Ex officio member

An ex officio member is a member of a body (a board, committee, council, etc.) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office. The term ex officio is Latin, meaning literally "from the office", and the sense intended is "by right of office"; its use dates back to the Roman Republic.

According to Robert's Rules of Order the term denotes only how one becomes a member of a body.[1] Unless specifically stated in regulations or bylaws, the rights of an ex officio member are exactly the same as other members.[2] Participatory rights of ex officio members may or may not be limited by the body's regulations or bylaws. In some groups ex officio members may frequently abstain from voting.

For profit and nonprofit use

Any ex officio membership (for example, of committees, or of the board) is as defined by the nonprofit association's bylaws or other documents of authority. For example, the bylaws quite often provide that the organization's president will be ex officio a member of all committees, except the nominating committee.

Governmental examples

India

Rajya Sabha

The Vice-President of India is ex officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha, the Upper House of the Indian Parliament.[3]

NITI Aayog

The Prime Minister of India is ex officio Chairman of NITI Aayog. Other ex officio members of NITI Aayog are the Minister of Home Affairs, Minister of Finance, Minister of Railways and the Minister of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare.[4]

China

According to the Constitution of the Communist Party of China, the General Secretary of the Central Committee must be a member of Politburo Standing Committee.[5]

Hong Kong

As of 2007, the Executive Council of Hong Kong is still composed of ex officio members (official members since 1997) and unofficial members (non-official members since 1997). By practice the ex officio members include the secretaries of departments, i.e. the Chief Secretary, the Financial Secretary and the Secretary for Justice. Since 2002 all secretaries of bureaux are also appointed by the Chief Executive to be official members of the Executive Council. But since 2005 the secretaries of bureaux attend only when items on the agenda concern their portfolios.

United Kingdom

House of Lords

In the House of Lords, the bishops of the five Great Sees of Canterbury, York, London, Durham and Winchester, and the 21 next most senior bishops of the Church of England, are ex officio members, and are entitled to vote just as any other member.

Supreme Courts of Scotland

The Lord President of the Court of Session is by virtue of office appointed as Lord Justice General of Scotland. As such, he is both head of the judiciary of Scotland, president of the Court of Session (the most senior civil court in Scotland), and president of the High Court of Justiciary (the most senior criminal court in Scotland).

United States

Senate

The United States Vice President, who also serves as President of the Senate, may vote in the Senate on matters decided by a majority vote (as opposed to a three-fifths vote or two-thirds vote), if the votes for passage and rejection are equal.[6]

Colorado

In most Colorado counties, the county sheriff is elected by the citizens of the county. However, in the City and County of Denver, the mayor of Denver appoints a "Manager of Safety" who oversees the Department of Safety (including the Fire, Police, and Sheriff Departments) and is the ex officio sheriff of the jurisdiction. Similarly, in the City and County of Broomfield, Colorado, near Denver, the police chief (an appointed position) also acts ex officio as the county sheriff.

New York

The Speaker of the New York City Council, and its Majority and Minority Leaders, are all ex officio members of each of its committees. Furthermore, each member of the Council is a non-voting ex officio member of each community board whose boundaries include any of the council member's constituents.

France

The President of the French Republic is by virtue of office (ex officio) appointed Co-Prince of Andorra, and shares the co-principality with the Catholic Bishop of Urgell.

References

  1. ^ Robert, Henry M. (2011). Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised, 11th ed., p. 483–484 (RONR)
  2. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about RONR (Question 2)". The Official Robert's Rules of Order Web Site. The Robert's Rules Association. Archived from the original on 2004-11-12.
  3. ^ "Rajya Sabha - An Introduction". Rajya Sabha Secretariat.
  4. ^ "Constitution, NITI Aayog". NITI Aayog.
  5. ^ Chapter III Central Organizations of the Party Article 22
  6. ^ "The 1st Article of the U.S. Constitution". National Constitution Center – The 1st Article of the U.S. Constitution. Retrieved 2019-04-03.
1975 Philippine Kabataang Barangay election

The Kabataang Barangay elections (KB) were held on May 1, 1975 which was participated by about 3 million Filipino youths aged 15 to 18 years old. Each Barangay in the Philippines is mandated by law to have its own chapter of the Katipunan ng Kabataan in which the members elect their officers called as the Kabataang Barangay.

The Kabataang Barangay was created on April 15, 1975 by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 684. The decree provided for the organization of KB units in the 42,000 barangays all over the country with the purpose of giving the youth a definite role in community affairs and "ample opportunities to express their views that a complete cross-section of the will of the populace could be determined, thereby providing them a more democratic and popular basis for the legislation and/or other governmental operations."

The Kabataang Barangay is the youth legislature in every local village or community. It also initiates policies, programs and projects for the development of youth in their respective political territories. The Chairman of the Kabataang Barangay acts as the Chief Executive of the Sanggunian (Council) while the Kagawad (Councilor) as the legislative council. The Kagawads approve resolutions of the Sanggunian and appropriates the money allotted to the council, a share in the revenue of the Barangay.

The Chairman automatically sits in the Barangay as ex officio member. He automatically gets chairmanship of the Committee on Youth and Sports, one of the standing committees in the village council. Every Kabataang Barangay is then federated into municipal and city federations, then city and municipal federations are federated into a provincial federation.

The KB Chairman represents the barangay in the municipal or city federation. The presidents of the city and municipal federation presidents becomes member of the provincial federation and the provincial federation president. The presidents of highly urbanized and independent component cities composed the membership in the national federation and elect the national federation president who automatically sits in the Ministry of the Kabataang Barangay as ex officio member of the commission.

Except national federation, each level of the federation form municipal, city to provincial is governed by the Local Executive Committee composed mostly of the seven regularly elected officers of the federation.

1992 Philippine Sangguniang Kabataan election

Sangguniang Kabataan elections were held on December 2, 1992 after the enactment of the 1991 Local Government Code of the Department of Interior and Local Government. The Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) (Youth Council) is the governing body in every chapter of the Katipunan ng Kabataan (Youth Federation). Each barangay in the Philippines is mandated by law to have its own chapter of the Katipunan ng Kabataan in which the members elect their officers called as the Sangguniang Kabataan.

The Sangguniang Kabataan is the youth legislature in every local village or community. It also initiates policies, programs and projects for the development of youth in their respective political territories. The Chairman of the Sangguniang Kabataan acts as the Chief Executive of the Sanggunian (Council) while the Kagawad (Councilor) as the legislative council. The Kagawads approve resolutions of the Sanggunian and appropriates the money allotted to the council, a share in the revenue of the Barangay.

The Chairman automatically sits in the Sangguniang Barangay (Village Council) as ex officio member. He automatically gets chairmanship of the Committee on Youth and Sports, one of the standing committees in the village council. Every Sangguniang Kabataan is then federated into municipal and city federations, then city and municipal federations are federated into a provincial federation.

The Barangay SK Captain represents the barangay in the municipal or city federation. The presidents of the city and municipal federation presidents becomes member of the provincial federation and the provincial federation president. The presidents of highly urbanized and independent component cities composed the membership in the national federation and elect the national federation president who automatically sits in the National Youth Commission as ex officio member of the commission.

Attorney General of Gibraltar

The Attorney General of Gibraltar is the chief legal advisor of HM Government of Gibraltar. He combines the functions of Attorney General and Director of Public Prosecution and is also an ex officio member of the Gibraltar Parliament. The Attorney General's Chambers have a number of Crown Counsel.

He is appointed by the Governor of Gibraltar, acting on the advice and recommendations of the Specified Appointments Commission, in accordance with the constitution.

California State Controller

The State Controller of California is the Chief Financial Officer of the U.S. state of California. The post has broader responsibilities and authority than the California State Treasurer. Responsibilities include investigative authority for every dollar spent by the state, and being an ex-officio member of the state's Board of Equalization.

The State Controller is elected to a four-year term but is limited to two terms. The current state controller is Betty Yee (D).

Chaplain-General of Prisons

The Chaplain-General of Prisons is the head of the Church of England's chaplaincy to prisons. He is also an ex officio member of the House of Clergy of the General Synod.

Elections in Kiribati

Kiribati elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. The president is elected for a four-year term by the people. The House of Assembly (Maneaba ni Maungatabu) has 42 members, 40 elected for a four-year term in single-seat and multi-seat constituencies, 1 delegate from Banaba Island and 1 ex officio member.

Kiribati has a two-party system, which means that there are two dominant political parties, with extreme difficulty for anybody to achieve electoral success under the banner of any other party.

Giovanni Tria

Giovanni Tria (born 28 September 1948) is an Italian economist and university professor currently serving as the Italian Minister of Economy and Finance.

Hartwig Löger

Hartwig Löger (born 15 July 1965) is an Austrian politician and former business executive. From 2011 to 2017 he was chief executive officer of UNIQA Austria (part of the Uniqa Insurance Group) and since 2017 he serves as Minister of Finance. On 22 May 2019, following the Ibiza affair, he was named vice chancellor, and on 28 May 2019, he was sworn in as acting chancellor after Austria's first ever successful vote of no confidence against a cabinet, leaving this post on 3 June 2019.

Henry Rotich

Henry K. Rotich (born c. 1969) is a Kenyan civil servant who was nominated by President Uhuru Kenyatta as Cabinet Secretary for the National Treasury on 23 April 2013.

House of Assembly (Kiribati)

The House of Assembly (official constitutional name: Maneaba ni Maungatabu or "supreme maneaba") of Kiribati has 46 members, 44 elected for a four-year term in single-seat and multi-seat constituencies, 1 delegate from Banaba Island and 1 ex officio member (the Attorney General).

Created by the Constitution of 12 July 1979, its seat has been at Ambo on South Tarawa since October 2000. From 1979 to 2000, it was at Bairiki.

The current Kiribati Electoral Commissioner is Rine Ueara. Kiribati's voters last went to the polls on 30 December 2015 (and 7 January for the second round) to elect 44 MPs in 23 electoral districts.The House of Assembly has a Speaker, elected by its members from outside Parliament, per article 71 of the Constitution.

Leader of the House (New Zealand)

In the New Zealand Parliament, the Leader of the House is the government minister appointed by the Prime Minister of New Zealand to be responsible for the management of government business in the House of Representatives. The Leader of the House is also an ex officio member of the Parliamentary Service Commission.

Mike Keirle

Michael Robert Keirle (born 3 March 1962) is a British Anglican priest. Since 2017, he has served as the Dean of Jersey and Rector of the Parish Church of St Helier. As Dean, he is an ex-officio member of the States of Jersey.

Mário Centeno

Mário José Gomes de Freitas Centeno (born 9 December 1966) is a Portuguese economist, university professor, and politician. Since 2015, he has been Minister of Finance of Portugal. Since 2018, he has been president of the Eurogroup and Chairman of the Board of Governors of the European Stability Mechanism. Previously, he was a board member economist of the Bank of Portugal.

Nadia Calviño

Nadia Calviño Santamaría (born 3 October 1968), is a Spanish State economist, academic and civil servant of the European institutions. In June 2018, she was appointed Minister of Economy and Business of Spain in the Sánchez government.From 2014 to 2018, she was Director-General for Budget (DG BUDG) of the European Commission.

Peter Kažimír

Peter Kažimír (born 28 June 1968) is the president of the National Bank of Slovakia. In the years 2006 – 2010 he served at the Slovak Finance Ministry. From April 4, 2012 to April 11, 2019, he was the Finance Minister of the Slovak government under prime ministers Robert Fico and Peter Pellegrini. He was a senior member of the social-democratic SMER-SD party, but resigned after he became president of the National Bank.

Petteri Orpo

Antti Petteri Orpo (born in Köyliö, 3 November 1969) is a Finnish politician and the chair of the National Coalition Party. Previously he served as Deputy Prime Minister of Finland, and Minister of Finance from 2016–2019, the Minister for Agriculture and Forestry 2014–2015 and Minister of Interior 2015–2016.

Philip Mpango

Dr Philip Mpango (born July 14, 1957) is the current Minister of Finance of Tanzania, in office since March 2015.

Pierre Gramegna

Pierre Gramegna (born 22 April 1958) is a career diplomat and former lobbyist who is currently the Minister for Finances in the Bettel–Schneider ministry.

Speaker's Committee on the Electoral Commission

The Speaker's Committee on the Electoral Commission, or simply the Speaker's Committee, is a body created under the Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 to scrutinise the Electoral Commission. Through the Committee's members, the Commission is able to field questions in the House of Commons in a manner similar to the way ministers do.

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