Eviatar Zerubavel (born 1948) is professor of sociology at Rutgers University , a specialist in the sociology of cognition and everyday life, including topics such as time, boundaries, and categorization.
Zerubavel is a grandson of the noted Zionist Ya'akov Zerubavel. Born in Israel in 1948 to parents in diplomatic service, he spent much of his childhood abroad. He studied first at the University of Tel Aviv and then received his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1976, where he studied under Erving Goffman. After teaching at Columbia University and the State University of New York at Stony Brook, he has spent the bulk of his career at Rutgers University. In 2003 he was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship, and in 2007 he was recognized as a Board of Governors and Distinguished Professor of Sociology.
Zerubavel's first notable contributions were in the study of time, particularly the sociology and standardization of time. His books in this area were Patterns of Time in Hospital Life (1979); Hidden Rhythms (1981); The Seven Day Circle (1985); and Time Maps (2003).
Later he turned his attention to what he has termed cognitive sociology, pointing out how much society rather than human nature shapes our mental lives, and how much the commonalities that mark out social groups involve shared patterns of thinking. His work in this vein includes The Fine Line (1991); Terra Cognita (1992); Social Mindscapes (1997); The Elephant in the Room (2006); and Ancestors and Relatives (2011). His newest book is (2018) Taken for Granted: The Remarkable Power of the Unremarkable. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691177366.
Zerubavel served for many years as director of the graduate program in Sociology at Rutgers University and mentor to many graduate students. He became very interested in academic work habits and in time management in writing. His book The Clockwork Muse (1999) gives practical advice to writers across disciplines, and in particular advice on time management to those finishing books and dissertations.
His own writing is notable for its use of multiple examples from everyday life, an approach which one of his students, Wayne Brekhus, has called "Zerubavelian" sociology.
He is married to Yael Zerubavel, a scholar of Israeli history who also teaches at Rutgers University.
Abiathar (Hebrew: אֶבְיָתָר ’Eḇyāṯār, "the father is great"), in the Hebrew Bible, son of Ahimelech or Ahijah, High Priest at Nob, the fourth in descent from Eli (1 Sam. 23:6) and the last of Eli's House. The only one of the priests to escape from Saul's massacre, he fled to David at Keilah, taking with him the ephod and other priestly regalia (1 Sam. 22:20 f., 23:6, 9). He was of great service to David, especially at the time of the rebellion of Absalom (2 Sam. 15:24, 29, 35, 20:25). In 1 Kings 4:4 Zadok and Abiathar are found acting together as priests under Solomon. In 1 Kings 1:7, 19, 25, however, Abiathar appears as a supporter of Adonijah, and in 2:22 and 26 it is said that he was deposed by Solomon and banished to Anathoth. In 2 Sam. 8:17 Abiathar, the son of Achimelech should be read, with the Syriac, for Achimelech, the son of Abiathar.A similar confusion occurs in Gospel of Mark 2:26: in reporting Jesus' words, the evangelist used the name Abiathar when we might expect to see Jesus mention his father Ahimelech. Suggestions made to resolve the difficulty — e.g. that father and son each bore the same double name, or that Abiathar officiated during his father's lifetime and in his father's stead—have been supported by great names, but have not been fully accepted.When his father and the priests of Nob were slain on the command of Saul, Abiathar escaped, bearing with him the ephod. Rabbinical literature that linked the later extermination of the male descendants of David with the priests of Nob, also link the survival of David's descendant Joash with that of Abiathar. (Sanh. 95b)Abiathar joined David, who was then in the cave of Adullam (1 Sam. 22:20-23; 23:6). He remained with David, and became priest of the party of which he was the leader (1 Sam. 30:7). When David ascended the throne of Judah, Abiathar was appointed High Priest (1 Chr. 15:11; 1 Kings 2:26) and the "king's counselor" (1 Chr. 27:33-34). Meanwhile, Zadok, of the house of Eleazar, had been made High Priest. According to the Jewish Encyclopedia Abiathar was deposed from office when he was deserted by the Holy Spirit without which the Urim and Thummin could not be consulted. Another version says he was Co-Pontiff with Zadok during King David. He supported Prince Adonijah over Prince Solomon, and was deposed by him and exiled in Anathoth.
These appointments continued in force till the end of David's reign (1 Kings 4:4). Abiathar was deposed (the sole historical instance of the deposition of a high priest) and banished to his home at Anathoth by Solomon, because he took part in the attempt to raise Adonijah to the throne. The priesthood thus passed from the house of Ithamar (1 Sam. 2:30-36; 1 Kings 1:19; 2:26, 27). Zadok now became sole high priest. Abiathar's removal from the Priesthood fulfilled that other part of the curse on the House of Eli—that the Priesthood would pass out of the House of Eli.Bahá'í calendar
The Bahá'í Calendar, also called the Badíʿ Calendar (Badíʿ means wondrous or unique), is a solar calendar with years composed of 19 months of 19 days each (361 days) plus an extra period of "Intercalary Days". Years begin at Naw-Rúz, on the day of the vernal equinox in Tehran, Iran, coinciding with March 20 or 21.
The first year is dated from 21 March 1844 CE, the year during which the Báb proclaimed his religion. Years are annotated with the date notation of BE (Bahá'í Era),
The year 176 BE will start on the day of the vernal equinox (in Tehran) in 2019, that is on 21 March 2019.Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus (; before 31 October 1451 – 20 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonist who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain. He led the first European expeditions to the Caribbean, Central America, and South America, initiating the permanent European colonization of the Americas. Columbus discovered the viable sailing route to the Americas, a continent which was not then known to the Old World. While what he thought he had discovered was a route to the Far East, he is credited with the opening of the Americas for conquest and settlement by Europeans.
Columbus's early life is somewhat obscure, but scholars generally agree that he was born in the Republic of Genoa and spoke a dialect of Ligurian as his first language. He went to sea at a young age and travelled widely, as far north as the British Isles (and possibly Iceland) and as far south as what is now Ghana. He married a Portuguese woman and was based in Lisbon for several years, but later took a Spanish mistress; he had one son with each woman. Though largely self-educated, Columbus was widely read in geography, astronomy, and history. He formulated a plan to seek a western sea passage to the East Indies, hoping to profit from the lucrative spice trade.
After years of lobbying, the Catholic Monarchs of Spain agreed to sponsor a journey west, in the name of the Crown of Castile. Columbus left Spain in August 1492 with three ships, and after a stopover in the Canary Islands made landfall in the Americas on 12 October (now celebrated as Columbus Day). His landing place was an island in the Bahamas, known by its native inhabitants as Guanahani; its exact location is uncertain. Columbus subsequently visited Cuba and Hispaniola, establishing a colony in what is now Haiti—the first European settlement in the Americas since the Norse colonies almost 500 years earlier. He arrived back in Spain in early 1493, bringing a number of captive natives with him. Word of his discoveries soon spread throughout Europe.
Columbus would make three further voyages to the New World, exploring the Lesser Antilles in 1493, Trinidad and the northern coast of South America in 1498, and the eastern coast of Central America in 1502. Many of the names he gave to geographical features—particularly islands—are still in use. He continued to seek a passage to the East Indies, and the extent to which he was aware that the Americas were a wholly separate landmass is uncertain; he gave the name indios ("Indians") to the indigenous peoples he encountered. Columbus's strained relationship with the Spanish crown and its appointed colonial administrators in America led to his arrest and removal from Hispaniola in 1500, and later to protracted litigation over the benefits that he and his heirs claimed were owed to them by the crown.
Columbus's expeditions inaugurated a period of exploration, conquest, and colonization that lasted for centuries, helping create the modern Western world. The transfers between the Old World and New World that followed his first voyage are known as the Columbian exchange, and the period of human habitation in the Americas prior to his arrival is known as the Pre-Columbian era. Columbus's legacy continues to be debated. He was widely venerated in the centuries after his death, but public perceptions have changed as recent scholars have given attention to negative aspects of his life, such as his role in the extinction of the Taíno people, his promotion of slavery, and allegations of tyranny towards Spanish colonists. Many landmarks and institutions in the Western Hemisphere bear his name, including the country of Colombia.Cognitive sociology
Cognitive sociology is a sociological sub-discipline devoted to the study of the "conditions under which meaning is constituted through processes of reification." It does this by focusing on "the series of interpersonal processes that set up the conditions for phenomena to become “social objects,” which subsequently shape thinking and thought." Thus, this research aims to sort out the social and cultural contingencies and consequences of human cognition. It has its roots in classical sociological theory, notably Durkheim and Weber, and from contemporary sociological theory, notably Goffman and Bourdieu.Notable authors include but are not limited to, Eviatar Zerubavel, Aaron Cicourel, Barry Schwartz, Karen A. Cerulo and Paul DiMaggio.The term 'cognitive sociology' was used already in 1974 by Cicourel. However, in 1997 DiMaggio published what has been referred to as a now classic paper of Cognitive Sociology in its current form.
Special journal issues on the topic of Cognitive Sociology has been published by the scientific journals Poetics and the European Journal of Social Theory in 2010 and 2007 respectively.
Graduate-level courses in cognitive sociology has been organized at the University of Copenhagen by Jacob Strandell in 2014 and 2016 In order to organize this interdisciplinary investigation, scholars have articulated five models of the actor that stress different locations of human cognition in relation to the social contract. These models are:
Universal cognitivism stresses "naturalistic explanations of human behavior". This is reflected in the work of Stephen P. Turner, Omar Lizardo and Gabriel Ignatow.
Fuzzy universal cognitivism "emphasizes naturalism in the explanations, but its ontological positions are not as balanced as plural cognitivism". This is reflected in the work of Jürgen Habermas and Paul DiMaggio.
Plural cognitivism seeks to formulate a "balanced model of the actor subjected to socio-mental control. Socio-mental control describes how impersonal cognitive norms shape the thinking, learning, and courses of activity individual actors are able to undertake as a result of institutional reflexivity." Institutional reflexivity is a process described by Goffman in "The Arrangement between the Sexes". This is reflected in the work of Eviatar Zerubavel and his students.
Fuzzy individual cognitivism "emphasizes humanism in the explanations, but its ontological positions are not as balanced as plural cognitivism". This is reflected in the work of Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot as well as Alban Bouvier.
Individual cognitivism investigates the "inner determinants of action with respect to the practical, cognitive, and moral properties of social facts." This is reflected in the work of Raymond Boudon and Patrick Pharo.David R. Gibson
David Richard Gibson (born 1969) is an American sociologist and associate professor of sociology at the University of Notre Dame. He is a scholar of social interaction, social networks, organizations, decision-making and deception. In a review article, Eviatar Zerubavel described him "as one of sociology's leading conversational analysts". His publication Talk at the Brink: Deliberation and Decision during the Cuban Missile Crisis won the 2013 Melvin Pollner Prize for Ethnomethodology and Conversation Analysis.Daylight saving time
Daylight saving time (DST), also daylight savings time or daylight time (United States), also summer time (United Kingdom and others), is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. In effect, DST causes a lost hour of sleep in the spring and an extra hour of sleep in the fall.George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895. The German Empire and Austria-Hungary organized the first nationwide implementation, starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the energy crisis of the 1970s.
DST is generally not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it. Some countries observe it only in some regions; for example, southern Brazil observes it while equatorial Brazil does not. Only a minority of the world's population uses DST, because Asia and Africa generally do not observe it.
DST clock shifts sometimes complicate timekeeping and can disrupt travel, billing, record keeping, medical devices, heavy equipment, and sleep patterns. Computer software often adjusts clocks automatically, but policy changes by various jurisdictions of DST dates and timings may be confusing.Edward Long
Edward Long (23 August 1734 – 13 March 1813) was a Jamaican-born British colonial administrator and historian, and author of a highly controversial work, The History of Jamaica (1774).Erving Goffman
Erving Goffman (11 June 1922 – 19 November 1982) was a Canadian-American sociologist, social psychologist, and writer, considered by some "the most influential American sociologist of the twentieth century". In 2007 he was listed by The Times Higher Education Guide as the sixth most-cited author in the humanities and social sciences, behind Anthony Giddens, Pierre Bourdieu and Michel Foucault, and ahead of Jürgen Habermas.Goffman was the 73rd president of the American Sociological Association. His best-known contribution to social theory is his study of symbolic interaction. This took the form of dramaturgical analysis, beginning with his 1956 book, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Goffman's other major works include Asylums (1961), Stigma (1963), Interaction Ritual (1967), Frame Analysis (1974), and Forms of Talk (1981). His major areas of study included the sociology of everyday life, social interaction, the social construction of self, social organization (framing) of experience, and particular elements of social life such as total institutions and stigmas.Fantasy genealogy
Fantasy genealogies are mythical, fictional or fabricated pedigrees, usually to enhance the status of the descendant.Many claimed ancestries are considered by modern scholars to be fabrications, especially the claims of kings and emperors who trace their ancestry to gods or the founders of their civilization. Such pedigrees also have a moral message to their subjects, allies and enemies. Some national epics or holy scriptures associate success, blessing and good with the "rightful dynasty" and wars, catastrophes and diseases with usurper rulers. In this moralism, fictional genealogies have analogies with allegory, fable and parable.List of Guggenheim Fellowships awarded in 2003
List of Guggenheim Fellowships awarded in 2003.List of sociologists
This is a list of sociologists. It is intended to cover those who have made substantive contributions to social theory and research, including any sociological subfield. Scientists in other fields and philosophers are not included, unless at least some of their work is defined as being specifically sociological in nature.Name blending
Name blending or meshing is the practice of combining two existing names to form a new name. An example is the combination of the surnames Dresser and McLoughlin to form the new surname of game designer Clay Dreslough. It is most commonly performed upon marriage. According to Western tradition, the wife normally adopts the husband's surname upon marriage. Name blending is an alternative practice that attempts to assign equal cultural value to each partner's surname. In November 2012 it was reported that 800 couples in the United Kingdom had opted to blend their surnames thus far that year, primarily among "younger couples in their twenties or early thirties", with this being a leading reason for the issuance of Deed Polls to change names.Since the late 1990s, it has also become common for celebrity couples to be given blended names in the media, usually made by combining elements of the given name of the people involved.Name blending can also occur unintentionally when a double name created in one generation becomes combined and condensed in later generations.Pentecontad calendar
The pentecontad calendar (from πεντηκοντάς pentēkontás) is an agricultural calendar system thought to be of Amorite origin in which the year is broken down into seven periods of fifty days (a total of 350 days), with an annual supplement of fifteen or sixteen days. Identified and reconstructed by Julius and Hildegaard Lewy in the 1940s, the calendar's use dates back to at least the 3rd millennium BCE in western Mesopotamia and surrounding areas. Used well into the modern age, forms of it have been found in Nestorianism and among the Fellahin of modern Palestine.Planetary hours
The planetary hours are an ancient system in which one of the seven classical planets is given rulership over each day and various parts of the day. Developed in Hellenistic astrology, it has possible roots in older Babylonian astrology, and it is the origin of the names of the days of the week as used in English and numerous other languages.
The classical planets are Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury and the Moon, and they take rulership over the hours in this sequence.
The sequence is from slowest- to fastest-moving as the planets appear in the night sky, and so is from furthest to nearest in the planetary spheres model. This order has come to be known as the "Chaldean order".As each day is divided into 24 hours, the first hour of a day is ruled by the planet three places down in the Chaldean order from the planet ruling the first hour of the preceding day; i.e. a day with its first hour ruled by the Sun ("Sunday") is followed by a day with its first hour ruled by the Moon ("Monday"), followed by Mars ("Tuesday"), Mercury ("Wednesday"), Jupiter ("Thursday"), Venus ("Friday") and Saturn ("Saturday"), again followed by Sunday, yielding the familiar naming of the days of the week.Polygenism
Polygenism is a theory of human origins which posits the view that the human races are of different origins (polygenesis). This view is opposite to the idea of monogenism, which posits a single origin of humanity. Modern scientific views no longer favor the polygenic model, with the monogenic "Out of Africa" theory and its variants being the most widely accepted models for human origins.Shabbat
Shabbat (; Hebrew: שַׁבָּת [ʃa'bat], "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (['ʃa.bəs], Ashkenazi Hebrew and Yiddish: שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age. Shabbat observance entails refraining from work activities, often with great rigor, and engaging in restful activities to honor the day. Judaism's traditional position is that unbroken seventh-day Shabbat originated among the Jewish people, as their first and most sacred institution, though some suggest other origins. Variations upon Shabbat are widespread in Judaism and, with adaptations, throughout the Abrahamic and many other religions.
According to halakha (Jewish religious law), Shabbat is observed from a few minutes before sunset on Friday evening until the appearance of three stars in the sky on Saturday night. Shabbat is ushered in by lighting candles and reciting a blessing. Traditionally, three festive meals are eaten: in the evening, in the early afternoon, and late in the afternoon. The evening meal and the early afternoon meal typically begin with a blessing called kiddush and another blessing recited over two loaves of challah. Shabbat is closed the following evening with a havdalah blessing.
Shabbat is a festive day when Jews exercise their freedom from the regular labors of everyday life. It offers an opportunity to contemplate the spiritual aspects of life and to spend time with family.Soviet calendar
The Soviet calendar refers to the Gregorian calendar implemented in 1918, national holidays, and five- and six-day work weeks used between 1929 and 1940. The Gregorian calendar, under the name "Western European calendar", was implemented in Soviet Russia in February 1918 by dropping the Julian dates of 1–13 February 1918. As many as nine national holidays (paid days of rest) were implemented in the following decade, but four were eliminated or merged on 24 September 1929, leaving only five national holidays, 22 January, 1–2 May, and 7–8 November, to celebrate until 1951, when 22 January reverted to a normal day. During 1929 to 1940, five- and six-day work weeks were used to schedule work, but the Gregorian calendar and its seven-day week were used for all other purposes.
During the summer of 1929, five-day continuous work weeks were implemented in factories, government offices, and commercial enterprises, but not collective farms. One of the five days was randomly assigned to a worker as their day of rest without regard to the rest days assigned to members of their family or friends. These five-day work weeks continued throughout the Gregorian year, interrupted only by the five national holidays. During the summer of 1931, six-day interrupted work weeks were implemented for most workers, with a common day of rest for all workers interrupting their work weeks. Five six-day work weeks were assigned to each Gregorian month, more or less, with the five national holidays converting normal work days into days of rest. On 27 June 1940 both five- and six-day work weeks were abandoned in favor of seven-day work weeks. Work weeks were never collected into 30-day months.Standard time
Standard time is the synchronization of clocks within a geographical area or region to a single time standard, rather than using solar time or a locally chosen meridian (longitude) to establish a local mean time standard. Historically, the concept was established during the 19th century to aid weather forecasting and train travel. Applied globally in the 20th century, the geographical areas became extended around evenly spaced meridians into time zones which (usually) centered on them. The standard time set in each time zone has come to be defined in terms of offsets from Universal Time. In regions where daylight saving time is used, that time is defined by another offset, from the standard time in its applicable time zones.
The adoption of standard time, because of the inseparable correspondence between time and longitude, solidified the concepts of halving the globe into an eastern and western hemisphere, with one prime meridian (as well its opposite International Date Line) replacing the various prime meridians that had previously been used.