Everglades virus

Everglades virus (EVEV) is an alphavirus included in the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus complex. The virus circulates among rodents and vector mosquitoes and sometimes infects humans, causing a febrile illness with occasional neurological manifestations.[2][3] The virus is named after the Everglades, a region of subtropical wetlands in southern Florida. The virus is endemic to the U.S. state of Florida, where its geographic range mirrors that of the mosquito species Culex cedecei.[2] Most clinical cases of infection occur in and around the city of Miami.[3]

Everglades virus
Emd-5563
CryoEM reconstruction of the Everglades Virus. EMDB entry EMD-5563[1]
Virus classification
Group:
Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Order:
Unassigned
Family:
Genus:
Species:
Everglades virus

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms of infection include:[4]

Transmission

The virus is transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes of the genus Culex,[5] specifically Culex cedecei.[2][6]

References

  1. ^ Sherman, M. B.; Trujillo, J.; Leahy, I.; Razmus, D.; Dehate, R.; Lorcheim, P.; Czarneski, M. A.; Zimmerman, D.; Newton, J. T. A. M.; Haddow, A. D.; Weaver, S. C. (2013). "Construction and organization of a BSL-3 cryo-electron microscopy laboratory at UTMB". Journal of Structural Biology. 181 (3): 223–233. doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2012.12.007. PMC 3593667. PMID 23274136.
  2. ^ a b c Coffey, L.; Crawford, C.; Dee, J.; Miller, R.; Freier, J.; Weaver, S. (2006). "Serologic Evidence of Widespread Everglades Virus Activity in Dogs, Florida". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12 (12): 1873–1879. doi:10.3201/eid1212.060446. PMC 3291350. PMID 17326938.
  3. ^ a b Coffey, L. L.; Carrara, A. S.; Paessler, S.; Haynie, M. L.; Bradley, R. D.; Tesh, R. B.; Weaver, S. C. (2004). "Experimental Everglades Virus Infection of Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus)". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 10 (12): 2182–2188. doi:10.3201/eid1012.040442. PMC 3323382. PMID 15663857.
  4. ^ Calisher, C. H.; Murphy, F. A.; France, J. K.; Lazuick, J. S.; Muth, D. J.; Steck, F.; Lindsey, H. S.; Bauer, S. P.; Buff, E. E.; Schneider, N. J. (1980). "Everglades virus infection in man, 1975". Southern Medical Journal. 73 (11): 1548. doi:10.1097/00007611-198011000-00044. PMID 7444536.
  5. ^ Williams, M. R.; Savage, H. M. (2009). "Identification of Culex (Melanoconion) species of the United States using female cibarial armature (Diptera: Culicidae)". Journal of Medical Entomology. 46 (4): 745–752. doi:10.1603/033.046.0404. PMID 19645276.
  6. ^ Weaver, S. C.; Scherer, W. F.; Taylor, C. A.; Castello, D. A.; Cupp, E. W. (1986). "Laboratory vector competence of Culex (Melanoconion) cedecei for sympatric and allopatric Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis viruses". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 35 (3): 619–623. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.1986.35.619. PMID 3706626.
Alphavirus

In biology and immunology, an Alphavirus belongs to group IV of the Baltimore classification of the Togaviridae family of viruses, according to the system of classification based on viral genome composition introduced by David Baltimore in 1971. Alphaviruses, like all other group IV viruses, have a positive sense, single-stranded RNA genome. There are thirty alphaviruses able to infect various vertebrates such as humans, rodents, fish, birds, and larger mammals such as horses as well as invertebrates. Transmission between species and individuals occurs mainly via mosquitoes, making the alphaviruses a member of the collection of arboviruses – or arthropod-borne viruses. Alphavirus particles are enveloped, have a 70 nm diameter, tend to be spherical (although slightly pleomorphic), and have a 40 nm isometric nucleocapsid.

Genus

A genus (, pl. genera ) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.

E.g. Panthera leo (lion) and Panthera onca (jaguar) are two species within the genus Panthera. Panthera is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. There are some general practices used, however, including the idea that a newly defined genus should fulfill these three criteria to be descriptively useful:

monophyly – all descendants of an ancestral taxon are grouped together (i.e. phylogenetic analysis should clearly demonstrate both monophyly and validity as a separate lineage).

reasonable compactness – a genus should not be expanded needlessly; and

distinctness – with respect to evolutionarily relevant criteria, i.e. ecology, morphology, or biogeography; DNA sequences are a consequence rather than a condition of diverging evolutionary lineages except in cases where they directly inhibit gene flow (e.g. postzygotic barriers).Moreover, genera should be composed of phylogenetic units of the same kind as other (analogous) genera.

List of virus species

This is a list of biological viruses. See also Comparison of computer virusesThis is a list of all virus species, including satellites and viroids. Excluded are other ranks, and other moncellular life such as prions. Also excluded common names and obsolete names for viruses.

For a list of virus genera, see List of virus genera.

For a list of virus families and subfamilies, see List of virus families and subfamilies.

For a list of virus realms, subrealms, kingdoms, subkingdoms, phyla, subphyla, classes, subclasses, orders, and suborders, see List of higher virus taxa.

For a taxonomic list, see List of virus taxa.

List of virus taxa

This is a taxonomic list of all viruses as of 2018 listed by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Though not used by the ICTV, the traditional Baltimore classification, which groups viruses together based on how they produce mRNA, is used in conjunction with the ICTV's work in modern virus classification.Note that ICTV assesses other non-cellular life besides viruses, and below are two viroid families of uncertain placement: Avsunviroidae and Pospiviroidae. Other subviral agents such as fungal prions, vertebrate prions, satellites, and virus-dependent nucleic acids may be featured in future taxonomic treatments.

Mosquito control

Mosquito control manages the population of mosquitoes to reduce their damage to human health, economies, and enjoyment. Mosquito control is a vital public-health practice throughout the world and especially in the tropics because mosquitoes spread many diseases, such as malaria and the Zika virus.

Mosquito-control operations are targeted against three different problems:

Nuisance mosquitoes bother people around homes or in parks and recreational areas;

Economically important mosquitoes reduce real estate values, adversely affect tourism and related business interests, or negatively impact livestock or poultry production;

Public health is the focus when mosquitoes are vectors, or transmitters, of infectious disease.Disease organisms transmitted by mosquitoes include West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus, Everglades virus, Highlands J virus, La Crosse Encephalitis virus in the United States; dengue fever, yellow fever, Ilheus virus, malaria, Zika virus and filariasis in the American tropics; Rift Valley fever, Wuchereria bancrofti, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya and filariasis in Africa and Asia; and Murray Valley encephalitis in Australia.

Depending on the situation, source reduction, biocontrol, larviciding (killing of larvae), or adulticiding (killing of adults) may be used to manage mosquito populations. These techniques are accomplished using habitat modification, pesticide, biological-control agents, and trapping. The advantage of non-toxic methods of control is they can be used in Conservation Areas.

Pythonidae

The Pythonidae, commonly known simply as pythons, from the Greek word python (πυθων), are a family of nonvenomous snakes found in Africa, Asia, and Australia. Among its members are some of the largest snakes in the world. Eight genera and 31 species are currently recognized.

Togaviridae

Togaviridae is a family of viruses. Humans, mammals, birds, and mosquitoes serve as natural hosts. There are currently 31 species in this family in a single genus. Diseases associated with alphaviruses include arthritis and encephalitis.

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