" both for its resemblance to coastal Ireland and for the Irish ancestry of many of its inhabitants.On 18 July 1995, the previously dormant Soufrière Hills volcano, in the southern part of the island, became active. Eruptions destroyed Montserrat's Georgian era capital city of Plymouth. Between 1995 and 2000, two-thirds of the island's population was forced to flee, primarily to the United Kingdom, leaving fewer than 1,200 people on the island as of 1997 (rising to nearly 5,000 by 2016). The volcanic activity continues, mostly affecting the vicinity of Plymouth, including its docking facilities, and the eastern side of the island around the former W. H. Bramble Airport, the remnants of which were buried by flows from volcanic activity on 11 February 2010.

An exclusion zone, encompassing the southern half of the island to as far north as parts of the Belham Valley, was imposed because of the size of the existing volcanic dome and the resulting potential for pyroclastic activity. Visitors are generally not permitted entry into the exclusion zone, but a view of the destruction of Plymouth can be seen from the top of Garibaldi Hill in Isles Bay. Relatively quiet since early 2010, the volcano continues to be closely monitored by the Montserrat Volcano Observatory.A new town and port are being developed at Little Bay, which is on the northwest coast of the island. While this construction proceeds, the centre of government and businesses is at Brades.

No-fly zone

A no-fly zone or no-flight zone (NFZ), or air exclusion zone (AEZ), is a territory or an area over which aircraft are not permitted to fly. Such zones are usually set up in a military context, somewhat like a demilitarized zone in the sky, and usually prohibit military aircraft of a belligerent power from operating in the region. Aircraft that break the no-fly zone may be shot down, depending on the terms of the NFZ. Air exclusion zones and anti-aircraft defences are sometimes set up in a civilian context, for example to protect sensitive locations, or events such as the 2012 London Olympic Games, against terrorist air attack.

No-fly zones are a modern phenomenon. They can be distinguished from traditional air power missions by their coercive appropriation of another nation's airspace only, to achieve aims on the ground within the target nation. While the Royal Air Force (RAF) conducted prototypical air control operations over contentious colonial possessions between the two World Wars of the 20th century, no-fly zones did not assume their modern form until the end of the Persian Gulf War in 1991.During the Cold War, the risk of local conflict escalating into nuclear showdown dampened the appeal of military intervention as a tool of U.S. statecraft. Perhaps more importantly, air power was a relatively blunt instrument until the operational maturation of stealth and precision-strike technologies. Before the Gulf War of 1991, air power had not demonstrated the “fidelity” needed to perform nuanced attacks against transitory, difficult-to-reach targets—it lacked the ability to produce decisive political effects short of total war. However, the demise of the Soviet Union and the rise in aerospace capabilities engendered by the technology revolution made no-fly zones viable in both political and military contexts.

Poliske Raion

Poliske Raion (Ukrainian: Поліський район) is a raion (district) in Kiev Oblast of Ukraine. Its administrative center is the urban-type settlement of Krasiatychi. Population: 5,926 (2013 est.).

Pripyat

Pripyat or Prypiat (Ukrainian: При́п'ять, romanized: Pryp"iat' [ˈprɪpjɑtʲ], Russian: При́пять) is a ghost city in northern Ukraine, near the Ukraine–Belarus border. Named after the nearby Pripyat River, the city was founded on February 4, 1970, as the ninth nuclear city (a type of closed city) in the Soviet Union, to serve the nearby Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. It was officially proclaimed a city in 1979 and had grown to a population of 49,360 by the time it was evacuated on the afternoon of April 27, 1986, the day after the Chernobyl disaster.Although Pripyat is located within the administrative district of Ivankiv Raion, the abandoned municipality now has the status of city of oblast significance within the larger Kiev Oblast (province) and is administered directly from Kiev. Pripyat is also supervised by Ukraine's Ministry of Emergencies, which manages activities for the entire Chernobyl Exclusion Zone.

Pripyat River

The Pripyat River or Prypiat River (Ukrainian: Прип’ять Prypyat′, pronounced [ˈprɪpjɑtʲ]; Belarusian: Прыпяць Prypiać, [ˈprɨpʲat͡sʲ]; Polish: Prypeć, [ˈprɨpɛtɕ]; Russian: Припять Pripyat′, [ˈprʲipʲɪtʲ]) is a river in Eastern Europe, approximately 761 km (473 mi) long. It flows east through Ukraine, Belarus, and Ukraine again, draining into the Dnieper.

Red Forest

The Red Forest (Ukrainian: Рудий ліс, Rudyi lis Russian: Рыжий лес Ryzhy les, literally "ginger-color forest") is the 10-square-kilometer (4 sq mi) area surrounding the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant within the Exclusion Zone located in Polesia. The name "Red Forest" comes from the ginger-brown color of the pine trees after they died following the absorption of high levels of radiation from the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986. In the post-disaster cleanup operations, the Red Forest was bulldozed and buried in "waste graveyards". The site of the Red Forest remains one of the most contaminated areas in the world today.

Samosely

Samosely Ukrainian: самосели, Russian: самосёлы, (Belarusian: самасёлы — "self-settlers") are residents of the 30 kilometer Zone of Alienation surrounding the most heavily contaminated areas near the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Belarus and Ukraine.

Total Exclusion Zone

The Total Exclusion Zone (TEZ) was an area declared by the United Kingdom on 30 April 1982 covering a circle of radius 200 nautical miles (370 km; 230 mi) from the centre of the Falkland Islands. During the Falklands War any sea vessel or aircraft from any country entering the zone may have been fired upon without further warning.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.